Publications by authors named "Jordie A J Fischer"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Iron-Containing Oral Contraceptives and Their Effect on Hemoglobin and Biomarkers of Iron Status: A Narrative Review.

Nutrients 2021 Jul 9;13(7). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Food, Nutrition and Health, University of British Columbia, 2205 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Oral contraceptive use has been associated with decreased menstrual blood losses; thus, can independently reduce the risk of anemia and iron deficiency in women. Manufacturers have recently started to include supplemental iron in the non-hormonal placebo tablets of some contraceptives. The aims of this narrative review are: (i) to describe the relationship between oral contraceptive use and both anemia and iron status in women; (ii) to describe the current formulations of iron-containing oral contraceptives (ICOC) available on the market; and (iii) to systematically review the existing literature on the effect of ICOC on biomarkers of anemia and iron status in women. We discovered 21 brands of ICOC, most commonly including 25 mg elemental iron as ferrous fumarate, for seven days, per monthly tablet package. Our search identified one randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of ICOC use compared to two non-ICOC on increasing hemoglobin (Hb) and iron status biomarker concentrations in women; whereafter 12 months of contraception use, there were no significant differences in Hb concentration nor markers of iron status between the groups. ICOC has the potential to be a cost-effective solution to address both family planning needs and iron deficiency anemia. Yet, more rigorous trials evaluating the effectiveness of ICOC on improving markers of anemia and iron deficiency, as well as investigating the safety of its consumption among iron-replete populations, are warranted.
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July 2021

Can Automated Hematology Analyzers Predict the Presence of a Genetic Hemoglobinopathy? An Analysis of Hematological Biomarkers in Cambodian Women.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 3;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Food, Nutrition and Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Genetic hemoglobinopathies are the most common single-gene disorder worldwide. Some automated hematology analyzers have the capability of flagging individuals who may have hematological disorders based on complete blood count (CBC) biomarkers. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a hematology analyzer in identifying genetic hemoglobinopathies in Cambodian women and to determine which hematological biomarkers are the best predictors. A CBC was completed using a Sysmex XN-1000 analyzer and hemoglobinopathies were determined with capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis for 808 nonpregnant Cambodian women. Sysmex XN-1000 Interpretive Program (IP) messages, which flag potential hematological disorders, were produced from CBC results. Then, 2 × 2 tables were used to determine sensitivity and specificity of the IP message "Hemoglobin defect" to detect a genetic hemoglobinopathy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses assessed the diagnostic ability of six CBC biomarkers to predict a genetic hemoglobinopathy. In total, 74% of women had a hemoglobinopathy (predominantly Hb E and α-thalassemia). "Hb defect" IP message sensitivity and specificity for genetic hemoglobinopathy detection were 10.4% and 98.6%, respectively. Variable selection strategies yielded a two-variable model including mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cell (RBC) count (AIC = 99.83, AUC = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97, 0.99)) for the prediction of a homozygous EE disorder. Sensitivity and specificity values do not justify the use of Sysmex XN-1000 IP flag messages for identification of genetic hemoglobinopathies in Cambodian women. Development of an algorithm based on MCV and RBC biomarkers may optimize the screening ability of automated hematology analyzers.
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February 2021

Regression to the Mean: A Statistical Phenomenon of Worthy Consideration in Anemia Research.

Curr Dev Nutr 2020 Oct 24;4(10):nzaa152. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Food, Nutrition, and Health, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Regression to the mean (RTM) is a statistical phenomenon where second measurements are more likely to be closer to the mean. This is particularly observed in those with baseline values further from the mean. Anemic individuals (hemoglobin <120 g/L) are often recruited when evaluating iron supplementation programs, as they are more likely to elicit a greater hemoglobin response; however, they are also at greater risk for RTM as their baseline values are lower than the overall population mean.

Objective: The aim was to calculate and apply RTM to a previously conducted iron supplementation trial of women in Cambodia at increasingly severe baseline anemia cutoffs (hemoglobin <120 g/L, <115 g/L, and <110 g/L).

Methods: Women received either 60 mg/d iron (= 191) or placebo (= 185) for 12 wk. Hemoglobin was measured at baseline and at 12 wk (endline), and change in hemoglobin was calculated in each group for each cutoff. RTM was calculated in the placebo group at each cutoff and applied to the change observed at each cutoff in the iron group to obtain the RTM-free effect.

Results: In the placebo group, mean change in hemoglobin increased as cutoffs became more extreme (0.9 g/L to 1.9 g/L in those with baseline hemoglobin <120 g/L and <110 g/L, respectively). RTM estimates similarly increased: 1.0 g/L (<120 g/L), 1.3 g/L (<115 g/L), and 1.8 g/L (<110g/L). When applying RTM to the iron group, we found that ∼10% of the "treatment effect" could be attributable to RTM at each cutoff. However, iron supplementation was still effective in increasing hemoglobin, with an increased effect in those with lower baseline values, as proven by the RTM-free effect at each cutoff: 8.7 g/L (<120 g/L), 10.9 g/L (<115 g/L), and 13.6g/L (<110 g/L).

Conclusions: RTM may have accounted for ∼10% of the observed change in hemoglobin following iron supplementation; however, appropriate use of a placebo group in the statistical analyses of the trial controls for this potential RTM effect.
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October 2020

The Homozygous Hemoglobin EE Variant Is Associated with Poorer Riboflavin Status in Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age.

J Nutr 2020 07;150(7):1943-1950

Department of Food, Nutrition and Health, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Riboflavin is required for erythropoiesis, which is increased in people with hemoglobinopathies due to increased hemolysis and erythrocyte turnover. Dietary intake and status of riboflavin is poor in Cambodia, where hemoglobinopathies are common.

Objective: We assessed the association between genetic hemoglobin disorders and riboflavin status in women of reproductive age in Cambodia.

Methods: Venous blood samples from 515 Cambodian women of reproductive age, 18-45 y, were analyzed for biomarker status of riboflavin [erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRac)], genetic hemoglobin (Hb) disorders, and hematological indices. Linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association between EGRac with Hb, ferritin, and Hb genotypes. EGRac was log transformed in the analyses, and the regression coefficients represent the geometric mean differences.

Results: Genetic Hb disorders were present in 57% of the population, with the homozygous hemoglobin E variant (Hb EE) occurring in ∼10% of women (n = 53). Deficient (EGRac ≥1.40) or marginal riboflavin status (EGRac ≥1.30 and <1.40) was observed in 92% (n = 475) of women. The variant Hb EE genotype was associated with 18% (95% CI: 9%, 28%) higher geometric mean EGRac values than the normal Hb AA genotype (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Although riboflavin biomarker deficiency or marginal status is widely prevalent in Cambodian women, lower riboflavin status was observed more frequently in women with the Hb EE genotype than in women with normal Hb AA. The relation between genetic Hb disorders and riboflavin warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at as NCT01593423 and NCT02481375.
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July 2020