Publications by authors named "Jorge E Marcovecchio"

32 Publications

Distribution of Butyltin Compounds in the Coastal Environment of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS)-CONICET, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

This study evaluates for the first time the distribution and accumulation of butyltin compounds (BTs) in different compartments such as seawater, sediments, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) in the Bahía Blanca estuary. The samples were collected from six sampling sites with different anthropogenic impacts. A better visualization and interpretation of data was achieved using chemometric tools (Tucker4 model), which made it possible to reveal the main relationships among the variables. This analysis showed the presence of BTs in all the estuarine environmental compartments, even in sites with low human intervention. The relationships found among BTs levels, seasons, and environmental matrices show the importance of biological processes such as phytoplankton blooms and remobilization of sediments (by tidal dynamics and/or periodic dredging) in BTs distribution and degradation. In addition, partition coefficients showed that mussels mainly bioaccumulate tributyltin from sediment, water and, to a lesser extent, SPM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-021-00871-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Integrative assessment of the ecological risk of heavy metals in a South American estuary under human pressures.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 20;208:111498. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Área de Oceanografía Química. Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), CCT, CONICET, Camino La Carrindanga, km 7.5, Edificio E1, B8000FWB, Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN, FRBB), 11 de abril 461, B8000LMI, Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad FASTA, Gascón 3145, B7600FNK, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution through the use of biomarkers could be a difficult task since the organisms' physiological changes could shift regarding natural factors (i.e., the season of the year) and due to the anthropogenic pressures of the environment. In the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, where most industrial and developing countries are settled, it is essential to address these concerns to generate information for the stakeholders and monitoring programs that aim to use biochemical biomarkers as early warning signals to detect heavy metal pollution. The present study intended to determinate the heavy metal concentrations in sediments and the hepatopancreas of the crab species Neohelice granulata as well as the ecological risk through the use of biomarkers and geochemical indices in sites with different anthropogenic pressures of the Bahía Blanca estuary (SW Atlantic Ocean) during the warm and cold season. The results showed low to moderate heavy metal pollution in the sediments by Cu with possible effects on the biota in a site with sewage waters' discharges. Except for GST that was explained by Cd, the biomarkers employed were not useful to assess spatial heavy metal pollution, and they might be ruled out by physiological seasonal variations rather than anthropogenic constraints, or another type of pollutants in the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111498DOI Listing
January 2021

First evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from a marine protected area within Argentinean Continental Shelf.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Sep 23;158:111385. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO - CONICET/UNS), Camino La Carrindanga km 7.5, B8000FWB Bahía Blanca, Argentina; Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av Alem 1253, B8000DIC Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

This study evaluated for the first time, the distribution, sources, and ecological risk assessment of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments collected along the northern Patagonian shelf in the Argentine Sea -included in a Marine Protected Area (MPA). Total concentration of the PAHs varied from 19.47 to 183.17 ng/g dry weight and low molecular weight compounds, such as Anthracene and Naphthalene were the dominants. The selected PAHs ratios suggested a predominance of petrogenic sources and ecotoxicological risk evaluation based on the sediment quality guidelines model, indicated that some PAHs might cause occasional adverse biological effects in the study area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111385DOI Listing
September 2020

First approaches to the depuration process of trace metals in the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata from a temperate wetland in South America: Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 23;27(29):36900-36912. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Área de Oceanografía Química, CCT-CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), Camino La Carrindanga, km 7.5, Edificio E1, B8000FWB, Bahía Blanca, Pcia. de Bs. As., Argentina.

Trace metal contamination is among the major concerns of stakeholders due to its potential adverse effects on biota and humans, even at low concentrations. Few studies have recently focused on the ability of organisms to depurate trace metals from different tissues. Therefore, we carried out this study to evaluate the bioconcentration of trace metals (Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cr, Cu) and the depuration process of these pollutants in two tissues (soft tissue and carapace) in an estuarine benthic crab model, Neohelice granulata. The results indicate that Cu and Zn were the highest bioconcentrated metals in crab tissues, while other metals, such as Pb and Cr, were found in sediments but were not bioconcentrated. On the other hand, Cd was found in crabs but not in sediments. The depuration indicates a total decline in Ni and a significant decrease in Cu and Fe in the soft tissues after the experiment. However, the concentration of the trace metals in the carapace before and after the depuration did not show any significant variation except in the Mn, in which the levels decreased significantly at the end of the depuration. Thus, we recommend continuing to explore metal detoxification in bioindicator species, such as N. granulata, in order to understand the efficiency of the mechanisms of depuration of trace metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09776-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Spatial Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Residual Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in South American Marine Environments.

Curr Environ Health Rep 2020 06;7(2):147-160

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO - CONICET/UNS), Camino La Carrindanga km 7.5, 8000, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Purpose Of Review: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been intensely used and produced in South America. Although they were banned before the year 2000 (excepting endosulfan, which has been recently banned in several countries), OCPs remain detectable in marine environments of this continent, sometimes at risky levels for biota. This manuscript summarizes studies on OCP levels in the air, water, sediment, bivalves, fish, and marine mammals of the South American coasts and open waters over the last 20 years, tackling their spatial distribution and analyzing their associated ecotoxicological risk.

Recent Findings: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study integrating all available information on current levels of OCPs in South American marine environments. The 63 researches reviewed studied punctual sites or environmental compartments. The OCP levels were higher in semi-enclosed environments such as bays and estuaries, close to large cities. In terms of individual OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products were more abundant than other OCPs in all the environmental compartments, excepting air, for which the most abundant OCP was endosulfan. Depending on the location and the environmental matrix, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), heptachlors, mirex, and endosulfans followed DDTs. Aldrin, dieldrin and endrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordanes were found at very low levels in most matrices and sites, with some exceptions. Considering their potential ecotoxicological risk, most sites would be safe for biota; however, the levels of some OCPs could damage the structure and function of the communities of several coastal sites in a short or long term, mainly in southeastern Brazil and on the coast of the Argentine Pampas. Moreover, it remains to evaluate many sites potentially contaminated by OCPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40572-020-00272-7DOI Listing
June 2020

Characterization of atmospheric and soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and evaluation of air-soil relationship in the Southwest of Buenos Aires province (Argentina).

Chemosphere 2020 Feb 14;240:124847. Epub 2019 Sep 14.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO - CONICET/UNS), Camino La Carrindanga Km 7.5, 8000, Bahía Blanca, Argentina; Universidad de La Fraternidad de Agrupaciones Santo Tomás de Aquino, Gascón 3145, 7600, Mar Del Plata, Argentina; Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, FRBB, 11 de Abril 445, 8000, Bahía Blanca, Argentina; Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales (ANCEFN), Av. Alvear 1711, 4to Piso, 1014, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) proposed by the US EPA as priority were analyzed in air and soil samples in the Southwest of Buenos Aires, Argentina, in order to study the levels, distribution, sources and fugacity ratios of PAHs, evaluating the relationship between them. For this, 10 passive air samplers (XAD-2® resin) were deployed along the area and replaced three-monthly from January to December 2015. PAHs were analyzed through gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results obtained showed that total PAHs levels (∑16) ranged from 27.97 to 1052.99 ng m and from 52.40 to 2118.34 ng. g d.w. for air and soil samples, respectively. The highest air- PAHs levels were registered in Bahía Blanca city (1052.99 ng. m, d.w.) an urban-industrial site, while the highest soil-PAHs levels were found in La Vitícola (2118.34 ng. g, d.w.), a rural location closed to a high traffic national route. For all sites the highest levels were observed during the winter; however, both spatial and temporal variations were only statistically significant for certain specific PAHs. Diagnostic ratios + PCA, determined dominance of pyrolytic sources. Further, data showed that source of PAHs could be attributed to vehicular and industrial emissions (observed in all periods), biomass combustion (linked mainly to warm period) and domestic emissions (linked mainly to cold period). Finally, fugacity ratios resulted <1, indicating that soil and air samples were not in equilibrium for the majority of PAHs determining a net tendency of air PAHs towards deposition while soil acted principally as a sink.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124847DOI Listing
February 2020

Strategies for cadmium detoxification in the white shrimp Palaemon argentinus from clean and polluted field locations.

Chemosphere 2019 Dec 27;236:124224. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Laboratorio de Toxicología Ambiental, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, 7600, Mar del Plata, Argentina; Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (IIMyC-CONICET), Argentina.

In this study, we investigated the metal handling capacity of non-tolerant and tolerant populations of Palaemon argentinus to cadmium (Cd), through evaluating of the main mechanisms of metal detoxification, metallothioneins (MT) and metal-rich granules (MRG), to probe that the presence of MRG in the second population is responsible of that condition. The tolerant population were exposed to 3.06 and 12.26 μg Cd·L, while the non-tolerant shrimp were exposed to 3.06 μg Cd·L. Each experiment involved the exposure during 3, 7, 10 and 15 days and, the depuration during 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, for which shrimp were transferred to clean water. The range values of MT concentrations for non-tolerant shrimp were: 12.24-23.91 μg g (w.w), while for tolerant shrimp were: 8.75-16.85 μg g (w.w); MRG levels were: 0.12-0.57 μg g (w.w) and 0.3-2.1 μg g (w.w), respectively. The results showed different strategies for Cd detoxification: the induction of MT was the main pathway in the non-tolerant population, while the formation of Cd-MRG was the main mechanism for tolerant shrimp. These differences could be related to the environmental history and the health status of each populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.06.194DOI Listing
December 2019

Evidence of Microplastic Ingestion by Fish from the Bahía Blanca Estuary in Argentina, South America.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2019 Jun 5;102(6):750-756. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO-CONICET/UNS), Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The aim of this study was to assess - for the first time - the occurrence and distribution of microplastics (MPs) in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of a marine commercial fish species (Micropogonias furnieri) from the Bahía Blanca Estuary (BBE) in Argentina, and to evaluate fish potential associated stress. In order to do this, juveniles were sampled using artisanal fishing arts at two sampling locations. Basic measurements of individual fish were taken (total length, total weight, weight of the liver) and GITs were subsequently removed, digested with 30% HO for 5 days at 60°C, filtered on Whatman paper and then dried. Samples were observed with a stereomicroscope, and it was demonstrated that 100% of the individuals contained microplastic particles in their GITs. In total, 241 microplastic particles were removed from the GITs of all fish. They were categorized as fibers (60.8%), pellets (28.9%), fragments (8.6%) and laminas (1.4%), and they ranged in size from 0.98 to > 5 mm. The average number of particles per fish was higher than that reported in previous global marine studies. Moreover, a positive correlation between the number of MPs per fish and hepatosomatic index was found, suggesting a probable stress in their health condition. These findings provide the first and southernmost evidence of microplastic contamination in biota from the Argentinean sea, which is found in the South Atlantic sea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-019-02604-2DOI Listing
June 2019

Mercury cycling and bioaccumulation in a changing coastal system: From water to aquatic organisms.

Mar Pollut Bull 2019 Mar 19;140:40-50. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO - CONICET/UNS), Carrindanga km. 7.5, Bahía Blanca, 8000, Argentina; Universidad de la Fraternidad de Agrupaciones Santo Tomás de Aquino, Gascón 3145, Mar del Plata 7600, Argentina; Universidad Tecnológica Nacional - FRBB, 11 de Abril 445, Bahía Blanca 8000, Argentina. Electronic address:

This study evaluated -for the first time- the occurrence and distribution of total Hg in abiotic (dissolved and particulate water fractions) and biotic (gills and muscle tissues of six commercial fish species) compartments within a South American coastal environment with anthropogenic pressure. This study dealt with environmental issues on developing countries which, as they are in continuous growth, face the highest rate of coastal transformation. Total Hg content was determined by acid digestion and measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results revealed that dissolved Hg exceeded the recommended levels for superficial saline waters in 67% of the cases. Hg concentrations varied among fish species and its tissues. The results suggested that metal burden in fishes achieved a mean maximum accumulation towards the muscle, with concentrations below the international maximum permitted values. The estimated daily intakes calculated suggest that people would not experience significant health risks through fish consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.12.051DOI Listing
March 2019

Preliminary studies about the role of physicochemical parameters on the organotin compound dynamic in a South American estuary (Bahía Blanca, Argentina).

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Feb 5;191(3):127. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS)-CONICET, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

This work provides a preliminary study of the destination, mobility, and availability of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) in contaminated sediments and water column within Puerto Rosales Port, located in the middle zone of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina). Therefore, this study presents the first comprehensive results of the role of several physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, Eh, salinity, turbidity, organic matter, chlorophyll, and macronutrients) in behavior of organotin compounds (OTCs) in a marine-coastal ecosystem. The samples were collected seasonally in May, August, and November during 2014. Levels of OTCs were determined in sediments and water column samples by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Degradation index analyses suggested not recent inputs of TBT at the area of study. However, results submitted a continuous input of TBT into the column water; further, its distribution and degradation pattern were shown to be influenced by salinity, turbidity, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll, and nitrates. These last two parameters, chlorophyll and nitrates, also were very important for sediment samples. Chlorophyll together with high temperatures recorded in the surface sediments triggers biodegradation process of TBT and DBT resulting in high MBT levels while nitrates seemed to promote debutylation process. Furthermore, pH appeared to influence drastically the adsorption/desorption activity of TBT and DBT in sediment. Finally, the Eh obtained suggested a degradation of TBT thanks to the presence of Fe (III) in this compartment. In addition, in fact, the results outlined a possible MBT additional input that contributes to the pollution observed in the study area. Graphical abstract Organotin compounds behavior according to several physicochemical parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7260-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Spatiotemporal distribution of organotin compounds in the coastal water of the Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Mar 19;26(8):7601-7613. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS)-CONICET, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Several areas within the Bahía Blanca estuary (BBE), with different maritime traffic intensity, were studied in order to confirm the presence and assess the distribution of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) in the water column. The organotin compounds (OTCs) were determined in the water samples-taken in summer, autumn, winter, and spring of 2014-by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after liquid-liquid extraction with hexane. The incidence of TBT throughout the whole sampling period indicated a continuous presence of this compound to the study area. However, in accordance with the butyltin degradation index (BDI), TBT was not recently introduced in the BBE. Furthermore, the average TBT levels exceeded the international guideline established by the Oslo-Paris commission (0.62 ng Sn L). As a result, certain biological effects could be expected to occur in sensitive species such as mussels. While DBT were below the detection limit in the 75% of the samples analyzed, MBT was detected in all the samples and no significant differences were found among the concentrations measured in the different seasons (Kruskal-Wallis test, p > 0.05). In addition, no correlations were found among the OTCs levels and the evaluated physiochemical parameters (Spearman coefficient, p > 0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04181-7DOI Listing
March 2019

Long-term changes on estuarine ciliates linked with modifications on wind patterns and water turbidity.

Mar Environ Res 2019 Feb 7;144:46-55. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (CONICET-UNS), Camino La Carrindanga Km 7.5, 8000, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Planktonic ciliates constitute a fundamental component among microzooplankton and play a prominent role in carbon transport at the base of marine food webs. How these organisms respond to shifting environmental regimes is unclear and constitutes a current challenge under global ocean changes. Here we examine a multiannual field survey covering 25 years in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina), a shallow, flood-plain system dominated by wind and tidal energy. We found that the estuary experienced marked changes in wind dominant regimes and an increase in water turbidity driven from the joint effect of persistent long-fetch winds and the indirect effect of the Southern Annular Mode. Along with these changes, we found that zooplankton components, i.e. ciliates and the dominant estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa, showed a negative trend during the period 1986-2011. We showed that the combined effects of wind and turbidity with other environmental variables (chlorophyll, salinity and nutrients) consistently explained the variability of observed shifts. Tintinnids were more vulnerable to wind patterns and turbidity while showed a loss of synchrony with primary productivity. Water turbidity produced a dome-like pattern on tintinnids, oligotrichs and A. tonsa, implying that the highest abundance of organisms occurred under moderate values (∼50 NTU) of turbidity. In contrast, the response to wind patterns was not generalizable probably owing to species-specific traits. Observed trends denote that wind-induced processes in shallow ecosystems with internal sources of suspended sediments, are essential on ciliate dynamics and that such effects can propagate trough the interannual variability of copepods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2018.12.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Uptake and accumulation of metals in Spartina alterniflora salt marshes from a South American estuary.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 27;649:808-820. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO, CONICET, CCT-Bahía Blanca), Camino La Carrindanga km 7,5, Edificio E-1 CC 804, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Facultad Regional Bahía Blanca (UTN-FRBB), 11 de Abril 461, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad de la Fraternidad de Agrupaciones Santo Tomás de Aquino (FASTA), Gascón 3145, 7600 Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Salt marshes are capable of reducing metal pollution in coastal waters, but this capacity is highly dependent on the metal, the physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment, the plant species, the production of biomass, the time of the year, etc. The aim of this study was to assess the uptake and accumulation of Pb, Ni, Cu and Zn in Spartina alterniflora from three salt marshes within the Bahía Blanca estuary (BBE), a human-impacted Argentinean system. Metal concentrations in sediments and plants showed the same order at all sites: Zn > Cu > Pb ≥ Ni. The site with lower organic matter and fine sediment content had lower metal concentrations in the sediments, but not a lower metal content in the plant tissues, meaning that the sediment characteristics influenced the metal concentrations in the sediment and their uptake by plants. Despite differences in sediment characteristics between sites, metals were always higher in the belowground tissues than in aboveground ones and, in general, higher in dead than in live tissues. Some metals were accumulated in plant tissues, but not others, and this is dependent on the metal and the sediment characteristics. Allocation patterns of metals in tissues of S. alterniflora were mainly dependent on metal concentrations, determining higher belowground pools, but the aboveground pools were important in some cases due to higher biomass. Partitioning of metals in above or belowground pools determines their fate within the estuarine system, since tissues can decompose in situ (belowground) or be exported (aboveground). Seasonal dynamics were important for some variables but were less noticeable than the differences between sites and tissues. Our results indicate that S. alterniflora from the BBE is efficient in accumulating some metals, despite usually low metal concentrations in sediments and plants. This accumulation capacity has implications for the whole system through the fate of the tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.357DOI Listing
February 2019

Influence of human-induced pressures on dissolved and particulate metal concentrations in a South American estuary.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Aug 18;190(9):532. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO - CONICET/UNS), Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Coastal areas are urbanized and industrialized environments, affected by dredging operations, discharges of untreated municipal wastewaters, and farming. Developing countries are in continuous growth and will deal, in a close future, with the highest rate of coastal transformation, posing serious risks for the ecological and environmental value of ecosystem assets. This research aims to study the dissolved and particulate Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn values within an argentinean estuarine environment which is currently under human-induced pressures. Concentrations of all the metals under analyses showed seasonal variability of both dissolved and particulate metals. An important outcome of this study was that dissolved Cr, Pb and Zn attained maximum values and overall increased concentrations with respect to previous records from the same area. Indeed, the highest concentrations were found during the dredging operations or in association with increases in the metal levels from wastewater discharges. The results also indicated that human activities contributed the least to the dissolved Ni concentrations. The particulate fraction of Cr, Ni and Zn showed an upward trend in the concentrations, particularly during the last two sampling dates, being also positively correlated between each other. Regarding their respective environmental quality standards, many samples achieved dissolved Cr and Zn concentrations above the maximum values recommended by international guidelines. Thus, this study highlights the possibility of stressors like dredging activities and municipal wastewaters to cause increases in the water column pollution levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6930-xDOI Listing
August 2018

Fast and Feasible Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment for the Determination of Organotin Compounds in Environmental Samples.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2018 May 3;74(4):645-655. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS-CONICET), Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The goal of this study was to improve an already established reference method, such as the one devoted to organotin compounds determination (Reference Method for Marine Pollution Studies, No. 59, UNEP). The proposed upgrade consists of replacing the mechanical shaking by ultrasound energy and applying low temperature throughout the whole procedure. The optimization of the new operational conditions was performed by using a factorial design. Quality control was performed using a certified sediment reference material (PACS-2) for sediments (82.5-97% of recovery) and recoveries on spiked samples for suspended particulate matter (SPM) and mussels (94-100%). The proposed procedure was applied to surface sediment samples, SPM, and native bivalve mollusks (Brachidontes rodriguezii) collected in Bahia Blanca estuary, a very industrialized zone. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) of the environmental samples were less than 7.9%. It is important to note that the proposed procedure reduced the sample pretreatment time about seven times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0494-6DOI Listing
May 2018

Time-varying environmental control of phytoplankton in a changing estuarine system.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Dec 6;609:1390-1400. Epub 2017 Aug 6.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (CONICET-UNS), Camino La Carrindanga km 7.5, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina; Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Facultad Regional Bahía Blanca (UTN-BHI), 11 de Abril 461, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina; Universidad FASTA, Facultad de Ingeniería, Gascón 3145, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina.

Estuaries are among the most valuable aquatic systems by their services to human welfare. However, increasing human activities at the watershed along with the pressure of climate change are fostering the co-occurrence of multiple environmental drivers, and warn of potential negative impacts on estuaries resources. At present, no clear understanding of how coastal ecosystems will respond to the non-stationary effect of multiple drivers. Here we analysed the temporal interaction among multiple environmental drivers and their changing priority on shaping phytoplankton response in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, SW Atlantic Ocean. The interaction among environmental drivers and the number of significant direct and indirect effects on chlorophyll concentration increased over time in concurrence with enhanced anthropogenic stress, changing winter climate and wind patterns. Over the period 1978-1993, proximal variables such as nutrients, water temperature and salinity, showed a dominant effect on chlorophyll, whereas in more recent years (1993-2009) climate signals (SAM and ENSO) boosted indirect effects through its influence on precipitation, wind, water temperature and turbidity. Turbidity emerged as the dominant driver of chlorophyll while in recent years acted synergistically with the concentration of dissolved nitrogen. As a result, chlorophyll concentration showed a significant negative trend and a loss of seasonal peaks reflecting a pronounced reorganisation of the phytoplankton community. We stress the need to account for the changing priority of drivers to understand, and eventually forecast, biological responses under projected scenarios of global anthropogenic change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.002DOI Listing
December 2017

Organotin compounds in Brachidontes rodriguezii mussels from the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2017 Nov 4;145:518-527. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS)-CONICET, Bahía Blanca, Argentina; Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN)-FRBB, Bahía Blanca, Argentina; Universidad de la Fraternidad de Agrupaciones Santo Tomás de Aquino (FASTA), Mar del Plata, Argentina.

Levels of tributyltin and its breakdown compounds, including the first record of monobutyltin (MBT) in history for Latin America, were determined in native mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) by means of CG-MS, after extraction/derivatization assisted by ultrasound. The samples were collected in 2013 in Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) at 6 sites, which reflect different levels of maritime activities. Total butyltins (TBts = TBT+ DBT+ MBT) levels ranged from 19.64 to 180.57ng Sn g dry weight. According to the Oslo-Paris commission, the results indicated that 73.9% of mussels could be under biological effects risks associated with TBT pollution. In accordance with the calculated bioaccumulation factors, approximately 56% of samples appeared to have accumulated TBT through the sediments. All sampling sites were shown to be impacted by organotin compounds (OTCs) showing variable levels through seasons, which could be related with the variation of the water temperature. Degradation index analyses suggested aged inputs of TBT possibly under a general degradation process at the area of study. In addition, the occurrence of DBT and MBT could not be uniquely attributed to the degradation pathway of the TBT; in fact, results outlined the possible contribution of some punctual and diffuse sources at the area such as proximity to plastic industries, industrial effluents, sewage outlets and domestic wastewaters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.07.052DOI Listing
November 2017

Distribution and human health risk assessment of PAHs in four fish species from a SW Atlantic estuary.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Aug 28;24(23):18979-18990. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO-CONICET/UNS), Camino La Carrindanga km 7.5, 8000, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The aim of this study is to assess-for the first time-the concentration of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the muscle tissues of four fish species (Micropogonias furnieri, Cynoscion guatucupa, Ramnogaster arcuata, and Mustelus schmitti) from Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina and to evaluate their sources, distribution, and the human health risks implicated. Considering the four species under study, mean total PAH concentrations showed the following decreasing accumulation trend: M. schmitti, R. arcuata, C. guatucupa, and M. furnieri. Low molecular weight PAHs, such as naphthalene and phenanthrene, were generally predominant, displaying properties of PAH mixtures generated from petrogenic pollution. Of the four fish species analyzed, M. furnieri was the only one that did not raise any human consumption warning. In the case of the other species, exceeding values were found above the safety human consumption guidelines. Nevertheless, the screening criteria for carcinogenic PAHs proposed by the USEPA indicated a good quality status for these fish species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9394-6DOI Listing
August 2017

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mussels from a South American Estuary.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2017 May 18;72(4):540-551. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS)-CONICET, Camino La Carrindanga km 7.5, 8000, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Bivalves, especially mussels, have been pointed as putative species to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine environment. After several environmental PAHs baseline reports, the present study was conducted to assess for the first time the levels of PAHs in native mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) collected from a critical industrialized estuary of Argentina. Under this objective, after an 18-month sampling period, 34 pools of mussels were assessed for 17 PAHs, including the 16 compounds prioritized by United States Environmental Protection Agency. By means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, results showed total PAHs concentrations in mussel's tissue ranged from under laboratory detection limits to 482.4 ng/g dry weight. Mussel body burdens were dominated by lower molecular weight PAHs, such as phenanthrene, naphthalene, and pyrene, whereas the overall PAHs profile suggested the predominance of petrogenic sources. Finally, the potential ecotoxicological impact was evaluated by applying Environmental Assessment Criteria and benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0392-yDOI Listing
May 2017

Comparison of phytoremediation potential capacity of Spartina densiflora and Sarcocornia perennis for metal polluted soils.

Mar Pollut Bull 2017 May 11;118(1-2):297-306. Epub 2017 Mar 11.

Instituto Patagónico para el Estudio de los Ecosistemas Continentales (IPEEC-CONICET), Boulevard Brown 2915, U9120ACD Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina; Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Boulevard Brown 3051, U9120ACD Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina.

Phytoremediation is considered the most appropriate technique to restore metal polluted soil, given its low cost, high efficiency and low environmental impact. Spartina densiflora and Sarcocornia perennis are perennial halophytes growing under similar environmental conditions in San Antonio marsh (Patagonia Argentina), therefore it is interesting to compare their phytoremediation potential capacity. To this end, we compared concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe in soils and in below- and above-ground structures of S. perennis and S. densiflora. It was concluded that both species are able to inhabit Pb, Zn, and Cu polluted soils. Although Sarcocornia translocated more metals to the aerial structures than Spartina, both species translocated only when they were growing in soils with low metal concentrations. It seems that the plants translocate only a certain proportion of the metal contained in the soil. These results suggest that both species could be considered candidates to phytostabilize these metals in polluted soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.03.007DOI Listing
May 2017

Tracing Cr, Pb, Fe and Mn occurrence in the Bahía Blanca estuary through commercial fish species.

Chemosphere 2017 May 1;175:286-293. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO - CONICET/UNS), Camino La Carrindanga km 7.5, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina; Universidad de la Fraternidad de Agrupaciones Santo Tomás de Aquino, Gascón 3145, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina; Universidad Tecnológica Nacional - FRBB, 11 de Abril 445, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Electronic address:

Over the last decades the anthropogenic contamination impact has substantially increased in the Bahía Blanca estuarine area, and scarce information exists regarding metals in the biotic compartment of this estuary. Thus, fish tissues were used to evaluate metal accumulation within this aquatic environment. The study focused on the determination of Cr, Pb, Fe and Mn in the gills, liver and muscle tissues of six commercial fish species (Brevoortia aurea, Odontesthes argentinensis, Micropogonias furnieri, Cynoscion guatucupa, Mustelus schmitti and Paralichthys orbignyanus). From the results it can be summarized that C. guatucupa tends to accumulate higher metal levels in the liver tissues, mostly Cr and Fe, than the other studied species. O. argentinensis and P. orbignyanus, both permanent inhabitants of the BBE, achieved the highest metal values in the gill tissues, mostly in comparison to M. schmitti. The gill tissues were found to be the main organ of Mn and Ni accumulation for most species, whereas in general, minimum concentrations were found for all the analyzed metals in the muscle tissues. Nevertheless, and according to the guidelines, all fish species showed at least one sample with concentrations of Mn and/or Cr above the permissible levels for human consumption. Finally, it was highlighted the usefulness of selecting these fish species as bioindicators of metal pollution, since they are either permanent inhabitants of the estuary or, according to the sizes under analyses, spend much of their time in this coastal waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.002DOI Listing
May 2017

Accumulation and distribution of trace metals within soils and the austral cordgrass Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh.

Mar Pollut Bull 2015 Dec 23;101(1):457-465. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO-CONICET), Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn were determined in soils and in below- and above-ground structures of Spartina densiflora in a Patagonian salt marsh (San Antonio, Río Negro, Argentina). Also, the relationship between trace metal concentrations in soils and plants was investigated to improve our knowledge regarding the ability of this plant species to take up and accumulate trace metals from the soil. Our results indicate that, within the studied salt marsh, soil trace metal concentrations follow a decreasing concentration gradient toward the sea. They show moderate pollution and a potentially negative biological effect in one site of the salt marsh. While below-ground structures reflect the soil metal concentration pattern, this is not so evident in above-ground concentrations. Also, S. densiflora is able to absorb a limited amount of metals present in the soil, the soil bioaccumulation factor being lower in sites where soil metal concentration is higher.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.047DOI Listing
December 2015

Distribution, Sources, and Potential Ecotoxicological Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments from Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2015 Aug 5;69(2):163-72. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahía Blanca, C.C.Nº 804, Florida 8000 (Camino La Carrindanga km 7,5), B8000FWB, Bahía Blanca, Argentina,

Thirty-four surface sediment samples were collected from Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina, to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination and ecotoxicity risk by applying sediment-quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors (TEQ). Total concentrations of 17 parent PAHs, including the 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs, were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and their levels ranged from 19.7 to 30,054.5 ng/g dry weight. The greatest values were found near the urban/industrial core and decreasing as the distance from that site increased. Molecular ratios determined mixed sources of PAHs with a slight imposition of pyrolitic over the petrogenic inputs. The ecotoxicological evaluation, based on the SQG model, showed that some of the individual PAHs were in excess of the effects range low (ERL) and the effects range median's threshold; then, predicted occasional (ERL) and frequent adverse effects over the surrounding biota at the area of study were determined. Total PAH levels were expressed as benzo-a-pyrene TEQ and compared with literature data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-015-0169-0DOI Listing
August 2015

Influence of flooding and vegetation on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics in the pore water of a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh.

J Environ Sci (China) 2011 ;23(2):212-21

Argentine Institute of Oceanography (IADO, CONICET CCT-Bahía Blanca), Camino La Carrindanga km 7,5, Building E-1 CC 804, Bahía Blanca 8000, Argentina.

Four sites were selected in a salt marsh in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina): (1) low marsh (flooded by the tide twice daily) vegetated by S. alterniflora; (2) non-vegetated low marsh; (3) high marsh (flooded only in spring tides) vegetated by S. alterniflora; (4) non-vegetated high marsh. The pH and Eh were measured in sediments, while dissolved nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in pore water. pH (6.2-8.7) was only affected by vegetation in low areas. Eh (from -300 to 250 mV) was lower at low sites than at high ones; in the latter, the values were higher in the non-vegetated sediments. The POM concentration was greater in the high marsh than in the low marsh, with no effect of vegetation. Ammonium was the most abundant nitrogen nutrient species in pore water, except in the non-vegetated high marsh where nitrate concentration was higher. All nitrogen nutrients were affected by both flooding and vegetation. Phosphate was always present in pore water at all sites throughout the year and its concentration varied within narrow limits, with no effect of flooding and greater values always at non-vegetated sites. Our results showed that the variability of the pore water composition within the marsh is greater than the temporal variation, meaning that both tidal flooding and vegetation are important in the dynamics of nutrients and organic matter in the sediment pore water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1001-0742(10)60395-6DOI Listing
May 2011

Multi-year monitoring of estuarine sediments as ultimate sink for DDT, HCH, and other organochlorinated pesticides in Argentina.

Environ Monit Assess 2011 Jan 6;172(1-4):17-32. Epub 2010 Feb 6.

Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Forty-nine superficial sediment samples used in this study were collected from eight sites in the Bahia Blanca Estuary, located in the Buenos Aires Province southwest, Argentina, in a period between April 2005 and March 2009, to assess the concentration levels, spatial and seasonal distribution, and putative input sources of 18 selected organochlorine pesticides (OCs), following UNEP-IAEA procedures. Average concentration levels in sediments ranged between 3.54 and 63.79 ng g⁻¹, d.w. (mean = 15.99 ng g⁻¹, d.w.), for ∑OCs, and from nondetectable to 8.03 ng g⁻¹, d.w. (mean = 2.16 ng g⁻¹, d.w.), and from nondetectable to 3.20 ng g⁻¹ (mean = 0.97 ng g⁻¹, d.w.) for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), respectively. Principal component analysis allowed the classification of sampling sites according to the main OCs inputs over the estuary. In comparison to other worldwide locations and to the world coastal sediment concentrations range, sediment DDTs and HCHs levels were in the low range; on the opposite, ∑OCs average was in the medium range. OCs seasonal distribution was found to be highly correlated with the precipitations seasonality and sowing seasons in the adjacent agriculture fields. In addition, an ecotoxicological risk assessment pointed industrial and agriculture catchment zones with intermediate probability of adverse effects to biota, while the city sewage outfall was classified with none indication of an immediate threat. Data indicated that the estuary sediments were functioning as a sink for persistent OC pesticides (either in use or banned), however, it was found a declining trend on their environmental burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1315-9DOI Listing
January 2011

Effects of zinc on molting and body weight of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata (Brachyura: Varunidae).

Sci Total Environ 2010 Jan 10;408(3):531-6. Epub 2009 Nov 10.

Area Oceanografía Química, Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO-CONICET), Complejo Científico-Tecnológico Bahía Blanca (CCT-CONICET-BBca), Edificio E-1, Casilla de Correo 804, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The semiterrestrial burrowing crab Neohelice granulata is one of the main inhabitants of the supratidal and intertidal zones of brackish salt marshes, estuaries and coastal lagoons from South America's Atlantic littoral. A large population of this species spreads out Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon (in Argentina) and its corresponding wetlands, and is considered as a key species within this system. Since high values of dissolved heavy metals (including Zn) have been recently reported within Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, with levels unusually higher than those from other coastal systems within Argentina, it has been explored that the existence of a risk of environmental conditions endanger these populations. So, juveniles of this estuarine crab were experimentally exposed to increasing concentrations of dissolved Zn (i.e., 0, 0.5 and 1 mg Zn(2+)L(-1)) during six months, the time involved between two successive molts; in addition, both the size and weight reached after each molt were also studied in this assay. It can be concluded that zinc can be toxic to crabs only at high concentrations. Considering that levels up to 1 mg ZnL(-1) were recently reported in Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon waters, the potential occurrence of mean chronic effects on the crab population within the coastal lagoon is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.051DOI Listing
January 2010

Influences of sex, habitat, and seasonality on heavy-metal concentrations in the burrowing crab (Neohelice granulata) from a coastal lagoon in Argentina.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2010 Apr 23;58(3):746-56. Epub 2009 Oct 23.

Area Oceanografía Química, Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía, Complejo Científico-Tecnológico Bahía Blanca, 8000, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Cadmium, chromium, copper, and manganese concentrations were determined in hepatopancreas of both sexes as well as in eggs at different embryonic development stages of the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata (Brachyura, Varunidae) from Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon, a biosphere reserve from Argentina, during a period of 1 year, to assess the bioaccumulation of metals associated with sex and seasonality. Furthermore, metal levels in associated superficial sediment samples were also determined. Two different "cangrejales," one in a mudflat and another one in a salt marsh, were studied. The results showed high concentrations of copper within the hepatopancreas, which was considered a strong reflection of high exposure of N. granulata to this metal. Metal accumulation in hepatopancreas from both study sites and sexes did not present significant differences, as did seasonality. In this sense, both spring and summer metal levels in hepatopancreas were the greatest. Eggs did not present differences in metal accumulation, with the exception of manganese, between sites or between crabs at different embryonic stages. For this metal, eggs from female crabs inhabiting mudflats showed higher levels than those from inhabiting salt marshes. Moreover, eggs in the late embryonic stage also showed the highest manganese concentrations. Metal levels in sediments, however, were similar in both sites. These are the first results of metal level in biota and sediments in this particular environment. Such results could be used as a baseline for the monitoring of metal levels in future studies in Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-009-9405-9DOI Listing
April 2010

Cadmium and zinc in Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon (Argentina): salinity effects on lethal toxicity in juveniles of the burrowing crab Chasmagnathus granulatus.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2008 Jul 11;55(1):78-85. Epub 2007 Dec 11.

Area de Oceanografía Química, Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO-CONICET), CCT-CONICET-BBca., C.C. 804, 8000, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The large Argentine marine littoral zone is characterized by great number of wetlands and includes only one coastal lagoon, Mar Chiquita, which has been declared as a Biosphere Reserve by the Man and Biosphere Reserve Program from UNESCO. Its margins present populations of Chasmagnathus granulatus, a semiterrestrial crab distributed along wide salinity gradients that plays an important role as a key species within the corresponding trophic web. Dissolved cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations present in this ecosystem were determined. Cadmium concentrations ranged between n.d. and 0.82 mug/L and zinc levels ranged between n.d. and 1224.38 mug/L within the mentioned coastal lagoon. Cd and Zn acute semistatic toxicity bioassays were carried out for 96 h on juvenile crabs of C. granulatus. LC(50) 96-h values were 2.24 mg Cd(2+)/L and 7.07 mg Zn(2+)/L at 5 psu, and 15.42 mg Cd(2+)/L and 11.41 mg Zn(2+)/L at 25 psu. Higher salinities resulted in lower metal toxicity. This effect was stronger for Cd than for Zn. C. granulatus juveniles LC(50) 96-h values determined for Cd were three to four orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding dissolved metal concentrations in the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon; nevertheless, those Zn values determined were similar to several ones corresponding to natural water samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-007-9090-5DOI Listing
July 2008

Dissolved heavy metal(Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) concentrations in surface water and porewater from Bahía Blanca estuary tidal flats.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2007 Oct 18;79(4):415-21. Epub 2007 Jul 18.

Area de Oceanografía Química, Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), CRIBABB, CONICET, Florida 7500, Edificio E1, CC 804. B8000FWB, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The concentrations of dissolved cadmium, lead, chromium and níquel were determined in surface water column and pore water, collected from the extensive tidal plain at Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina. Three different polluted areas were selected to study the spatial variation of these metals. The concentration ranges within the water column were slightly variable (Cd: 0.18-2.48 microg L(-1); Pb: 0.38-7.53 microg L(-1); Cr: 0.89-5.83 microg L(-1); Ni: 0.81-3.49 microg L(-1)), and displayed a clear gradient respect to the industrial area. Significant differences (contrast tests) between sites were detected for Cd, Pb and Ni. Very similar concentrations of Cd (0.18-3.41 microg L(-1)), Pb (0.38-5.83 microg L(-1)), Cr (0.89-9.37 microg L(-1)), Ni (0.81-6.56 microg L(-1)) were found in the porewater at all sites. The results suggested that both environmental compartments (water column and tidal flats porewater) may be affected by similar point and non-point heavy metal sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-007-9231-6DOI Listing
October 2007

Butyltin compounds in sediments of the Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina.

Environ Monit Assess 2007 Sep 14;132(1-3):445-51. Epub 2006 Dec 14.

Laboratorio de Química Marina, CONICET-Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), Camino La Carrindanga km 7, Edificio E-1. CC 804, B8000FWB Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Systematic measurements of both Tributyltin (TBT) and Dibutyltin (DBT) in sediments along different locations in the inner zone of Bahía Blanca estuary were done. Two samples were taken near the main dry dock facility, at Puerto Belgrano naval base, in Argentina. TBT concentrations from non-detected to 170.3 ng Sn g(-1) were measured in the inner region of the estuary, and higher one of 3,288 ng Sn g(-1) near the dry dock at Puerto Belgrano. DBT values ranging between non-detected and 75.2 ng Sn g(-1) were obtained along the principal channel, but extreme concentration of 1,645 ng Sn g(-1) was measured at Puerto Belgrano. These values show that this estuary is affected by organotin pollution, mainly in areas of heavy shipyard activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9547-4DOI Listing
September 2007