Publications by authors named "Jordi Alonso"

375 Publications

Routine provision of feedback from patient-reported outcome measurements to healthcare providers and patients in clinical practice.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Oct 12;10:CD011589. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Health Services & Policy Research, Exeter Collaboration for Academic Primary Care (APEx), NIHR School for Primary Care Research, NIHR ARC South West Peninsula (PenARC), University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: Patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) assess a patient's subjective appraisal of health outcomes from their own perspective. Despite hypothesised benefits that feedback  on PROMs can support decision-making in clinical practice and improve outcomes, there is uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness of PROMs feedback.

Objectives: To assess the effects of PROMs feedback to patients, or healthcare workers, or both on patient-reported health outcomes and processes of care.

Search Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, two other databases and two clinical trial registries on 5 October 2020. We searched grey literature and consulted experts in the field.

Selection Criteria: Two review authors independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. We included randomised trials directly comparing the effects on outcomes and processes of care of PROMs feedback to healthcare professionals and patients, or both with the impact of not providing such information.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two groups of two authors independently extracted data from the included studies and evaluated study quality. We followed standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. We conducted meta-analyses of the results where possible.

Main Results: We identified 116 randomised trials which assessed the effectiveness of PROMs feedback in improving processes or outcomes of care, or both in a broad range of disciplines including psychiatry, primary care, and oncology. Studies were conducted across diverse ambulatory primary and secondary care settings in North America, Europe and Australasia. A total of 49,785 patients were included across all the studies. The certainty of the evidence varied between very low and moderate. Many of the studies included in the review were at risk of performance and detection bias. The evidence suggests moderate certainty that PROMs feedback probably improves quality of life (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.26; 11 studies; 2687 participants), and leads to an increase in patient-physician communication (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.52; 5 studies; 658 participants), diagnosis and notation (risk ratio (RR) 1.73, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.08; 21 studies; 7223 participants), and disease control (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.41; 14 studies; 2806 participants). The intervention probably makes little or no difference for general health perceptions (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.24; 2 studies, 552 participants; low-certainty evidence), social functioning (SMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.09; 15 studies; 2632 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and pain (SMD 0.00, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.08; 9 studies; 2386 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of PROMs feedback on physical functioning (14 studies; 2788 participants) and mental functioning (34 studies; 7782 participants), as well as fatigue (4 studies; 741 participants), as the certainty of the evidence was very low. We did not find studies reporting on adverse effects defined as distress following or related to PROM completion.

Authors' Conclusions: PROM feedback probably produces moderate improvements in communication between healthcare professionals and patients as well as in diagnosis and notation, and disease control, and small improvements to quality of life. Our confidence in the effects is limited by the risk of bias, heterogeneity and small number of trials conducted to assess outcomes of interest. It is unclear whether   many of these improvements are clinically meaningful or sustainable in the long term. There is a need for more high-quality studies in this area, particularly studies which employ cluster designs and utilise techniques to maintain allocation concealment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011589.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8509115PMC
October 2021

Individual and population level estimates of work loss and related economic costs due to mental and substance use disorders in Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil.

J Affect Disord 2021 Sep 25;296:198-207. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Social Medicine, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Av. Marechal Campos 1468; Vitória/ES - Brazil; Post graduate Program in Public Health, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Brazil.

Background: We estimate work loss and economic costs due to mental and substance use disorders in the economically active population of the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil.

Methods: The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey assessed a population-based sample of 3,007 economically active residents using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2 to investigate, respectively, 12-month psychiatric disorders, work performance, and economic costs.

Results: Absenteeism over the past 12 months was reported by 12.6%, and presenteeism by 14.7% (qualitative loss) and 13.1% (quantitative loss). Having any mental disorder was associated with 17.6 days of absenteeism and 37.7 days of reduced-qualitative and/or quantitative functioning. Fourteen mental disorders were significantly associated with work loss, with odds ratios ranging from 2.3 for adult separation anxiety to 40.4 for oppositional defiant disorder. At a population-level, oppositional defiant disorder, panic disorder, attention deficit disorder, and dysthymia contributed to the largest costs. The total annual economic costs were USD $83.2 billion/year, representing 6.1% of Brazil's Gross Domestic Product in 2007.

Limitations: Diagnosis of mental disorders was based on self-reported symptoms. Work loss assessment was restricted to 30 days before the interview and may not fully represents the annual real experience and symptoms of the respondents which would lead to an overestimation of the burden.

Conclusions: Mental disorders impose a great negative impact on work performance and functioning, with a consequent high economic burden, pointing to the need of implementing cost-effective interventions to prevent work loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.09.070DOI Listing
September 2021

The Association Between Substance Use Disorder and Depression During the COVID-19 Lockdown in Spain and the Moderating Role of Social Support: a Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Ment Health Addict 2021 Sep 27:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Teaching, Research & Innovation Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona Spain.

Substance use disorder is on the rise; it has increased massively during the COVID-19 lockdown and has been found as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder. Less is known about the hypothetical moderating effect of social support in that association. Three thousand five hundred Spanish adults were interviewed by phone during the COVID-19 lockdown (May-June 2020). The 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8) was used to measure the symptoms of depression. The CAGE Adapted to Include Drugs (CAGE-AID) questionnaire was used to assess substance use disorder during the previous month. Social support was measured through the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSSS-3). Regression models were constructed to assess factors related to depressive symptoms. People with substance use disorder (alcohol and drugs) showed considerable high levels of depressive symptoms, particularly among those with low levels of social support, which reported levels above major depressive disorder cut-off.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11469-021-00651-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475446PMC
September 2021

Economic impact of treatment-resistant depression: A retrospective observational study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Aug 27;295:578-586. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Bipolar and Depressive Disorders Unit, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: To determine the incidence of Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD) in Spain and to estimate its economic burden, using real world data.

Methods: A retrospective, observational-study was carried out using data from the BIG-PAC database®. Patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of major depressive-disorder (MDD) who initiated a new antidepressant treatment in 2015-2017 were included. The patients were classified as TRD and non-TRD. Patients were classified as TRD if they had, during the first year of antidepressant treatment: a) failure with ≥2 antidepressants including the prescription of ≥3 antidepressants (N06A) or ≥2 antidepressant and ≥1 antipsychotic (N05A; including lithium) b) antidepressants administered for ≥ 4 weeks each, and c) the time between the end of one treatment and the initiation of the next was ≤ 90 days. Inherent limitations of data collection from databases should also be considered in this analysis (e.g., lack of information about adherence to treatment). Follow-up period: 18 months. The incidence rate was calculated as the number of TRD patients per 1,000 persons-year divided by the population attended.

Outcomes: direct healthcare and indirect costs. Two sensitivity analyses were performed varying the index date and the period used to define TRD patients (6 vs.12 months).

Results: 21,630 patients with MDD aged ≥ 18 years (mean age: 53.2 years; female: 67.2%) were analyzed, of whom 3,559 met TRD criteria, yielding a 3-year cumulative incidence of 16.5% (95%CI: 16%-17%) among MDD patients. The annual population incidence rate of TRD in 2015-2017, was 0.59, 1.02 and 1.18/1,000 person-years, respectively (mean: 0.93/1,000 person-year). Overall, mean total costs per MDD patient were €4,147.9, being higher for TRD than for non-TRD patients (€6,096 vs. €3,846; p<0.001): a) direct costs (€1,341 vs. €624; p<0.001), b) lost productivity (€1,274 vs. €821; p<0.001) and c) permanent disability (€3,481 vs. €2,401; p<0.001, adjusted). Sensitivity analyses showed no differences with the reported results.

Conclusions: The population based TRD incidence in Spain was similar to recent data from other European countries. TRD is associated with greater resource use and higher costs compared with non-TRD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.08.036DOI Listing
August 2021

Economic impact of treatment-resistant depression: A retrospective observational study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Aug 27;295:578-586. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Bipolar and Depressive Disorders Unit, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: To determine the incidence of Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD) in Spain and to estimate its economic burden, using real world data.

Methods: A retrospective, observational-study was carried out using data from the BIG-PAC database®. Patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of major depressive-disorder (MDD) who initiated a new antidepressant treatment in 2015-2017 were included. The patients were classified as TRD and non-TRD. Patients were classified as TRD if they had, during the first year of antidepressant treatment: a) failure with ≥2 antidepressants including the prescription of ≥3 antidepressants (N06A) or ≥2 antidepressant and ≥1 antipsychotic (N05A; including lithium) b) antidepressants administered for ≥ 4 weeks each, and c) the time between the end of one treatment and the initiation of the next was ≤ 90 days. Inherent limitations of data collection from databases should also be considered in this analysis (e.g., lack of information about adherence to treatment). Follow-up period: 18 months. The incidence rate was calculated as the number of TRD patients per 1,000 persons-year divided by the population attended.

Outcomes: direct healthcare and indirect costs. Two sensitivity analyses were performed varying the index date and the period used to define TRD patients (6 vs.12 months).

Results: 21,630 patients with MDD aged ≥ 18 years (mean age: 53.2 years; female: 67.2%) were analyzed, of whom 3,559 met TRD criteria, yielding a 3-year cumulative incidence of 16.5% (95%CI: 16%-17%) among MDD patients. The annual population incidence rate of TRD in 2015-2017, was 0.59, 1.02 and 1.18/1,000 person-years, respectively (mean: 0.93/1,000 person-year). Overall, mean total costs per MDD patient were €4,147.9, being higher for TRD than for non-TRD patients (€6,096 vs. €3,846; p<0.001): a) direct costs (€1,341 vs. €624; p<0.001), b) lost productivity (€1,274 vs. €821; p<0.001) and c) permanent disability (€3,481 vs. €2,401; p<0.001, adjusted). Sensitivity analyses showed no differences with the reported results.

Conclusions: The population based TRD incidence in Spain was similar to recent data from other European countries. TRD is associated with greater resource use and higher costs compared with non-TRD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.08.036DOI Listing
August 2021

Economic impact of treatment-resistant depression: A retrospective observational study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Aug 27;295:578-586. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Bipolar and Depressive Disorders Unit, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: To determine the incidence of Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD) in Spain and to estimate its economic burden, using real world data.

Methods: A retrospective, observational-study was carried out using data from the BIG-PAC database®. Patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of major depressive-disorder (MDD) who initiated a new antidepressant treatment in 2015-2017 were included. The patients were classified as TRD and non-TRD. Patients were classified as TRD if they had, during the first year of antidepressant treatment: a) failure with ≥2 antidepressants including the prescription of ≥3 antidepressants (N06A) or ≥2 antidepressant and ≥1 antipsychotic (N05A; including lithium) b) antidepressants administered for ≥ 4 weeks each, and c) the time between the end of one treatment and the initiation of the next was ≤ 90 days. Inherent limitations of data collection from databases should also be considered in this analysis (e.g., lack of information about adherence to treatment). Follow-up period: 18 months. The incidence rate was calculated as the number of TRD patients per 1,000 persons-year divided by the population attended.

Outcomes: direct healthcare and indirect costs. Two sensitivity analyses were performed varying the index date and the period used to define TRD patients (6 vs.12 months).

Results: 21,630 patients with MDD aged ≥ 18 years (mean age: 53.2 years; female: 67.2%) were analyzed, of whom 3,559 met TRD criteria, yielding a 3-year cumulative incidence of 16.5% (95%CI: 16%-17%) among MDD patients. The annual population incidence rate of TRD in 2015-2017, was 0.59, 1.02 and 1.18/1,000 person-years, respectively (mean: 0.93/1,000 person-year). Overall, mean total costs per MDD patient were €4,147.9, being higher for TRD than for non-TRD patients (€6,096 vs. €3,846; p<0.001): a) direct costs (€1,341 vs. €624; p<0.001), b) lost productivity (€1,274 vs. €821; p<0.001) and c) permanent disability (€3,481 vs. €2,401; p<0.001, adjusted). Sensitivity analyses showed no differences with the reported results.

Conclusions: The population based TRD incidence in Spain was similar to recent data from other European countries. TRD is associated with greater resource use and higher costs compared with non-TRD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.08.036DOI Listing
August 2021

Perceived helpfulness of treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: a World Mental Health Surveys report.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 08 9;21(1):392. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Treatment guidelines for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are based on a relatively small number of randomized controlled trials and do not consider patient-centered perceptions of treatment helpfulness. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of patient-reported treatment helpfulness for DSM-5 GAD and its two main treatment pathways: encounter-level treatment helpfulness and persistence in help-seeking after prior unhelpful treatment.

Methods: Data came from community epidemiologic surveys in 23 countries in the WHO World Mental Health surveys. DSM-5 GAD was assessed with the fully structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0. Respondents with a history of GAD were asked whether they ever received treatment and, if so, whether they ever considered this treatment helpful. Number of professionals seen before obtaining helpful treatment was also assessed. Parallel survival models estimated probability and predictors of a given treatment being perceived as helpful and of persisting in help-seeking after prior unhelpful treatment.

Results: The overall prevalence rate of GAD was 4.5%, with lower prevalence in low/middle-income countries (2.8%) than high-income countries (5.3%); 34.6% of respondents with lifetime GAD reported ever obtaining treatment for their GAD, with lower proportions in low/middle-income countries (19.2%) than high-income countries (38.4%); 3) 70% of those who received treatment perceived the treatment to be helpful, with prevalence comparable in low/middle-income countries and high-income countries. Survival analysis suggested that virtually all patients would have obtained helpful treatment if they had persisted in help-seeking with up to 10 professionals. However, we estimated that only 29.7% of patients would have persisted that long. Obtaining helpful treatment at the person-level was associated with treatment type, comorbid panic/agoraphobia, and childhood adversities, but most of these predictors were important because they predicted persistence rather than encounter-level treatment helpfulness.

Conclusions: The majority of individuals with GAD do not receive treatment. Most of those who receive treatment regard it as helpful, but receiving helpful treatment typically requires persistence in help-seeking. Future research should focus on ensuring that helpfulness is included as part of the evaluation. Clinicians need to emphasize the importance of persistence to patients beginning treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03363-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351147PMC
August 2021

Adaptation and psychometric validation of Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) in patients with type 2 diabetes in Quito, Ecuador: a cross-sectional study.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Jul 31;19(1):189. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Public Health, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Sant Joan d'Alacant, Alicante, Spain.

Introduction: The Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18), structured in three dimensions (psychological distress (PD), barriers to activity (BA) and disinhibited eating (DE)), assesses the psychological and behavioural burden of living with type 2 diabetes. The objectives were to adapt the DHP-18 linguistically and culturally for use with patients with type 2 DM in Ecuador, and to evaluate its psychometric properties.

Methods: Participants were recruited using purposive sampling through patient clubs at primary health centres in Quito, Ecuador. The DHP-18 validation consisted in the linguistic validation made by two Ecuadorian doctors and eight patient interviews. And in the psychometric validation, where participants provided clinical and sociodemographic data and responded to the SF-12v2 health survey and the linguistically and culturally adapted version of the DHP-18. The original measurement model was evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Reliability was assessed through internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reproducibility by administering DHP-18 in a random subgroup of the participants two weeks after (n = 75) using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Convergent validity was assessed by establishing previous hypotheses of the expected correlations with the SF12v2 using Spearman's coefficient.

Results: Firstly, the DHP-18 was linguistically and culturally adapted. Secondly, in the psychometric validation, we included 146 participants, 58.2% female, the mean age was 56.8 and 31% had diabetes complications. The CFA indicated a good fit to the original three factor model (χ2 (132) = 162.738, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.990; TLI = 0.989; SRMR = 0.086 and RMSEA = 0.040. The BA dimension showed the lowest standardized factorial loads (λ) (ranging from 0.21 to 0.77), while λ ranged from 0.57 to 0.89 and from 0.46 to 0.73, for the PD and DE dimensions respectively. Cronbach's alphas were 0.81, 0.63 and 0.74 and ICCs 0.70, 0.57 and 0.62 for PD, BA and DE, respectively. Regarding convergent validity, we observed weaker correlations than expected between DHP-18 dimensions and SF-12v2 dimensions (r > -0.40 in two of three hypotheses).

Conclusions: The original three factor model showed good fit to the data. Although reliability parameters were adequate for PD and DE dimensions, the BA presented lower internal consistency and future analysis should verify the applicability and cultural equivalence of some of the items of this dimension to Ecuador.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-021-01818-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325239PMC
July 2021

Study Protocol-Coping With the Pandemics: What Works Best to Reduce Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

Front Psychiatry 2021 2;12:642763. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and lockdown might increase anxiety and depressive symptoms in most individuals. Health bodies recommend several coping behaviors to protect against such symptoms, but evidence on the relationship between these behaviors and symptoms mostly comes from cross-sectional studies in convenience samples. We will conduct a prospective longitudinal study of the associations between coping behaviors and subsequent anxiety and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in a representative sample of the Spanish general adult population. We will recruit 1,000 adult participants from all autonomous communities of Spain and with sex, age, and urbanicity distributions similar to those of their populations and assess anxiety and depressive symptoms and coping behaviors using fortnightly questionnaires and real-time methods (ecological momentary assessments) for 1 year. The fortnightly questionnaires will inquire about anxiety and depressive symptoms [General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)] and the frequency of 10 potential coping behaviors (e.g., follow a routine) during the past 2 weeks. In addition, we will collect several variables that could confound or moderate these associations. These will include subjective well-being [International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form (I-PANAS-SF) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)], obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R)], personality and emotional intelligence [International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF)], sociodemographic factors (e.g., work status, housing-built environment), and COVID-19 pandemic-related variables (e.g., hospitalizations or limitations in social gatherings). Finally, to analyze the primary relationship between coping behaviors and subsequent anxiety and depressive symptoms, we will use autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models. Based on the study results, we will develop evidence-based, clear, and specific recommendations on coping behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Such suggestions might eventually help health bodies or individuals to manage current or future pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.642763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282901PMC
July 2021

Study Protocol-Coping With the Pandemics: What Works Best to Reduce Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

Front Psychiatry 2021 2;12:642763. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and lockdown might increase anxiety and depressive symptoms in most individuals. Health bodies recommend several coping behaviors to protect against such symptoms, but evidence on the relationship between these behaviors and symptoms mostly comes from cross-sectional studies in convenience samples. We will conduct a prospective longitudinal study of the associations between coping behaviors and subsequent anxiety and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in a representative sample of the Spanish general adult population. We will recruit 1,000 adult participants from all autonomous communities of Spain and with sex, age, and urbanicity distributions similar to those of their populations and assess anxiety and depressive symptoms and coping behaviors using fortnightly questionnaires and real-time methods (ecological momentary assessments) for 1 year. The fortnightly questionnaires will inquire about anxiety and depressive symptoms [General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)] and the frequency of 10 potential coping behaviors (e.g., follow a routine) during the past 2 weeks. In addition, we will collect several variables that could confound or moderate these associations. These will include subjective well-being [International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form (I-PANAS-SF) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)], obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R)], personality and emotional intelligence [International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF)], sociodemographic factors (e.g., work status, housing-built environment), and COVID-19 pandemic-related variables (e.g., hospitalizations or limitations in social gatherings). Finally, to analyze the primary relationship between coping behaviors and subsequent anxiety and depressive symptoms, we will use autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models. Based on the study results, we will develop evidence-based, clear, and specific recommendations on coping behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Such suggestions might eventually help health bodies or individuals to manage current or future pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.642763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282901PMC
July 2021

Study Protocol-Coping With the Pandemics: What Works Best to Reduce Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

Front Psychiatry 2021 2;12:642763. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and lockdown might increase anxiety and depressive symptoms in most individuals. Health bodies recommend several coping behaviors to protect against such symptoms, but evidence on the relationship between these behaviors and symptoms mostly comes from cross-sectional studies in convenience samples. We will conduct a prospective longitudinal study of the associations between coping behaviors and subsequent anxiety and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in a representative sample of the Spanish general adult population. We will recruit 1,000 adult participants from all autonomous communities of Spain and with sex, age, and urbanicity distributions similar to those of their populations and assess anxiety and depressive symptoms and coping behaviors using fortnightly questionnaires and real-time methods (ecological momentary assessments) for 1 year. The fortnightly questionnaires will inquire about anxiety and depressive symptoms [General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)] and the frequency of 10 potential coping behaviors (e.g., follow a routine) during the past 2 weeks. In addition, we will collect several variables that could confound or moderate these associations. These will include subjective well-being [International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form (I-PANAS-SF) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)], obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R)], personality and emotional intelligence [International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF)], sociodemographic factors (e.g., work status, housing-built environment), and COVID-19 pandemic-related variables (e.g., hospitalizations or limitations in social gatherings). Finally, to analyze the primary relationship between coping behaviors and subsequent anxiety and depressive symptoms, we will use autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models. Based on the study results, we will develop evidence-based, clear, and specific recommendations on coping behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Such suggestions might eventually help health bodies or individuals to manage current or future pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.642763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282901PMC
July 2021

Reply to the concerns raised by McKenna and Heaney about COSMIN.

J Med Econ 2021 Jan-Dec;24(1):857-859

Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2021.1948231DOI Listing
October 2021

The association of detachment with affective disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown: The role of living situation and social support.

J Affect Disord 2021 09 8;292:464-470. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Sociology, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: There is growing concern about the effect of lockdown and social distancing on mental health. Subjective feelings related to social relationships such as detachment have shown a strong effect on mental health, whereas objective factors might have a moderating role in that association.

Objective: To investigate whether social support and living situation have a moderating effect on the association between detachment and affective disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown.

Methods: 3,305 Spanish adults were interviewed by phone at the end of the COVID-19 lockdown (May-June 2020). Detachment during confinement was assessed with a single-item frequency question. Anxiety symptoms were measured through GAD-7, depressive symptoms through PHQ-9, and social support through the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSSS). Associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms were tested through Tobit regression models. Interactions of detachment with living situation and social support were tested as independent variables.

Results: People living alone showed significantly lower levels of anxiety whereas people living with another (but not as a couple) showed higher levels of depression. Detachment was strongly associated with both affective disorders. Social support had a statistically significant moderating effect on that association. Those with a low level of social support and a high level of detachment reported means of depression and anxiety above major depression (10.5 CI 95% 9.6, 11.4 at OSSS=10) and generalized anxiety disorders (10.1 CI 95% 9.2, 11.0 at OSSS=9) cut offs CONCLUSION: Interventions centered on improving social support could alleviate feelings of detachment and prevent affective disorders during lockdowns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.05.125DOI Listing
September 2021

The association of detachment with affective disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown: The role of living situation and social support.

J Affect Disord 2021 09 8;292:464-470. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Sociology, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: There is growing concern about the effect of lockdown and social distancing on mental health. Subjective feelings related to social relationships such as detachment have shown a strong effect on mental health, whereas objective factors might have a moderating role in that association.

Objective: To investigate whether social support and living situation have a moderating effect on the association between detachment and affective disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown.

Methods: 3,305 Spanish adults were interviewed by phone at the end of the COVID-19 lockdown (May-June 2020). Detachment during confinement was assessed with a single-item frequency question. Anxiety symptoms were measured through GAD-7, depressive symptoms through PHQ-9, and social support through the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSSS). Associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms were tested through Tobit regression models. Interactions of detachment with living situation and social support were tested as independent variables.

Results: People living alone showed significantly lower levels of anxiety whereas people living with another (but not as a couple) showed higher levels of depression. Detachment was strongly associated with both affective disorders. Social support had a statistically significant moderating effect on that association. Those with a low level of social support and a high level of detachment reported means of depression and anxiety above major depression (10.5 CI 95% 9.6, 11.4 at OSSS=10) and generalized anxiety disorders (10.1 CI 95% 9.2, 11.0 at OSSS=9) cut offs CONCLUSION: Interventions centered on improving social support could alleviate feelings of detachment and prevent affective disorders during lockdowns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.05.125DOI Listing
September 2021

Mental health impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic on Spanish healthcare workers: A large cross-sectional survey.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):90-105

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Healthcare workers are vulnerable to adverse mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed prevalence of mental disorders and associated factors during the first wave of the pandemic among healthcare professionals in Spain.

Methods: All workers in 18 healthcare institutions (6 AACC) in Spain were invited to web-based surveys assessing individual characteristics, COVID-19 infection status and exposure, and mental health status (May 5 - September 7, 2020). We report: probable current mental disorders (Major Depressive Disorder-MDD- [PHQ-8≥10], Generalized Anxiety Disorder-GAD- [GAD-7≥10], Panic attacks, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -PTSD- [PCL-5≥7]; and Substance Use Disorder -SUD-[CAGE-AID≥2]. Severe disability assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale was used to identify probable "disabling" current mental disorders.

Results: 9,138 healthcare workers participated. Prevalence of screen-positive disorder: 28.1% MDD; 22.5% GAD, 24.0% Panic; 22.2% PTSD; and 6.2% SUD. Overall 45.7% presented any current and 14.5% any disabling current mental disorder. Workers with pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders had almost twice the prevalence than those without. Adjusting for all other variables, odds of any disabling mental disorder were: prior lifetime disorders (TUS: OR=5.74; 95%CI 2.53-13.03; Mood: OR=3.23; 95%CI:2.27-4.60; Anxiety: OR=3.03; 95%CI:2.53-3.62); age category 18-29 years (OR=1.36; 95%CI:1.02-1.82), caring "all of the time" for COVID-19 patients (OR=5.19; 95%CI: 3.61-7.46), female gender (OR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.27-1.96) and having being in quarantine or isolated (OR= 1.60; 95CI:1.31-1.95).

Conclusions: One in seven Spanish healthcare workers screened positive for a disabling mental disorder during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers reporting pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders, those frequently exposed to COVID-19 patients, infected or quarantined/isolated, female workers, and auxiliary nurses should be considered groups in need of mental health monitoring and support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsmen.2021.05.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Positive screens for mental disorders among healthcare professionals during the first covid19 wave in Belgium.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 08 29;140:329-336. Epub 2021 May 29.

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KULeuven, Belgium.

We examined the manifestation of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and panic attacks among health care professionals during the first COVID-19 wave (n = 6409) by means of mental disorder screening instruments. Logistic regressions were used to gauge individual risk factors; population attributable risk proportions (PARP) were inferred to identify the most important risk factors at the societal level. Data were weighted to represent general profiles of Belgian health care professionals. Lifetime, pre-pandemic emotional problems and work-related factors during the first wave of COVID-19 were strongly associated (mean adjusted odds ratios of 3.79 and 1.47, respectively) with positive screens for current mental disorders (occurrence of 29.3%). Most prominently, the data suggest that disruptions of work-life balance account for more than a quarter of the observed mental health problems due to the combination of widespread occurrence and strong association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.05.024DOI Listing
August 2021

Positive screens for mental disorders among healthcare professionals during the first covid19 wave in Belgium.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 08 29;140:329-336. Epub 2021 May 29.

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KULeuven, Belgium.

We examined the manifestation of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and panic attacks among health care professionals during the first COVID-19 wave (n = 6409) by means of mental disorder screening instruments. Logistic regressions were used to gauge individual risk factors; population attributable risk proportions (PARP) were inferred to identify the most important risk factors at the societal level. Data were weighted to represent general profiles of Belgian health care professionals. Lifetime, pre-pandemic emotional problems and work-related factors during the first wave of COVID-19 were strongly associated (mean adjusted odds ratios of 3.79 and 1.47, respectively) with positive screens for current mental disorders (occurrence of 29.3%). Most prominently, the data suggest that disruptions of work-life balance account for more than a quarter of the observed mental health problems due to the combination of widespread occurrence and strong association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.05.024DOI Listing
August 2021

Validation of an Online Version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for Alcohol Screening in Spanish University Students.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 14;18(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Health Services Research Group, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques), 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Online alcohol screening may be helpful in preventing alcohol use disorders. We assessed psychometric properties of an online version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) among Spanish university students. We used a longitudinal online survey (the UNIVERSAL project) of first-year students (18-24 years old) in five universities, including the AUDIT, as part of the WHO World Mental Health International College Student (WMH-ICS) initiative. A reappraisal interview was carried out with the Timeline Followback (TLFB) for alcohol consumption categories and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for alcohol use disorder. Reliability, construct validity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. Results: 287 students (75% women) completed the MINI, of whom 242 also completed the TLFB. AUDIT's Cronbach's alpha was 0.82. The confirmatory factor analysis for the one-factor solution of the AUDIT showed a good fit to the data. Significant AUDIT score differences were observed by TLFB categories and by MINI disorders. Areas under the curve (AUC) were very large for dependence (AUC = 0.96) and adequate for consumption categories (AUC > 0.7). AUDIT cut-off points of 6/8 (women/men) for moderate-risk drinking and 13 for alcohol dependence showed sensitivity/specificity of 76.2%/78.9% and 56%/97.5%, respectively. The online version of the AUDIT is useful for detecting alcohol consumption categories and alcohol dependence in Spanish university students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156263PMC
May 2021

Epidemiology and costs of depressive disorder in Spain: the EPICO study.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Sep 29;50:93-103. Epub 2021 May 29.

Mental Health and Psychiatric Care Research Group, Biodonostia Health Research Institute Osakidetza, San Sebastian, Spain.

Depressive Disorders are the most common psychiatric diagnoses in the general population. To estimate the frequency, costs associated with Depressive Disorders in usual clinical practice, and in the whole Spanish population, a longitudinal, retrospective, observational study was carried out using data from the BIG-PAC database®. Study population: all patients aged ≥ 18 years with a diagnosis of a Depressive Disorder in 2015-2017. Prevalence was computed as the proportion of Depressive Disorder cases in the adult general population, and the incidence rate, as the number of new Depressive Disorder cases diagnosed per 1,000 person-years in the population using health services, during 2015-2017. We collected demographic variables, comorbidity, direct health costs, and indirect costs (temporary and permanent disability). Health costs related to Depressive Disorders were estimated according to the annual resource use rate (resource/patient/year). Indirect costs were calculated according to the human capital method. Using the study data and information from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics, we estimated the cost of Depressive Disorders corresponding to the Spanish adult population, including premature mortality. 69,217 Depressive Disorder patients aged ≥ 18 years who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were studied (mean age: 56.8 years; female: 71.4%). Prevalence of Depressive Disorders in the general population was 4.73% (95% CI: 4.70-4.76%). Annual incidence rates (2015-2017) were 7.12, 7.35 and 8.02 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Total costs observed in our Depressive Disorder patients were € 223.9 million (corresponding to a mean of € 3,235.3; mean/patient/year), of which, 18.4% were direct health care costs and 81.6%, non-health indirect costs (18% temporary occupational disability, 63.6% permanent disability). Considering also the cost of premature death, the mean cost per patient/year was € 3,402 and the estimated societal costs of Depressive Disorders in Spain were € 6,145 million. The prevalence and incidence of Depressive Disorders are consistent with other series reviewed. Resource use and total costs (especially non-health costs) were high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.04.022DOI Listing
September 2021

Prevalence and variability of current depressive disorder in 27 European countries: a population-based study.

Lancet Public Health 2021 Oct 4;6(10):e729-e738. Epub 2021 May 4.

CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain; Health Services Research Group, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current depressive disorder in 27 European countries, and to explore differences in prevalence between European countries and by gender.

Methods: In this population-based study, we analysed data from respondents living in 27 European countries who were included in the second wave of the European Health Interview Survey, collected between 2013 and 2015. We assessed the prevalence of current depressive disorder using the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), with depressive disorder defined as a PHQ-8 score of 10 or higher. Prevalence estimates and 95% CIs were calculated for all 27 countries overall and for each country individually. We assessed variation in prevalence (country vs the rest of Europe) using crude and adjusted prevalence ratios obtained from negative binomial regression models. We did all analyses for the total sample and stratified by gender.

Findings: Our analysis sample comprised 258 888 individuals, of whom 117 310 (weighted proportion 47·8%) were men and 141 578 (52·2%) were women. The overall prevalence of current depressive disorder was 6·38% (95% CI 6·24-6·52) with important variation across countries, ranging from 2·58% (2·14-3·02) in the Czech Republic to 10·33% (9·33-11·32) in Iceland. Prevalence was higher in women (7·74% [7·53-7·95]) than in men (4·89% [4·71-5·08]), with clear gender differences for all countries except Finland and Croatia. Compared with the other European countries in our sample, those with the highest adjusted prevalence ratios were Germany (1·80 [1·71-1·89]) and Luxembourg (1·50 [1·35-1·66]), and those with the lowest adjusted prevalence ratios were Slovakia (0·28 [0·24-0·33]) and the Czech Republic (0·32 [0·27-0·38]).

Interpretation: Depressive disorders, although common across Europe, vary substantially in prevalence between countries. These results could be a baseline for monitoring the prevalence of current depressive disorder both at a country level in Europe and for planning health-care resources and services.

Funding: UK Medical Research Council and CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00047-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8460452PMC
October 2021

Perceived helpfulness of treatment for specific phobia: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys.

J Affect Disord 2021 06 20;288:199-209. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Although randomized trials show that specific phobia treatments can be effective, it is unclear whether patients experience treatment as helpful in clinical practice. We investigated this issue by assessing perceived treatment helpfulness for specific phobia in a cross-national epidemiological survey.

Methods: Cross-sectional population-based WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys in 24 countries (n=112,507) assessed lifetime specific phobia. Respondents who met lifetime criteria were asked whether they ever received treatment they considered helpful and the number of professionals seen up to the time of receiving helpful treatment. Discrete-event survival analysis was used to calculate conditional-cumulative probabilities of obtaining helpful treatment across number of professionals seen and of persisting in help-seeking after prior unhelpful treatment.

Results: 23.0% of respondents reported receiving helpful treatment from the first professional seen, whereas cumulative probability of receiving helpful treatment was 85.7% after seeing up to 9 professionals. However, only 14.7% of patients persisted in seeing up to 9 professionals, resulting in the proportion of patients ever receiving helpful treatment (47.5%) being much lower than it could have been with persistence in help-seeking. Few predictors were found either of perceived helpfulness or of persistence in help-seeking after earlier unhelpful treatments.

Limitations: Retrospective recall and lack of information about either types of treatments received or objective symptomatic improvements limit results.

Conclusions: Despite these limitations, results suggest that helpfulness of specific phobia treatment could be increased, perhaps substantially, by increasing patient persistence in help-seeking after earlier unhelpful treatments. Improved understanding is needed of barriers to help-seeking persistence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154701PMC
June 2021

Mental well-being of the general population: direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic, relational and health factors.

Qual Life Res 2021 Aug 13;30(8):2171-2185. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Health Services Research Group, Epidemiology and Public Health Program, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Carrer del Doctor Aiguader, 88, PRBB Building, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between individual mental well-being and social, economic, lifestyle and health factors.

Methods: Cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 13,632 participants (> 15y/o) from the Catalan Health Interview Survey 2013-2016 editions. Mental well-being was assessed with the Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). Linear regressions were fitted to associate well-being and sociodemographic, relational, lifestyle and health variables according to minimally sufficient adjustment sets identified using directed acyclic graphs. Predictors entered the model in blocks of variable types and analysed individually. Direct and total effects were estimated.

Results: Health factors significantly contributed to mental well-being variance. Presence of a mental disorder and self-reported health had the largest effect size (eta = 13.4% and 16.3%). The higher individual impact from a variable came from social support (β = - 12.8, SE = 0.48, eta = 6.3%). A noticeable effect gradient (eta = 4.2%) from low to high mental well-being emerged according to economic difficulties (from β = 1.59, SE = 0.33 for moderate difficulties to β = 6.02 SE = 0.55 for no difficulties). Younger age (β = 5.21, SE = 0.26, eta = 3.4%) and being men (β = 1.32, SE = 0.15, eta = 0.6%) were associated with better mental well-being. Direct gender effects were negligible.

Conclusions: This study highlights health and social support as the most associated factors with individual mental well-being over socioeconomic factors. Interventions and policies aimed to these factors for health promotion would improve population mental well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02813-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298347PMC
August 2021

Perceived helpfulness of bipolar disorder treatment: Findings from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

Bipolar Disord 2021 Sep 28;23(6):565-583. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objectives: To examine patterns and predictors of perceived treatment helpfulness for mania/hypomania and associated depression in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

Methods: Face-to-face interviews with community samples across 15 countries found n = 2,178 who received lifetime mania/hypomania treatment and n = 624 with lifetime mania/hypomania who received lifetime major depression treatment. These respondents were asked whether treatment was ever helpful and, if so, the number of professionals seen before receiving helpful treatment. Patterns and predictors of treatment helpfulness were examined separately for mania/hypomania and depression.

Results: 63.1% (mania/hypomania) and 65.1% (depression) of patients reported ever receiving helpful treatment. However, only 24.5-22.5% were helped by the first professional seen, which means that the others needed to persist in help seeking after initial unhelpful treatments in order to find helpful treatment. Projections find only 22.9% (mania/hypomania) and 43.3% (depression) would persist through a series of unhelpful treatments but that the proportion helped would increase substantially if persistence increased. Few patient-level significant predictors of helpful treatment emerged and none consistently either across the two components (i.e., provider-level helpfulness and persistence after earlier unhelpful treatment) or for both mania/hypomania and depression. Although prevalence of treatment was higher in high-income than low/middle-income countries, proportional helpfulness among treated cases was nearly identical in the two groups of countries.

Conclusions: Probability of patients with mania/hypomania and associated depression obtaining helpful treatment might increase substantially if persistence in help-seeking increased after initially unhelpful treatments, although this could require seeing numerous additional treatment providers. In addition to investigating reasons for initial treatments not being helpful, messages reinforcing the importance of persistence should be emphasized to patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bdi.13066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387507PMC
September 2021

Perceived helpfulness of bipolar disorder treatment: Findings from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

Bipolar Disord 2021 Sep 28;23(6):565-583. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objectives: To examine patterns and predictors of perceived treatment helpfulness for mania/hypomania and associated depression in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

Methods: Face-to-face interviews with community samples across 15 countries found n = 2,178 who received lifetime mania/hypomania treatment and n = 624 with lifetime mania/hypomania who received lifetime major depression treatment. These respondents were asked whether treatment was ever helpful and, if so, the number of professionals seen before receiving helpful treatment. Patterns and predictors of treatment helpfulness were examined separately for mania/hypomania and depression.

Results: 63.1% (mania/hypomania) and 65.1% (depression) of patients reported ever receiving helpful treatment. However, only 24.5-22.5% were helped by the first professional seen, which means that the others needed to persist in help seeking after initial unhelpful treatments in order to find helpful treatment. Projections find only 22.9% (mania/hypomania) and 43.3% (depression) would persist through a series of unhelpful treatments but that the proportion helped would increase substantially if persistence increased. Few patient-level significant predictors of helpful treatment emerged and none consistently either across the two components (i.e., provider-level helpfulness and persistence after earlier unhelpful treatment) or for both mania/hypomania and depression. Although prevalence of treatment was higher in high-income than low/middle-income countries, proportional helpfulness among treated cases was nearly identical in the two groups of countries.

Conclusions: Probability of patients with mania/hypomania and associated depression obtaining helpful treatment might increase substantially if persistence in help-seeking increased after initially unhelpful treatments, although this could require seeing numerous additional treatment providers. In addition to investigating reasons for initial treatments not being helpful, messages reinforcing the importance of persistence should be emphasized to patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bdi.13066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387507PMC
September 2021

Diagnostic promiscuity: the use of real-world data to study multimorbidity in mental health.

Br J Psychiatry 2021 Jan 13:1-3. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neurosciences, King's College London, UK.

Mental health-related multimorbidity can be considered as multimorbidity in the presence of a mental disorder. Some knowledge gaps on the study of mental health-related multimorbidity were identified. These knowledge gaps could be potentially addressed with real-world data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2020.257DOI Listing
January 2021

Diagnostic promiscuity: the use of real-world data to study multimorbidity in mental health.

Br J Psychiatry 2021 Jan 13:1-3. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neurosciences, King's College London, UK.

Mental health-related multimorbidity can be considered as multimorbidity in the presence of a mental disorder. Some knowledge gaps on the study of mental health-related multimorbidity were identified. These knowledge gaps could be potentially addressed with real-world data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2020.257DOI Listing
January 2021

Mental health impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic on Spanish healthcare workers: A large cross-sectional survey.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):90-105. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Healthcare workers are vulnerable to adverse mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed prevalence of mental disorders and associated factors during the first wave of the pandemic among healthcare professionals in Spain.

Methods: All workers in 18 healthcare institutions (6 AACC) in Spain were invited to web-based surveys assessing individual characteristics, COVID-19 infection status and exposure, and mental health status (May 5 - September 7, 2020). We report: probable current mental disorders (Major Depressive Disorder-MDD- [PHQ-8≥10], Generalized Anxiety Disorder-GAD- [GAD-7≥10], Panic attacks, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -PTSD- [PCL-5≥7]; and Substance Use Disorder -SUD-[CAGE-AID≥2]. Severe disability assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale was used to identify probable "disabling" current mental disorders.

Results: 9,138 healthcare workers participated. Prevalence of screen-positive disorder: 28.1% MDD; 22.5% GAD, 24.0% Panic; 22.2% PTSD; and 6.2% SUD. Overall 45.7% presented any current and 14.5% any disabling current mental disorder. Workers with pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders had almost twice the prevalence than those without. Adjusting for all other variables, odds of any disabling mental disorder were: prior lifetime disorders (TUS: OR=5.74; 95%CI 2.53-13.03; Mood: OR=3.23; 95%CI:2.27-4.60; Anxiety: OR=3.03; 95%CI:2.53-3.62); age category 18-29 years (OR=1.36; 95%CI:1.02-1.82), caring "all of the time" for COVID-19 patients (OR=5.19; 95%CI: 3.61-7.46), female gender (OR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.27-1.96) and having being in quarantine or isolated (OR= 1.60; 95CI:1.31-1.95).

Conclusions: One in seven Spanish healthcare workers screened positive for a disabling mental disorder during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers reporting pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders, those frequently exposed to COVID-19 patients, infected or quarantined/isolated, female workers, and auxiliary nurses should be considered groups in need of mental health monitoring and support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsm.2020.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726524PMC
June 2021

Transdiagnostic development of internalizing psychopathology throughout the life course up to age 45: a World Mental Health Surveys report.

Psychol Med 2020 Nov 10:1-10. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid, which has been theorized to be due to an underlying internalizing vulnerability. We aimed to identify groups of participants with differing vulnerabilities by examining the course of internalizing psychopathology up to age 45.

Methods: We used data from 24158 participants (aged 45+) in 23 population-based cross-sectional World Mental Health Surveys. Internalizing disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). We applied latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and investigated the characteristics of identified classes using logistic or linear regression.

Results: The best-fitting LCGA solution identified eight classes: a healthy class (81.9%), three childhood-onset classes with mild (3.7%), moderate (2.0%), or severe (1.1%) internalizing comorbidity, two puberty-onset classes with mild (4.0%) or moderate (1.4%) comorbidity, and two adult-onset classes with mild comorbidity (2.7% and 3.2%). The childhood-onset severe class had particularly unfavorable sociodemographic outcomes compared to the healthy class, with increased risks of being never or previously married (OR = 2.2 and 2.0, p < 0.001), not being employed (OR = 3.5, p < 0.001), and having a low/low-average income (OR = 2.2, p < 0.001). Moderate or severe (v. mild) comorbidity was associated with 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 1.9 and 4.8, p < 0.001), disability (B = 1.1-2.3, p < 0.001), and suicidal ideation (OR = 4.2, p < 0.001 for severe comorbidity only). Adult (v. childhood) onset was associated with lower rates of 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 0.2, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: We identified eight transdiagnostic trajectories of internalizing psychopathology. Unfavorable outcomes were concentrated in the 1% of participants with childhood onset and severe comorbidity. Early identification of this group may offer opportunities for preventive interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720004031DOI Listing
November 2020

Children's visual impairment and visual care related to socioeconomic status in Catalonia (Spain).

Child Care Health Dev 2021 01 11;47(1):94-102. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Health, Government of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of visual impairment and visual care practices and its association with socioeconomic conditions in the infant population in Catalonia.

Methods: The Catalan Institute of Statistics provided a random sample of 0 to 14-year-old non-institutionalized children whose parents were interviewed in a continuous health survey from 2011 to 2015 in Catalonia. A multistage stratified and random sampling procedure considering age, sex, county and town was followed. All results have been weighted according to the sample design and are presented as the proportion of the condition with its 95% confidence limits. Chi-square tests were performed to evaluate the association between categorical variables. To study the association of visual care with independent variables, a multiple logistic regression model was used.

Results: In 0 to 14-year-old children, a 12.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] [11.8-13.9]) prevalence of correctable visual impairment was observed. The prevalence of non-correctable visual impairment was 0.9% (95% CI [0.6-1.2]). Non-correctable visual impairment was more prevalent in families with lower education levels, manual professions or unemployed. Of children without visual impairment, 13,5% (95% CI:12.3-14.6) visited a visual care professional in the last 12 months while this proportion was 67.4% (95% CI [63.3-71.5]) among those with correctable visual impairment. When parents have a university degree or non-manual professions, a higher level of visual care was observed. In children with correctable visual impairment, visual reviews were more frequent when parents are employed in a non-manual profession.

Conclusions: For the first time, indicators related to visual impairment in children in Catalonia have been recorded. There is an association between lower socioeconomic status and having non-correctable visual impairment, and conversely, having correctable visual impairment was significantly associated with employed parents. More visual care is associated with higher socioeconomic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cch.12826DOI Listing
January 2021
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