Publications by authors named "Jorge Llorente-Bousquets"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Geographical distribution of Emesis/ Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) in Mexico: Updated checklist and temporal patterns.

Zootaxa 2021 Apr 23;4964(3):zootaxa.4964.3.1. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Museo de Zoología (Entomología), Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico..

We present a synthesis of the existing information on the genus Emesis Fabricius in Mexico concerning biogeographical patterns and taxonomical aspects. Emesis is the most diverse genus of Emesidini with 57 species and subspecies, with Mexico as the northern limit of this Neotropical genus. We analyzed 5434 specimens of the Lepidoptera Collection of the MZFC, UNAM and compared them with specimens from collections of Mexico, Central and South America. Taxonomic determination and corroboration were made by analysis of wing patterns and genitalia. Geographic distribution and phenology were obtained from the database MARIPOSA. We present an updated list of Emesis of Mexico, with 17 species and subspecies. For each species, we provide information on phenology, geographic, altitudinal, and vegetation distributions. We discuss taxonomic and undersampling concerns for some species, as well as spatial and temporal patterns with special reference to vegetation types and biogeographic provinces in Mexico.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4964.3.1DOI Listing
April 2021

Chorion exploration in the tribe Anthocharidini (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and their possible importance in its systematics.

Zootaxa 2020 Oct 27;4868(2):zootaxa.4868.2.1. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Museo de Zoología (Entomología), Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, 04510, CDMX, México Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.

We describe and compare the morphology of the chorion in nine species belonging to five genera of the tribe Anthocharidini (Pieridae: Pierinae), from a sample of 12 females with mature eggs, the bibliographic record of oviposited eggs, and photographs of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The eggs examined come from Mexico, Spain, Brazil and Costa Rica. Its characterization was made considering the main structural features of the chorion in this tribe; it includes a distinction of structures in the apical zone and differentiation between the chorionic regions. We attached to this work sheets, diagrams, and terminology to understand and clarify the descriptions. Our results agree with the proposal of Anthocharidini as the least derived tribe of the Pierinae, considering that Hebomoia, a specialized genus, is not part of it. Tribes such as Leptosiaini, Elodinini or Nepheroniini also have more chorionic characteristics related to more derived tribes of the Pierinae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4868.2.1DOI Listing
October 2020

Challenges for organismic taxonomical revisions in the age of phylogenomics: A response to Zhang et al. (2019).

Zootaxa 2020 Aug 27;4838(3):zootaxa.4838.3.8. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Museo de Zoología (Entomología), Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-399, México, 04510, Ciudad de México, México..

Tribe Emesidini Seraphim, Freitas Kaminski (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) is distributed in America from southwest Canada to Brazil and Paraguay, and includes 57 species and 54 subspecies (Callaghan Lamas 2004; Penz DeVries 2006; Gallard 2008; Pelham 2008; De la Maza De la Maza 2017 a,b; Kaminski et al. 2017; Seraphim et al. 2018; Trujano-Ortega et al. 2018; Zhang et al. 2019). The tribe has great taxonomic, morphological and ecological diversity, as well as wide geographic and seasonal variation. This great variation and broad geographic range of some genera entail the need for a taxonomic review (Espeland et al. 2015; Trujano-Ortega et al. 2018).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4838.3.8DOI Listing
August 2020

Emesis planeca n. comb. (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae): a new combination revealed by molecular evidence with a description of its morphological variation.

Zootaxa 2020 Sep 22;4853(2):zootaxa.4853.2.4. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Museo de Zoología (Entomología), Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-399, México, 04510, Ciudad de México, México..

We transfer Apodemia planeca R. de la Maza E. J. de la Maza E. 2017 to Emesis as Emesis planeca (R. de la Maza E. J. de la Maza E.) n. comb. based on phylogenetic hypotheses estimated with one mtDNA and two nDNA markers. This is a rare and poorly known metalmark, endemic to the central region of Balsas Basin in Michoacán, Mexico, originally described from material collected 23 years ago. Here we analyze new specimens from the type locality not included in the original description. With this new material, we describe the morphological variation of adults, including male and female genitalia. This variation is then discussed and compared with the original description. Emesis planeca n. comb. is restricted to the Tropical Deciduous Forest and the adults fly only in the dry season. Due to the spatial, temporal, and ecological rareness of Emesis planeca n. comb., considering it has not been collected in more than two decades and that the Tropical Deciduous Forest is one of the most threatened habitats in Mexico; we propose assigning a protection status to this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4853.2.4DOI Listing
September 2020

Infrared optical and thermal properties of microstructures in butterfly wings.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 01 9;117(3):1566-1572. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697;

While surface microstructures of butterfly wings have been extensively studied for their structural coloration or optical properties within the visible spectrum, their properties in infrared wavelengths with potential ties to thermoregulation are relatively unknown. The midinfrared wavelengths of 7.5 to 14 µm are particularly important for radiative heat transfer in the ambient environment, because of the overlap with the atmospheric transmission window. For instance, a high midinfrared emissivity can facilitate surface cooling, whereas a low midinfrared emissivity can minimize heat loss to surroundings. Here we find that the midinfrared emissivity of butterfly wings from warmer climates such as (Oaxaca, Mexico) and (Pichincha, Ecuador) is up to 2 times higher than that of butterfly wings from cooler climates such as (Colorado) and (Florida), using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and infrared thermography. Our optical computations using a unit cell approach reproduce the spectroscopy data and explain how periodic microstructures play a critical role in the midinfrared. The emissivity spectrum governs the temperature of butterfly wings, and we demonstrate that wings heat up to 8 °C more than wings under the same sunlight in the clear sky of Irvine, CA. Furthermore, our thermal computations show that butterfly wings in their respective habitats can maintain a moderate temperature range through a balance of solar absorption and infrared emission. These findings suggest that the surface microstructures of butterfly wings potentially contribute to thermoregulation and provide an insight into butterflies' survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1906356117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983360PMC
January 2020

Geographical distribution of Lasaia Bates, 1868 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) across the biogeographical provinces of Mexico.

Zootaxa 2019 Aug 14;4656(2):zootaxa.4656.2.3. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

1Museo de Zoología (Entomología), Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico.

Riodinidae are one of the most diverse families of Lepidoptera, mainly in the Neotropical region; however, their biology, ethology, taxonomy, systematics, and biogeography are poorly known. In Mexico, the regional and local distributions of the family are still incomplete. We review the distributional data of the genus Lasaia Bates (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), based on records from four national and seven international collections. We record five species and seven subspecies in Mexico, with 2722 records, distributed in 314 localities of 24 states. The states with higher species richness are Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Veracruz; also, the genus was recorded in 11 of the 14 biogeographical provinces of Mexico. The tropical semi-deciduous and deciduous forests, below of 1000 m a.s.l., contain most of the diversity of Lasaia. Historical data are crucial for the study of local and regional diversity and ecological patterns at large temporal scales. Data presented here show the morphological and ecological variation of Lasaia over the last 80 years, mostly from the XX century when anthropogenic disturbances were intensified. This kind of studies is the first step in recording the historical distribution of these taxa, which will lead to more complex analyses on distribution range shifts, their causes and consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4656.2.3DOI Listing
August 2019

Use of exochorion characters for the systematics of Hamadryas Hübner and Ectima Doubleday (Nymphalidae: Biblidinae: Ageroniini).

Zootaxa 2019 Jun 18;4619(1):zootaxa.4619.1.3. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Museo de Zoología (Entomología), Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México 04510 CDMX, México.

We studied the chorionic morphology of six species of Hamadryas, and together with previous studies, we compared our results with previously published phylogenies for the genus. Samples were obtained from 19 females collected between 2013 and 2017 whose abdomens were sectioned and preserved for later dissection. Eggs were extracted from those dissections and used for the descriptions and illustrations of the chorion. The Hamadryas egg is of the globose type; it is quasi-spheroidal and has multiple polygonal grids with differentiation in specific zones/regions, and knolls with macrocells in their summits that arise in the apical third. These characteristics are very different from those found in the majority of Biblidinae and for those reported in the literature for Batesia and Panacea, which belong to the same subtribe as Hamadryas (Ageroniina, now Ageroniini). Chorionic characters support a previously suggested division of the genus (februa, feronia and laodamia groups) and they agree with the phylogenetic proposal based on morphological characters. Our study expands previous morphological work focused on this genus and compiles all the information available to date about the exochorion of Hamadryas, which now includes data for 10 species and that of Ectima thecla thecla, the putative sister group of Hamadryas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4619.1.3DOI Listing
June 2019

Antennal ultrastructure in Patia (Pieridae, Dismorphiinae).

Zootaxa 2019 Feb 20;4559(3):445-472. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Museo de Zoología, Depto. Biología Evolutiva Fac. Ciencias. UNAM. Cd. México, 04510. National Museum of Natrual HIstory, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC. 20013-7012 USA..

In our previous work we studied the ultrastructure of the antennae of pierids through a character analysis. In this study we describe the antennal ultrastructure of three species and six subspecies of Patia focused on these traits at the intrageneric level. Patia is a genus of Dismorphiinae with the highest number of scaleless antennomeres (nudum = 11‒15). Therefore, the length of its antennal club is greater than that of any other genus of the subfamily. Several other features differentiate the species of Patia, particularly the number of sulci and pseudosulci and its contour or perimeter. A pattern was observed, especially in P. rhetes, in which the central sulci are disintegrated and surrounded by several pseudosulci in the basal antennomeres and along the club; in the medial and distal antennomeres, the pseudosulci merge to form sulci aggregates. Pseudosulci are uncommon on the distal antennomeres, even in P. rhetes. The central sulci are irregular and have a discontinuous edge when they are disaggregated and accompanied by pseudosulci; those that are elliptical and have a continuous contour, seldom have pseudosulci nearby. Another noteworthy feature is the different shapes of the distal antennomere that occur in the subspecies of P. cordillera and P. orise. In the former, this antennomere is quite elongated and ends at a point, whereas the distal one is less elongated and its apex blunt. Patia rhetes shows the lowest number of scaleless antennomeres (n = 11) while P. cordillera sspp. the largest (n = 14 or 15). The variety of the sensilla present in the Patia species does not provide specific differences, except in P. cordillera sororna where we discovered the presence of a claviform sensillum that does not present in any other species or subspecies. In our small sample size, we did not observe sexual dimorphism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4559.3.2DOI Listing
February 2019

Chorionic sculpture of eggs in the subfamily Dismorphiinae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea: Pieridae).

Zootaxa 2018 Jun 6;4429(2):201-246. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Museo de Zoología (Entomología), Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 04510, CDMX, México. Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC. 20013-7012 USA..

This is the second exploration, comparison, and analysis of the chorion of species (45 sspp.) of the subfamily Dismorphiinae (Pieridae). This study includes nearly 50% of the species of the subfamily, including six of the seven genera in its two subtribes: Leptidea (Leptideini), Enantia, Pseudopieris, Lieinix, Moschoneura, and Dismorphia (Dismorphiini). The material studied originates from more than three dozen localities in six different countries on three continents (America, Asia, and Europe) and two biogeographical regions, the Palearctic and Neotropical, over the last 20 years. We have corrected and added information regarding several morphological aspects of the chorion. The precision of the citriform configuration and the elimination of the meloniform shape in the egg of Dismorphiini were determined with detailed observations on the maturation of the chorion in the ovarioles where each stage appears in a linear sequence. We discerned that the meloniform states correspond to incompletely differentiated or immature eggs. This was confirmed by the study of new samples of Dismorphia amphione, D. eunoe, and D. lewyi. The chorion of Dismorphiinae is basically plesiomorphic with respect to those of Coliadinae and Pierinae because it lacks several typical synapomorphies of these subfamilies, such as the presence of micro-grid and/or perimicropylar and apex differentiation, respectively. The eggs of each Dismorphiinae genus can be diagnosed by a combination of chorionic features, although sometimes by one or more plesiomorphies or apomorphies in each genus, with respect to the form or character states in axes, ribs, and poles in the grid of the three regions of the egg - two polar regions and one equatorial (basal, medial, and apical). Leptidea and Enantia show the most generalized grid pattern; however, two genera retain several plesiomorphies with respect to the undifferentiated axes or a small number of short axes (Pseudopieris), as well as many equidistant ribs (Lieinix). The chorionic grid of Moschoneura, although practically lacking short axes, shows the fewest number of axes in the entire subfamily (eight aligns it with Pseudopieris). The chorionic grid in Dismorphia is highly diverse, as it shows the most derived states; however, it comprises symplesiomorphies or atavisms in two groups of species, which aligns them closer to Lieinix or Pseudopieris, but we do not take them into account in some cases where they are convergences or structural parallelisms. It seems that the combination of the shape and its length:width ratio is correlated with the alar configuration (design, sexual dimorphism, and coloring patterns) and separates three groups of species in Dismorphia, and often correlates with the number of ribs. This also coincides with the Batesian participation in the number of mimetic complexes in which a subgroup of species and their stenoecy are integrated within the primary forests. Finally, two schemes are presented that synthesize and illustrate the changes or progression of the form and chorionic grid in the genera of the subfamily.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4429.2.1DOI Listing
June 2018

Analysis of some morphological characters of Elzunia Bryk, 1937 (Nymphalidae: Danainae: Ithomiini) results in a revised classification.

Zootaxa 2018 Feb 26;4387(1):1-46. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Calle 61 N 37-31 Bogotá, Colombia. E-mail:

We propose a revised classification for the genus Elzunia Bryk, 1937, with four species and 20 subspecies. We describe two new subspecies, Elzunia humboldt carlosi Le Crom and Llorente, ssp. nov., and Elzunia humboldt willmotti Le Crom, Llorente and Andrade, ssp. nov. We recognize five additional unnamed subspecies but do not describe them because they are represented by too little material. A detailed examination of 854 specimens from 31 collections allowed us to define 24 stable phenotypes and delimit their geographic distribution. We present a diagnosis and description for each taxon and provide images of the wing coloration pattern and male genitalia, and a distribution map. We also present a key for all the species and subspecies. We conducted a multivariate statistical analysis of measurements of the discal cell (DC) veins, and with this we explore the species groupings by these characters. Lastly, we discuss mimetic interactions of this genus with species of other Ithomiini and Heliconiinae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4387.1.1DOI Listing
February 2018

Antennal ultrastructure of Leptidea Billberg, 1820 (Pieridae: Dismorphiinae: Leptideini) and its taxonomic implications.

Zootaxa 2018 Mar 29;4402(3):401-442. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Museo de Zoología, Depto. Biología Evolutiva Fac. Ciencias, UNAM, Cd. México, 04510. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC. 20013-7012, USA..

We present the results of the first examination and comparative analysis of the ultrastructure of the antennae in seven species of Leptidea Billberg, 1820 (Pieridae). The results add further support to the hypothesis that the subfamily Dismorphiinae is composed of the tribes Leptideini and Dismorphiini. We summarize the results in a table and discuss the ultrastructure similarities and differences between the two tribes. Following a previously proposed framework, we trace the progression of character states and discuss the significance of the results in the context of varying phylogenetic hypotheses for Leptidea, with special emphasis on biogeography. We include a brief description of the terms we employ to described the main characters and types of sensilla of the antennal club of Leptidea. Remarkable antennal sexual dimorphism is noted in L. gigantea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4402.3.1DOI Listing
March 2018

A new species of Cyllopsis R. Felder, 1869 from the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

Zootaxa 2018 Apr 5;4403(3):570-577. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, P.O. Box 112710, Gainesville, Florida 32611 USA..

A new species of Cyllopsis R. Felder, 1869, is described and illustrated from the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Cyllopsis tomemmeli A. Warren Nakahara, sp. nov., is currently known from 13 specimens (9 males and 4 females) collected on March 26-28, 1959, southeast of San Cristóbal de Las Casas. Despite extensive studies on the butterfly fauna of this region, this species has not since been encountered. We discuss possible relationships between this new species and other species of Cyllopsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4403.3.9DOI Listing
April 2018

Two new genera of metalmark butterflies of North and Central America (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae).

Zookeys 2018 16(729):61-85. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Museo de Zoología, Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-399, México 04510, Ciudad de México, México.

Two new genera of Riodinidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) are described, Trujano-Ortega, ( (W. H. Edwards, 1876), , Freeman, 1964, ) and Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, ( (W. H. Edwards, 1870), , (Austin, [1989]), , (Austin, [1989]), , (Godman & Salvin, 1886), , (Austin, 1991), , (Austin, [1989]), , (Godman & Salvin, 1878), , (Ferris, 1985), , (Godman & Salvin, 1886), , (De la Maza & De la Maza, 2017), ). Trujano-Ortega, is distributed in the southwestern USA and northeastern Mexico, while Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, is present from the southern USA to Central America. Species of these genera were previously classified as C. Felder & R. Felder but molecular and morphological evidence separate them as new taxa. Morphological diagnoses and descriptions are provided for both new genera, including the main distinctive characters from labial palpi, prothoracic legs, wing venation and genitalia, as well as life history traits. A molecular phylogeny of one mitochondrial gene (COI) and two nuclear genes (EF-1a and wg) are also presented of most species of , Trujano-Ortega, , Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, , and sequences of specimens from all tribes of Riodinidae. We compare the characters of , Trujano-Ortega, and Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, and discuss the differences that support the description of these new taxa. This is a contribution to the taxonomy of the Riodinidae of North America of which the generic diversity is greater than previously recognized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.729.20179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5799793PMC
January 2018

Comparative exploration of antennae in Pseudopontia, and antennal clubs of the tribes Leptideini and Dismorphiini (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

Zootaxa 2017 Nov 14;4347(3):401-445. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC. 20013-7012 USA. Museo de Zoología, Depto. Biología Evolutiva Fac. Ciencias. UNAM..

We examined antennal ultrastructure in species of Dismorphiinae and Pseudopontiinae (Pieridae) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We examined two species of Pseudopontia (Pseudopontiinae) and more than 30 species in seven genera of two tribes in the subfamily Dismorphiinae: Leptidea, Enantia, Pseudopieris, Lieinix, Moschoneura, Dismorphia, and Patia. We focused on the scaleless terminal area of the antenna where there are many types of sensilla, some of which are clustered together and constitute specialized organs. We measured, described, and illustrate at different magnifications structures including the antennal club, antennomeres, sulci, pseudosulci, and chaetic, trichoid, coeloconic, basiconic, and auriculate sensilla, as well as other previously unnamed sensilla. From these antennal features, we created a matrix of characters that allowed us to recognize divergence between the tribes Leptideini and Dismorphiini. The antennae of Leptideini have fewer scaleless antennomeres in the antennal club than those of Dismorphiini, a greater number of pseudosulci disaggregated or dispersed (in Leptidea), and fewer types of sensilla and microtrichia (a more homogeneous antennal morphology), as well as a reduction in the density of sensilla. In Leptidea the antennal form is more specialized: it is shorter in comparison to genera of other Papilionoidea families. We also created a matrix of general morphological characters of Dismorphiinae and Pieridae from the taxonomic literature. This matrix confirms the marked character divergence between the tribes and allows for a more meaningful discussion regarding the relationships between Dismorphiinae and the other subfamilies of Pieridae (i.e., Pseudopontiinae, Coliadinae, and Pierinae). We argue that Pseudopontiinae cannot be considered the least derived subfamily among Pieridae because pupal features, wing venation, and antennal characters exhibit a combination of primitive and specialized states. In addition, we discuss our results from the perspective of patterns of food plant usage in pierid subfamilies, specifically the diversification of several Dismorphiinae genera on Hologalegina and Ingeae (Fabaceae).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4347.3.1DOI Listing
November 2017

Sexual Dimorphism and Retinal Mosaic Diversification following the Evolution of a Violet Receptor in Butterflies.

Mol Biol Evol 2017 09;34(9):2271-2284

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA.

Numerous animal lineages have expanded and diversified the opsin-based photoreceptors in their eyes underlying color vision behavior. However, the selective pressures giving rise to new photoreceptors and their spectral tuning remain mostly obscure. Previously, we identified a violet receptor (UV2) that is the result of a UV opsin gene duplication specific to Heliconius butterflies. At the same time the violet receptor evolved, Heliconius evolved UV-yellow coloration on their wings, due to the pigment 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK) and the nanostructure architecture of the scale cells. In order to better understand the selective pressures giving rise to the violet receptor, we characterized opsin expression patterns using immunostaining (14 species) and RNA-Seq (18 species), and reconstructed evolutionary histories of visual traits in five major lineages within Heliconius and one species from the genus Eueides. Opsin expression patterns are hyperdiverse within Heliconius. We identified six unique retinal mosaics and three distinct forms of sexual dimorphism based on ommatidial types within the genus Heliconius. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis revealed independent losses of opsin expression, pseudogenization events, and relaxation of selection on UVRh2 in one lineage. Despite this diversity, the newly evolved violet receptor is retained across most species and sexes surveyed. Discriminability modeling of behaviorally preferred 3-OHK yellow wing coloration suggests that the violet receptor may facilitate Heliconius color vision in the context of conspecific recognition. Our observations give insights into the selective pressures underlying the origins of new visual receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msx163DOI Listing
September 2017

Papilionoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera) type specimens at the Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera" from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Zootaxa 2017 Feb 15;4232(2):zootaxa.4232.2.1. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

Museo de Zoología (Entomología), Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-399, México, 04510, D. F. México..

We list and illustrate Papilionoidea (s. l.) type specimens deposited in the Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera" of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The 36 type specimens belong to 29 genera, 14 subfamilies, and five families. We note locality data for each type, and illustrate 23 holotypes, 8 allotypes and 13 paratypes. The names were published between 1984 and 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4232.2.1DOI Listing
February 2017

The phylogenetic position of Aphrissa (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Coliadinae) within its relatives the ancient American Catopsilias.

Zootaxa 2016 Aug 8;4147(5):538-50. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Museo de Zoología (Entomología), Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-399, México, 04510, México City.; Email:

The American Catopsilias are pierids, commonly known as sulphurs. These butterflies were grouped based on morphology and secondary sexual characters of the male, but this grouping was not taxonomically established. In Catopsilia were included genera such as Anteos, Aphrissa, Rhabdodryas, and Phoebis. Aphrissa is a genus taxonomically stable, but its phylogenetic position within Coliadinae is not clear. In this research, we used morphological data to establish the phylogenetic position of the genus Aphrissa and its phylogenetic relationships within the ancient American Catopsilias. We included four outgroups: Colias, Zerene, Eurema and Kricogonia. A maximum parsimony analysis was employed under equal and implied weights. We used 32 morphological characters, 18 were coded as binary and 14 as multistate. A well-resolved cladogram was obtained. The American Catopsilias are not a monophyletic group. The analyses support the following relationships, clade A: Eurema + (Anteos + (Colias + Zerene) and clade B: Prestonia + (Aphrissa + (Rhabdodryas + Phoebis)). Kricogonia remained as the sister taxon of the whole group. Characters that support clade A include the morphology of male genitalia, while the clade B is supported by female genitalia and morphology of the chorion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4147.5.2DOI Listing
August 2016

[A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

Rev Biol Trop 2013 Jun;61(2):711-33

Departamento de Biologia Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. 04510.

A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.
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June 2013

A new species of Euselasia Hübner from Meso-America and Mexico with notes on the eurypus group (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae).

Zootaxa 2013 ;3701:54-62

Casa Picapau, Floresta de la Sabana. Carrera 7, 237-04, Bogotá, Colombia.

A new species of Riodinidae, Euselasia oaxacensis Callaghan, Llorente-Bousquets & Luis-Martinez, sp. nov. from Oaxaca State in Mexico and Costa Rica is described, including its habitat, behavior and differences with other members of the eurypus group of the genus Euselasia. Notes are included in the taxonomic position, distribution and behavior of three other species of the eurypus group: Euselasia eurypus (Hewitson, 1856), Euselasia angulata (Bates, 1868); and Euselasia clesa (Hewitson, 1856).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3701.1.4DOI Listing
August 2015

UV photoreceptors and UV-yellow wing pigments in Heliconius butterflies allow a color signal to serve both mimicry and intraspecific communication.

Am Nat 2012 Jan 5;179(1):38-51. Epub 2011 Dec 5.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA.

Mimetic wing coloration evolves in butterflies in the context of predator confusion. Unless butterfly eyes have adaptations for discriminating mimetic color variation, mimicry also carries a risk of confusion for the butterflies themselves. Heliconius butterfly eyes, which express recently duplicated ultraviolet (UV) opsins, have such an adaptation. To examine bird and butterfly color vision as sources of selection on butterfly coloration, we studied yellow wing pigmentation in the tribe Heliconiini. We confirmed, using reflectance and mass spectrometry, that only Heliconius use 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK), which looks yellow to humans but reflects both UV- and long-wavelength light, whereas butterflies in related genera have chemically unknown yellow pigments mostly lacking UV reflectance. Modeling of these color signals reveals that the two UV photoreceptors of Heliconius are better suited to separating 3-OHK from non-3-OHK spectra compared with the photoreceptors of related genera or birds. The co-occurrence of potentially enhanced UV vision and a UV-reflecting yellow wing pigment could allow unpalatable Heliconius private intraspecific communication in the presence of mimics. Our results are the best available evidence for the correlated evolution of a color signal and color vision. They also suggest that predator visual systems are error prone in the context of mimicry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/663192DOI Listing
January 2012

[Bibliometry of biological systematics in Latin America during the twentieth century in three global databases].

Rev Biol Trop 2010 Jun;58(2):531-45

Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, Av. Universidad 3000 Circuito Exterior S/N, C.P. 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, México, DF.

We present a review of the biological systematic research in Latin America during the twentieth century, applying a bibliometric analysis to the information contained in international databases with the largest number of biological records: Biosis (since 1969), CAB (since 1910) and Science Citation Index (since 1900), to recognize certain patterns and trends regarding the document production. We obtained 19079 documents and 1387 journals for Biosis, 14326 and 2537 for CAB, 3257 and 1636 for SCI. Of the documents, 54.6% related to new species, 15.3% dealt with morphology, 14.9% keys, 12.5% descriptions, 10.6% cases of synonymies, 6% new genera, 4.9% new geographical records, 23.6% geographical distribution, 4.2% redescriptions, and 3.6% with new nomenclatural combinations. The regions mentioned were South America with 11.9%, Central America with 4% and America (all) with 2.56%. Nineteen Latin American countries appear, whereas outside this region we found the United States of America with 12.6% of representation and Canada with 3%. Animals (65.6%) were the most studied taxa, which was 1.7 times higher than what was published for plants (37%), 11 times higher than fungi (6%) and nearly 30 times higher than microorganisms (2.3%). Out of the 155 journals that produced 66% of the papers, 76.5% were better represented in Biosis, 21.4% in CAB and 2% in SCI. Twenty-nine journals published 33% of the articles, the maximum number of records obtained was 69% for Biosis, CAB 24% and 6.9% for SCI, three (10.3%) are in biology, 11 (37.9%) in botany, 13 (44.8%) zoology, and two (6.9%) paleontology; eight of these journals (27.5%) were published in Latin America and twenty were indexed in the Science Citation Index. In the last two years more journals of the region that publish on taxonomy have been indexed, but their impact factor is still low. However, the impact factor of a number of Latin American journals that published biodiversity increased with time. Countries that are more interested in studying the Latin American biota from the taxonomic point of view are Brazil, the United States, Argentina and Mexico. The most active institutions in this discipline were the Universidade de São Paulo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, and the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; together they produced 24% of the documents.
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June 2010

[The taxonomy and distribution of Nathalis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in Colombia].

Rev Biol Trop 2010 Mar;58(1):273-85

Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.

In Colombia, Nathalis has two described species: N. iole and N. plauta. Previous authors did not make detailed descriptions of its distribution in meridional regions and failed to differentiate both species based on genitalic characters. Some wing marks have been enough to separate them, but co-specificity was a possibility. They inhabit Colombia above 2000 m in the paramo, and have a vicariant distribution from the remaining population of N. iole in the Antillean and Central and North America. An analysis focused on male and female genitalia, as well as the wing pattern of more than 100 specimens from the Colombian Andes (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Sierra de Perijá) and Mexico, indicates that the two species differ in their genitalia, and considering their allopatric distribution, we support the specific distinction of N. iole and N. plauta. We describe a new endemic subspecies found exclusively in the paramo above 3000 m, an area where other endemics occur. It has phenotypic plasticity related to environmental factors.
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March 2010

Positive selection of a duplicated UV-sensitive visual pigment coincides with wing pigment evolution in Heliconius butterflies.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Feb 2;107(8):3628-33. Epub 2010 Feb 2.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

The butterfly Heliconius erato can see from the UV to the red part of the light spectrum with color vision proven from 440 to 640 nm. Its eye is known to contain three visual pigments, rhodopsins, produced by an 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal chromophore together with long wavelength (LWRh), blue (BRh) and UV (UVRh1) opsins. We now find that H. erato has a second UV opsin mRNA (UVRh2)-a previously undescribed duplication of this gene among Lepidoptera. To investigate its evolutionary origin, we screened eye cDNAs from 14 butterfly species in the subfamily Heliconiinae and found both copies only among Heliconius. Phylogeny-based tests of selection indicate positive selection of UVRh2 following duplication, and some of the positively selected sites correspond to vertebrate visual pigment spectral tuning residues. Epi-microspectrophotometry reveals two UV-absorbing rhodopsins in the H. erato eye with lambda(max) = 355 nm and 398 nm. Along with the additional UV opsin, Heliconius have also evolved 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK)-based yellow wing pigments not found in close relatives. Visual models of how butterflies perceive wing color variation indicate this has resulted in an expansion of the number of distinguishable yellow colors on Heliconius wings. Functional diversification of the UV-sensitive visual pigments may help explain why the yellow wing pigments of Heliconius are so colorful in the UV range compared to the yellow pigments of close relatives lacking the UV opsin duplicate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910085107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2840532PMC
February 2010

[Papilionoidea from Sierra de Huantla, Morelos and Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera)].

Rev Biol Trop 2008 Dec;56(4):1677-716

Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Av. Guelatao No. 66. Col. Ejército de Oriente, Iztapalapa, DF México.

The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants. Despite this, our knowledge of the Papilionoidea of the region is poor. We analyzed the local and temporal distribution of Papilionoidea at 24 localities in the states of Morelos and Puebla. The study sites are situated between 900 and 1300 m. a.s.l., and are composed of dry tropical forest (dtf). We recorded 8790 individuals of 83 genera and 142 species of Papilionoidea (sensu Kristensen, 1975), over 79 days of field work, with 2-4 days at each of the 24 localities. Twenty five species were newly recorded for the state of Puebla. Our data render Morelos and Puebla among the seven richest Mexican states, in terms of Papilionoidea diversity. Our results show that the Sierra de Huautla has the lowest diversity, but the highest standard abundance, compared to other Mexican regions with similar vegetation. Patterns of diversity and seasonal abundance are atypical, in that individuals of many species are unusually abundant during the wet months.
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December 2008

[Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) from Mexico State, Mexico].

Rev Biol Trop 2008 Sep;56(3):1309-41

Museo de Zoologá, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-399, México 04510, DF México.

The State of Mexico is a region with great biological diversity, owing to its geographical and ecological features. Regarding Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea, 15% of the Mexican species are recorded in the State of Mexico, 17% of which are endemic to the country. A checklist of the two superfamilies for the State of Mexico was integrated, based on published literature and databases at the Museo de Zoología of the Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. The checklist is composed by six families, 22 subfamilies, 197 genera and 325 species (95 Hesperiidae, 19 Papilionidae, 35 Pieridae, 54 Lycaenidae, 20 Riodinidae, and 102 Nymphalidae). A list of each species is presented, including collecting localities, flight month, and whether data correspond to scientific collection records or literature.
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September 2008