Publications by authors named "Jordan T Bird"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Multi-omics data integration reveals correlated regulatory features of triple negative breast cancer.

Mol Omics 2021 Oct 11;17(5):677-691. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street (slot 516), Little Rock, AR 72205-7199, USA.

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer with very little treatment options. TNBC is very heterogeneous with large alterations in the genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic landscapes leading to various subtypes with differing responses to therapeutic treatments. We applied a multi-omics data integration method to evaluate the correlation of important regulatory features in TNBC BRCA1 wild-type MDA-MB-231 and TNBC BRCA1 5382insC mutated HCC1937 cells compared with non-tumorigenic epithelial breast MCF10A cells. The data includes DNA methylation, RNAseq, protein, phosphoproteomics, and histone post-translational modification. Data integration methods identified regulatory features from each omics method that had greater than 80% positive correlation within each TNBC subtype. Key regulatory features at each omics level were identified distinguishing the three cell lines and were involved in important cancer related pathways such as TGFβ signaling, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. We observed overexpression of PTEN, which antagonizes the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and MYC, which downregulates the same pathway in the HCC1937 cells relative to the MDA-MB-231 cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Wnt/beta-catenin pathways are both downregulated in HCC1937 cells relative to MDA-MB-231 cells, which likely explains the divergent sensitivities of these cell lines to inhibitors of downstream signaling pathways. The DNA methylation and RNAseq data is freely available GEO GSE171958 and the proteomics data is available the ProteomeXchange PXD025238.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1mo00117eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504614PMC
October 2021

PHF19 inhibition as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma.

Curr Res Transl Med 2021 07 22;69(3):103290. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Hematology Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Epigenetic deregulation is increasingly recognized as a contributing pathological factor in multiple myeloma (MM). In particular tri-methylation of H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), which is catalyzed by PHD finger protein 19 (PHF19), a subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), has recently shown to be a crucial mediator of MM tumorigenicity. Overexpression of PHF19 in MM has been associated with worse clinical outcome. Yet, while there is mounting evidence that PHF19 overexpression plays a crucial role in MM carcinogenesis downstream mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the current study we use a functional knock down (KD) of PHF19 to investigate the biological role of PHF19 and show that PHF19KD leads to decreased tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Expression of major cancer players such as bcl2, myc and EGR1 were decreased upon PHF19KD further underscoring the role of PHF19 in MM biology. Additionally, our results highlighted the prognostic impact of PHF19 overexpression, which was significantly associated with worse survival. Overall, our study underscores the premise that targeting the PHF19-PRC2 complex would open up avenues for novel MM therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.retram.2021.103290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316274PMC
July 2021

Differences in cell death in methionine versus cysteine depletion.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2021 03 2;62(3):216-226. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.

Restriction of the sulfur amino acids methionine and cysteine has recently been proposed as potential adjuvant therapy in cancer. While cysteine depletion has been associated with ferroptotic cell death, methionine depletion has not. We hypothesized that comparing the response of melanoma cell lines to depletion of the amino acids methionine and cysteine would give us insight into the critical role in cancer of these two closely related amino acids. We analyzed the response to three conditions: methionine depletion, methionine replacement with homocysteine, and cysteine depletion. In cancer cells, the transcription factor ATF4 was induced by all three tested conditions. The replacement of methionine with homocysteine produced a strong ferroptotic gene signature. We also detected an activation of the NRF2 antioxidant pathway by both methionine and cysteine depletion. Total glutathione levels were decreased by 42% in melanoma cells grown without methionine, and by 95% in cells grown without cysteine. Lipid peroxidation was increased in cells grown without cysteine, but not in cells grown without methionine. Despite the large degree of overlap in gene expression between methionine and cysteine depletion, methionine depletion and replacement of methionine with homocysteine was associated with apoptosis while cysteine depletion was associated with ferroptosis. Glutamine depletion produced comparable gene expression patterns and was associated with a 28% decrease in glutathione. Apoptosis was detected in these cells. In this experiment, a strong ATF4-driven ferroptotic gene signature was insufficient to induce ferroptosis without a concomitant profound decrease in glutathione levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130902PMC
March 2021

Enhanced nutrient uptake is sufficient to drive emergent cross-feeding between bacteria in a synthetic community.

ISME J 2020 11 12;14(11):2816-2828. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.

Interactive microbial communities are ubiquitous, influencing biogeochemical cycles and host health. One widespread interaction is nutrient exchange, or cross-feeding, wherein metabolites are transferred between microbes. Some cross-fed metabolites, such as vitamins, amino acids, and ammonium (NH), are communally valuable and impose a cost on the producer. The mechanisms that enforce cross-feeding of communally valuable metabolites are not fully understood. Previously we engineered a cross-feeding coculture between N-fixing Rhodopseudomonas palustris and fermentative Escherichia coli. Engineered R. palustris excretes essential nitrogen as NH to E. coli, while E. coli excretes essential carbon as fermentation products to R. palustris. Here, we sought to determine whether a reciprocal cross-feeding relationship would evolve spontaneously in cocultures with wild-type R. palustris, which is not known to excrete NH. Indeed, we observed the emergence of NH cross-feeding, but driven by adaptation of E. coli alone. A missense mutation in E. coli NtrC, a regulator of nitrogen scavenging, resulted in constitutive activation of an NH transporter. This activity likely allowed E. coli to subsist on the small amount of leaked NH and better reciprocate through elevated excretion of fermentation products from a larger E. coli population. Our results indicate that enhanced nutrient uptake by recipients, rather than increased excretion by producers, is an underappreciated yet possibly prevalent mechanism by which cross-feeding can emerge.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-020-00737-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784955PMC
November 2020

Evidence for a Growth Zone for Deep-Subsurface Microbial Clades in Near-Surface Anoxic Sediments.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 09 17;86(19). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

Global marine sediments harbor a large and highly diverse microbial biosphere, but the mechanism by which this biosphere is established during sediment burial is largely unknown. During burial in marine sediments, concentrations of easily metabolized organic compounds and total microbial cell abundance decrease. However, it is unknown whether some microbial clades increase with depth. We show total population increases in 38 microbial families over 3 cm of sediment depth in the upper 7.5 cm of White Oak River (WOR) estuary sediments. Clades that increased with depth were more often associated with one or more of the following: anaerobes, uncultured, or common in deep marine sediments relative to those that decreased. Maximum doubling times ( steady-state growth rates could be faster to balance cell decay) were estimated as 2 to 25 years by combining sedimentation rate with either quantitative PCR (qPCR) or the product of the fraction read abundance of 16S rRNA genes and total cell counts (FRAxC). Doubling times were within an order of magnitude of each other in two adjacent cores, as well as in two laboratory enrichments of Cape Lookout Bight (CLB), NC, sediments (average difference of 28% ± 19%). qPCR and FRAxC in sediment cores and laboratory enrichments produced similar doubling times for key deep subsurface uncultured clades (8.7 ± 1.9 years) and /MBG-D (4.1 ± 0.7 years). We conclude that common deep subsurface microbial clades experience a narrow zone of growth in shallow sediments, offering an opportunity for selection of long-term subsistence traits after resuspension events. Many studies show that the uncultured microbes that dominate global marine sediments do not actually increase in population size as they are buried in marine sediments; rather, they exist in a sort of prolonged torpor for thousands of years. This is because, although studies have shown biomass turnover in these clades, no evidence has ever been found that deeper sediments have larger populations for specific clades than shallower layers. We discovered that they actually do increase population sizes during burial, but only in the upper few centimeters. This suggests that marine sediments may be a vast repository of mostly nongrowing microbes with a thin and relatively rapid area of cell abundance increase in the upper 10 cm, offering a chance for subsurface organisms to undergo natural selection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00877-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499048PMC
September 2020

Kinetics and Identities of Extracellular Peptidases in Subsurface Sediments of the White Oak River Estuary, North Carolina.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 10 17;85(19). Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Anoxic subsurface sediments contain communities of heterotrophic microorganisms that metabolize organic carbon at extraordinarily low rates. In order to assess the mechanisms by which subsurface microorganisms access detrital sedimentary organic matter, we measured kinetics of a range of extracellular peptidases in anoxic sediments of the White Oak River Estuary, NC. Nine distinct peptidase substrates were enzymatically hydrolyzed at all depths. Potential peptidase activities ( ) decreased with increasing sediment depth, although expressed on a per-cell basis was approximately the same at all depths. Half-saturation constants ( ) decreased with depth, indicating peptidases that functioned more efficiently at low substrate concentrations. Potential activities of extracellular peptidases acting on molecules that are enriched in degraded organic matter (d-phenylalanine and l-ornithine) increased relative to enzymes that act on l-phenylalanine, further suggesting microbial community adaptation to access degraded organic matter. Nineteen classes of predicted, exported peptidases were identified in genomic data from the same site, of which genes for class C25 (gingipain-like) peptidases represented more than 40% at each depth. Methionine aminopeptidases, zinc carboxypeptidases, and class S24-like peptidases, which are involved in single-stranded-DNA repair, were also abundant. These results suggest a subsurface heterotrophic microbial community that primarily accesses low-quality detrital organic matter via a diverse suite of well-adapted extracellular enzymes. Burial of organic carbon in marine and estuarine sediments represents a long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Globally, ∼40% of organic carbon burial occurs in anoxic estuaries and deltaic systems. However, the ultimate controls on the amount of organic matter that is buried in sediments, versus oxidized into CO, are poorly constrained. In this study, we used a combination of enzyme assays and metagenomic analysis to identify how subsurface microbial communities catalyze the first step of proteinaceous organic carbon degradation. Our results show that microbial communities in deeper sediments are adapted to access molecules characteristic of degraded organic matter, suggesting that those heterotrophs are adapted to life in the subsurface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00102-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752024PMC
October 2019

Uncultured Microbial Phyla Suggest Mechanisms for Multi-Thousand-Year Subsistence in Baltic Sea Sediments.

mBio 2019 04 16;10(2). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

Energy-starved microbes in deep marine sediments subsist at near-zero growth for thousands of years, yet the mechanisms for their subsistence are unknown because no model strains have been cultivated from most of these groups. We investigated Baltic Sea sediments with single-cell genomics, metabolomics, metatranscriptomics, and enzyme assays to identify possible subsistence mechanisms employed by uncultured , , group OPB41, , , , , , and marine group II lineages. Some functions appeared to be shared by multiple lineages, such as trehalose production and NAD-consuming deacetylation, both of which have been shown to increase cellular life spans in other organisms by stabilizing proteins and nucleic acids, respectively. Other possible subsistence mechanisms differed between lineages, possibly providing them different physiological niches. Enzyme assays and transcripts suggested that and group OPB41 catabolized sugars, whereas and catabolized peptides. Metabolite and transcript data suggested that utilized allantoin, possibly as an energetic substrate or chemical protectant, and also possessed energy-efficient sodium pumps. single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) recruited transcripts for full pathways for the production of all 20 canonical amino acids, and the gene for amino acid exporter YddG was one of their most highly transcribed genes, suggesting that they may benefit from metabolic interdependence with other cells. Subsistence of uncultured phyla in deep subsurface sediments may occur through shared strategies of using chemical protectants for biomolecular stabilization, but also by differentiating into physiological niches and metabolic interdependencies. Much of life on Earth exists in a very slow-growing state, with microbes from deeply buried marine sediments representing an extreme example. These environments are like natural laboratories that have run multi-thousand-year experiments that are impossible to perform in a laboratory. We borrowed some techniques that are commonly used in laboratory experiments and applied them to these natural samples to make hypotheses about how these microbes subsist for so long at low activity. We found that some methods for stabilizing proteins and nucleic acids might be used by many members of the community. We also found evidence for niche differentiation strategies, and possibly cross-feeding, suggesting that even though they are barely growing, complex ecological interactions continue to occur over ultralong timescales.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02376-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469976PMC
April 2019

Microbial Organic Matter Degradation Potential in Baltic Sea Sediments Is Influenced by Depositional Conditions and Geochemistry.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 02 6;85(4). Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Life Sciences, Texas A&M University Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA

Globally, marine sediments are a vast repository of organic matter, which is degraded through various microbial pathways, including polymer hydrolysis and monomer fermentation. The sources, abundances, and quality (i.e., labile or recalcitrant) of the organic matter and the composition of the microbial assemblages vary between sediments. Here, we examine new and previously published sediment metagenomes from the Baltic Sea and the nearby Kattegat region to determine connections between geochemistry and the community potential to degrade organic carbon. Diverse organic matter hydrolysis encoding genes were present in sediments between 0.25 and 67 meters below seafloor and were in higher relative abundances in those sediments that contained more organic matter. New analysis of previously published metatranscriptomes demonstrated that many of these genes were transcribed in two organic-rich Holocene sediments. Some of the variation in deduced pathways in the metagenomes correlated with carbon content and depositional conditions. Fermentation-related genes were found in all samples and encoded multiple fermentation pathways. Notably, genes involved in alcohol metabolism were amongst the most abundant of these genes, indicating that this is an important but underappreciated aspect of sediment carbon cycling. This study is a step towards a more complete understanding of microbial food webs and the impacts of depositional facies on present sedimentary microbial communities. Sediments sequester organic matter over geologic time scales and impact global climate regulation. Microbial communities in marine sediments drive organic matter degradation, but the factors controlling their assemblages and activities, which in turn impact their role in organic matter degradation, are not well understood. Hence, determining the role of microbial communities in carbon cycling in various sediment types is necessary for predicting future sediment carbon cycling. We examined microbial communities in Baltic Sea sediments, which were deposited across various climatic and geographical regimes to determine the relationship between microbial potential for breakdown of organic matter and abiotic factors, including geochemistry and sediment lithology. The findings from this study will contribute to our understanding of carbon cycling in the deep biosphere and how microbial communities live in deeply buried environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02164-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365825PMC
February 2019

Estimating Population Turnover Rates by Relative Quantification Methods Reveals Microbial Dynamics in Marine Sediment.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Jan 15;84(1). Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

The difficulty involved in quantifying biogeochemically significant microbes in marine sediments limits our ability to assess interspecific interactions, population turnover times, and niches of uncultured taxa. We incubated surface sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, USA, anoxically at 21°C for 122 days. Sulfate decreased until day 68, after which methane increased, with hydrogen concentrations consistent with the predicted values of an electron donor exerting thermodynamic control. We measured turnover times using two relative quantification methods, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the product of 16S gene read abundance and total cell abundance (FRAxC, which stands for "fraction of read abundance times cells"), to estimate the population turnover rates of uncultured clades. Most 16S rRNA reads were from deeply branching uncultured groups, and ∼98% of 16S rRNA genes did not abruptly shift in relative abundance when sulfate reduction gave way to methanogenesis. Uncultured and increased at the onset of methanogenesis with population turnover times estimated from qPCR at 9.7 ± 3.9 and 12.6 ± 4.1 days, respectively. These were consistent with FRAxC turnover times of 9.4 ± 5.8 and 9.2 ± 3.5 days, respectively. Uncultured , which are possibly fermentative syntrophs of methanogens, and uncultured Kazan-3A-21 archaea also increased at the onset of methanogenesis, with FRAxC turnover times of 14.7 ± 6.9 and 10.6 ± 3.6 days. Kazan-3A-21 may therefore either perform methanogenesis or form a fermentative syntrophy with methanogens. Three genera of sulfate-reducing bacteria, , , and , increased in the first 19 days before declining rapidly during sulfate reduction. We conclude that population turnover times on the order of days can be measured robustly in organic-rich marine sediment, and the transition from sulfate-reducing to methanogenic conditions stimulates growth only in a few clades directly involved in methanogenesis, rather than in the whole microbial community. Many microbes cannot be isolated in pure culture to determine their preferential growth conditions and predict their response to changing environmental conditions. We created a microcosm of marine sediments that allowed us to simulate a diagenetic profile using a temporal analog for depth. This allowed for the observation of the microbial community population dynamics caused by the natural shift from sulfate reduction to methanogenesis. Our research provides evidence for the population dynamics of uncultured microbes as well as the application of a novel method of turnover rate analysis for individual taxa within a mixed incubation, FRAxC, which stands for "fraction of read abundance times cells," which was verified by quantitative PCR. This allows for the calculation of population turnover times for microbes in a natural setting and the identification of uncultured clades involved in geochemical processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01443-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5734028PMC
January 2018

Thriving or surviving? Evaluating active microbial guilds in Baltic Sea sediment.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2017 10 19;9(5):528-536. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

Department of Life Sciences, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, USA.

Microbial life in the deep subsurface biosphere is taxonomically and metabolically diverse, but it is vigorously debated whether the resident organisms are thriving (metabolizing, maintaining cellular integrity and expressing division genes) or just surviving. As part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment, we extracted and sequenced RNA from organic carbon-rich, nutrient-replete and permanently anoxic sediment. In stark contrast to the oligotrophic subsurface biosphere, Baltic Sea Basin samples provided a unique opportunity to understand the balance between metabolism and other cellular processes. Targeted sequencing of 16S rRNA transcripts showed Atribacteria (an uncultured phylum) and Chloroflexi to be among the dominant and the active members of the community. Metatranscriptomic analysis identified methane cycling, sulfur cycling and halogenated compound utilization as active in situ respiratory metabolisms. Genes for cellular maintenance, cellular division, motility and antimicrobial production were also transcribed. This indicates that microbial life in deep subsurface Baltic Sea Basin sediments was not only alive, but thriving.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12578DOI Listing
October 2017

A Student's Guide to Giant Viruses Infecting Small Eukaryotes: From Acanthamoeba to Zooxanthellae.

Viruses 2017 03 17;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 17.

The Department of Microbiology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

The discovery of infectious particles that challenge conventional thoughts concerning "what is a virus" has led to the evolution a new field of study in the past decade. Here, we review knowledge and information concerning "giant viruses", with a focus not only on some of the best studied systems, but also provide an effort to illuminate systems yet to be better resolved. We conclude by demonstrating that there is an abundance of new host-virus systems that fall into this "giant" category, demonstrating that this field of inquiry presents great opportunities for future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v9030046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5371801PMC
March 2017

Draft Genome Sequence of Antarctic Methanogen Enriched from Dry Valley Permafrost.

Genome Announc 2016 Dec 8;4(6). Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

A genomic reconstruction belonging to the genus Methanosarcina was assembled from metagenomic data from a methane-producing enrichment of Antarctic permafrost. This is the first methanogen genome reported from permafrost of the Dry Valleys and can help shed light on future climate-affected methane dynamics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01362-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5146446PMC
December 2016

Culture Independent Genomic Comparisons Reveal Environmental Adaptations for Altiarchaeales.

Front Microbiol 2016 5;7:1221. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Knoxville TN, USA.

The recently proposed candidatus order Altiarchaeales remains an uncultured archaeal lineage composed of genetically diverse, globally widespread organisms frequently observed in anoxic subsurface environments. In spite of 15 years of studies on the psychrophilic biofilm-producing Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum and its close relatives, very little is known about the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the widespread free-living marine members of this taxon. From methanogenic sediments in the White Oak River Estuary, NC, USA, we sequenced a single cell amplified genome (SAG), WOR_SM1_SCG, and used it to identify and refine two high-quality genomes from metagenomes, WOR_SM1_79 and WOR_SM1_86-2, from the same site. These three genomic reconstructions form a monophyletic group, which also includes three previously published genomes from metagenomes from terrestrial springs and a SAG from Sakinaw Lake in a group previously designated as pMC2A384. A synapomorphic mutation in the Altiarchaeales tRNA synthetase β subunit, pheT, caused the protein to be encoded as two subunits at non-adjacent loci. Consistent with the terrestrial spring clades, our estuarine genomes contained a near-complete autotrophic metabolism, H2 or CO as potential electron donors, a reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation, and methylotroph-like NADP(H)-dependent dehydrogenase. Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA genes and concatenated conserved proteins identified two distinct sub-clades of Altiarchaeales, Alti-1 populated by organisms from actively flowing springs, and Alti-2 which was more widespread, diverse, and not associated with visible mats. The core Alti-1 genome suggested Alti-1 is adapted for the stream environment with lipopolysaccharide production capacity and extracellular hami structures. The core Alti-2 genome suggested members of this clade are free-living with distinct mechanisms for energy maintenance, motility, osmoregulation, and sulfur redox reactions. These data suggested that the hamus structures found in Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum are not present outside of stream-adapted Altiarchaeales. Homologs to a Na(+) transporter and membrane bound coenzyme A disulfide reductase that were unique to the brackish sediment Alti-2 genomes, could indicate adaptations to the estuarine, sulfur-rich environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4975002PMC
August 2016
-->