Publications by authors named "Jordan C Tsai"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Design and characterization of mouse IgG1 and IgG2a bispecific antibodies for use in syngeneic models.

MAbs 2020 Jan-Dec;12(1):1685350

Protein Therapeutics and Biologics Lead Discovery, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Redwood City, CA, USA.

The development of antibody therapeutics relies on animal models that accurately recapitulate disease biology. Syngeneic mouse models are increasingly used with new molecules to capture the biology of complex cancers and disease states, and to provide insight into the role of the immune system. The establishment of syngeneic mouse models requires the ability to generate surrogate mouse counterparts to antibodies designed for humans. In the field of bispecific antibodies, there remains a dearth of technologies available to generate native IgG-like mouse bispecific antibodies. Thus, we engineered a simple co-expression system for one-step purification of intact mouse IgG1 and IgG2a bispecific antibodies from any antibody pair. We demonstrated proof of concept with CD3/CD20 bispecific antibodies, which highlighted both the quality and efficacy of materials generated by this technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2019.1685350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927765PMC
January 2021

eIF2B-catalyzed nucleotide exchange and phosphoregulation by the integrated stress response.

Science 2019 05;364(6439):491-495

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

The integrated stress response (ISR) tunes the rate of protein synthesis. Control is exerted by phosphorylation of the general translation initiation factor eIF2. eIF2 is a guanosine triphosphatase that becomes activated by eIF2B, a two-fold symmetric and heterodecameric complex that functions as eIF2's dedicated nucleotide exchange factor. Phosphorylation converts eIF2 from a substrate into an inhibitor of eIF2B. We report cryo-electron microscopy structures of eIF2 bound to eIF2B in the dephosphorylated state. The structures reveal that the eIF2B decamer is a static platform upon which one or two flexible eIF2 trimers bind and align with eIF2B's bipartite catalytic centers to catalyze nucleotide exchange. Phosphorylation refolds eIF2α, allowing it to contact eIF2B at a different interface and, we surmise, thereby sequestering it into a nonproductive complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw2922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601628PMC
May 2019

Structure of the nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B reveals mechanism of memory-enhancing molecule.

Science 2018 03;359(6383)

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Regulation by the integrated stress response (ISR) converges on the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2 in response to a variety of stresses. Phosphorylation converts eIF2 from a substrate to a competitive inhibitor of its dedicated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, thereby inhibiting translation. ISRIB, a drug-like eIF2B activator, reverses the effects of eIF2 phosphorylation, and in rodents it enhances cognition and corrects cognitive deficits after brain injury. To determine its mechanism of action, we solved an atomic-resolution structure of ISRIB bound in a deep cleft within decameric human eIF2B by cryo-electron microscopy. Formation of fully active, decameric eIF2B holoenzyme depended on the assembly of two identical tetrameric subcomplexes, and ISRIB promoted this step by cross-bridging a central symmetry interface. Thus, regulation of eIF2B assembly emerges as a rheostat for eIF2B activity that tunes translation during the ISR and that can be further modulated by ISRIB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaq0939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120582PMC
March 2018

Translation from the 5' untranslated region shapes the integrated stress response.

Science 2016 Jan;351(6272):aad3867

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Translated regions distinct from annotated coding sequences have emerged as essential elements of the proteome. This includes upstream open reading frames (uORFs) present in mRNAs controlled by the integrated stress response (ISR) that show "privileged" translation despite inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 2-guanosine triphosphate-initiator methionyl transfer RNA (eIF2·GTP·Met-tRNA(i )(Met)). We developed tracing translation by T cells to directly measure the translation products of uORFs during the ISR. We identified signature translation events from uORFs in the 5' untranslated region of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) mRNA (also called heat shock 70-kilodalton protein 5 mRNA) that were not initiated at the start codon AUG. BiP expression during the ISR required both the alternative initiation factor eIF2A and non-AUG-initiated uORFs. We propose that persistent uORF translation, for a variety of chaperones, shelters select mRNAs from the ISR, while simultaneously generating peptides that could serve as major histocompatibility complex class I ligands, marking cells for recognition by the adaptive immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad3867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882168PMC
January 2016

Structure-Activity Studies of Bis-O-Arylglycolamides: Inhibitors of the Integrated Stress Response.

ChemMedChem 2016 Apr 20;11(8):870-80. Epub 2016 Jan 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and, Small Molecule Discovery Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

The integrated stress response comprises multiple signaling pathways for detecting and responding to cellular stress that converge at a single event-the phosphorylation of Ser51 on the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α-P) results in attenuation of global protein synthesis via the inhibitory effects of eIF2α-P on eIF2B, the guanine exchange factor (GEF) for eIF2. Herein we describe structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of bis-O-arylglycolamides, first-in-class integrated stress response inhibitors (ISRIB). ISRIB analogues make cells insensitive to the effects of eIF2α-P by activating the GEF activity of eIF2B and allowing global protein synthesis to proceed with residual unphosphorylated eIF2α. The SAR studies described herein support the proposed pharmacology of ISRIB analogues as binding across a symmetrical protein-protein interface formed between protein subunits of the dimeric eIF2B heteropentamer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.201500483DOI Listing
April 2016

Next-generation libraries for robust RNA interference-based genome-wide screens.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Jun 15;112(26):E3384-91. Epub 2015 Jun 15.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, California Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158;

Genetic screening based on loss-of-function phenotypes is a powerful discovery tool in biology. Although the recent development of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based screening approaches in mammalian cell culture has enormous potential, RNA interference (RNAi)-based screening remains the method of choice in several biological contexts. We previously demonstrated that ultracomplex pooled short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) libraries can largely overcome the problem of RNAi off-target effects in genome-wide screens. Here, we systematically optimize several aspects of our shRNA library, including the promoter and microRNA context for shRNA expression, selection of guide strands, and features relevant for postscreen sample preparation for deep sequencing. We present next-generation high-complexity libraries targeting human and mouse protein-coding genes, which we grouped into 12 sublibraries based on biological function. A pilot screen suggests that our next-generation RNAi library performs comparably to current CRISPR interference (CRISPRi)-based approaches and can yield complementary results with high sensitivity and high specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1508821112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4491794PMC
June 2015

Pharmacological dimerization and activation of the exchange factor eIF2B antagonizes the integrated stress response.

Elife 2015 Apr 15;4:e07314. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States.

The general translation initiation factor eIF2 is a major translational control point. Multiple signaling pathways in the integrated stress response phosphorylate eIF2 serine-51, inhibiting nucleotide exchange by eIF2B. ISRIB, a potent drug-like small molecule, renders cells insensitive to eIF2α phosphorylation and enhances cognitive function in rodents by blocking long-term depression. ISRIB was identified in a phenotypic cell-based screen, and its mechanism of action remained unknown. We now report that ISRIB is an activator of eIF2B. Our reporter-based shRNA screen revealed an eIF2B requirement for ISRIB activity. Our results define ISRIB as a symmetric molecule, show ISRIB-mediated stabilization of activated eIF2B dimers, and suggest that eIF2B4 (δ-subunit) contributes to the ISRIB binding site. We also developed new ISRIB analogs, improving its EC50 to 600 pM in cell culture. By modulating eIF2B function, ISRIB promises to be an invaluable tool in proof-of-principle studies aiming to ameliorate cognitive defects resulting from neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4426669PMC
April 2015

Engineering complex synthetic transcriptional programs with CRISPR RNA scaffolds.

Cell 2015 Jan 18;160(1-2):339-50. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; UCSF Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; California Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Eukaryotic cells execute complex transcriptional programs in which specific loci throughout the genome are regulated in distinct ways by targeted regulatory assemblies. We have applied this principle to generate synthetic CRISPR-based transcriptional programs in yeast and human cells. By extending guide RNAs to include effector protein recruitment sites, we construct modular scaffold RNAs that encode both target locus and regulatory action. Sets of scaffold RNAs can be used to generate synthetic multigene transcriptional programs in which some genes are activated and others are repressed. We apply this approach to flexibly redirect flux through a complex branched metabolic pathway in yeast. Moreover, these programs can be executed by inducing expression of the dCas9 protein, which acts as a single master regulatory control point. CRISPR-associated RNA scaffolds provide a powerful way to construct synthetic gene expression programs for a wide range of applications, including rewiring cell fates or engineering metabolic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297522PMC
January 2015

Selection of chromosomal DNA libraries using a multiplex CRISPR system.

Elife 2014 Aug 19;3. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

Energy Biosciences Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, United States.

The directed evolution of biomolecules to improve or change their activity is central to many engineering and synthetic biology efforts. However, selecting improved variants from gene libraries in living cells requires plasmid expression systems that suffer from variable copy number effects, or the use of complex marker-dependent chromosomal integration strategies. We developed quantitative gene assembly and DNA library insertion into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome by optimizing an efficient single-step and marker-free genome editing system using CRISPR-Cas9. With this Multiplex CRISPR (CRISPRm) system, we selected an improved cellobiose utilization pathway in diploid yeast in a single round of mutagenesis and selection, which increased cellobiose fermentation rates by over 10-fold. Mutations recovered in the best cellodextrin transporters reveal synergy between substrate binding and transporter dynamics, and demonstrate the power of CRISPRm to accelerate selection experiments and discoveries of the molecular determinants that enhance biomolecule function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4161972PMC
August 2014

Evidence for transceptor function of cellodextrin transporters in Neurospora crassa.

J Biol Chem 2014 Jan 16;289(5):2610-9. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

From the Departments of Molecular and Cell Biology.

Neurospora crassa colonizes burnt grasslands and metabolizes both cellulose and hemicellulose from plant cell walls. When switched from a favored carbon source to cellulose, N. crassa dramatically up-regulates expression and secretion of genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes. However, the means by which N. crassa and other filamentous fungi sense the presence of cellulose in the environment remains unclear. Previously, we have shown that a N. crassa mutant carrying deletions of three β-glucosidase enzymes (Δ3βG) lacks β-glucosidase activity, but efficiently induces cellulase gene expression and cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose as the sole carbon source. These observations indicate that cellobiose, or a modified version of cellobiose, functions as an inducer of lignocellulolytic gene expression and activity in N. crassa. Here, we show that in N. crassa, two cellodextrin transporters, CDT-1 and CDT-2, contribute to cellulose sensing. A N. crassa mutant carrying deletions for both transporters is unable to induce cellulase gene expression in response to crystalline cellulose. Furthermore, a mutant lacking genes encoding both the β-glucosidase enzymes and cellodextrin transporters (Δ3βGΔ2T) does not induce cellulase gene expression in response to cellobiose. Point mutations that severely reduce cellobiose transport by either CDT-1 or CDT-2 when expressed individually do not greatly impact cellobiose induction of cellulase gene expression. These data suggest that the N. crassa cellodextrin transporters act as "transceptors" with dual functions - cellodextrin transport and receptor signaling that results in downstream activation of cellulolytic gene expression. Similar mechanisms of transceptor activity likely occur in related ascomycetes used for industrial cellulase production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.533273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3908395PMC
January 2014

Induction of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes in Neurospora crassa by cellodextrins.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Apr 2;109(16):6012-7. Epub 2012 Apr 2.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, QB3), University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Neurospora crassa colonizes burnt grasslands in the wild and metabolizes both cellulose and hemicellulose from plant cell walls. When switched from a favored carbon source such as sucrose to cellulose, N. crassa dramatically upregulates expression and secretion of a wide variety of genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes. However, the means by which N. crassa and other filamentous fungi sense the presence of cellulose in the environment remains unclear. Here, we show that an N. crassa mutant carrying deletions of two genes encoding extracellular β-glucosidase enzymes and one intracellular β-glucosidase lacks β-glucosidase activity, but efficiently induces cellulase gene expression in the presence of cellobiose, cellotriose, or cellotetraose as a sole carbon source. These data indicate that cellobiose, or a modified version of cellobiose, functions as an inducer of lignocellulolytic gene expression in N. crassa. Furthermore, the inclusion of a deletion of the catabolite repressor gene, cre-1, in the triple β-glucosidase mutant resulted in a strain that produces higher concentrations of secreted active cellulases on cellobiose. Thus, the ability to induce cellulase gene expression using a common and soluble carbon source simplifies enzyme production and characterization, which could be applied to other cellulolytic filamentous fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1118440109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341005PMC
April 2012