Publications by authors named "Joo-Wan Kim"

42 Publications

Comparative Analysis of the Microbiome across the Gut-Skin Axis in Atopic Dermatitis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 19;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a refractory and relapsing skin disease with a complex and multifactorial etiology. Various congenital malformations and environmental factors are thought to be involved in the onset of the disease. The etiology of the disease has been investigated, with respect to clinical skin symptoms and systemic immune response factors. A gut microbiome-mediated connection between emotional disorders such as depression and anxiety, and dermatologic conditions such as acne, based on the comorbidities of these two seemingly unrelated disorders, has long been hypothesized. Many aspects of this gut-brain-skin integration theory have recently been revalidated to identify treatment options for AD with the recent advances in metagenomic analysis involving powerful sequencing techniques and bioinformatics that overcome the need for isolation and cultivation of individual microbial strains from the skin or gut. Comparative analysis of microbial clusters across the gut-skin axis can provide new information regarding AD research. Herein, we provide a historical perspective on the modern investigation and clinical implications of gut-skin connections in AD in terms of the integration between the two microbial clusters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073639PMC
April 2021

Effects of Steaming and SiO₂ Surface Passivation on SSZ-13 Zeolites in the Ethylene to Propylene Reaction.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2020 09;20(9):5783-5786

Center for Convergent Chemical Process, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 141 Gajeong-ro, Yusong, Daejeon 34114, Republic of Korea.

SSZ-13 zeolite was modified by two kinds of post-treatment methods such as steaming and SiO₂ surface passivation (silylation) for ETP catalyst with high activity. The former steaming treatment was conducted in the range of 400-700 °C, whereas the latter surfaces passivation was applied to a chemical liquid deposition (CLD) technique that uses various silylation agents such as tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS), tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), and tetrabuthylorthosilicate (TBOS). Catalysts were characterized by powder-XRD, ICP, Ar-phsisorption, solid-state Al MAS NMR, and NH₃-TPD, and their activities were tested in fixed bed reaction system. Regarding the effects of steaming temperature, the results show that a relatively higher selectivity is observed in SSZ-13 catalysts treated at proper steaming temperatures such as 450 and 500 °C compared to parent and other steam treated catalysts. For optimum surface passivation treatments for ETP reactions, one-step surface passivation using TEOS agents among various passivation agents led to enhanced propylene selectivity to 80% when compared with parent and other silylated SSZ-13 catalysts. However, a sequential passivation treatment with a TEOS agent was not highly affected by the reaction activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2020.17644DOI Listing
September 2020

Anti-diabetic effects of blue honeyberry on high-fed-diet-induced type II diabetic mouse.

Nutr Res Pract 2019 Oct 12;13(5):367-376. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13120, Republic of Korea.

Background/objective: The blue honeysuckle berry ( var. L.) is a small deciduous shrub belonging to the Caprifoliaceae family that is native to Russia, China, Japan, and Korea. The berry of this shrub is edible, sweet and juicy and is commonly known as the blue honeyberry (BHB). This study examined the anti-diabetic potential of BHB on high-fat-diet-induced mild diabetic mice. The hypoglycemic, and nephroprotective effects of the 12-week oral administration of blue honeyberry extract were analyzed.

Materials/methods: The hypoglycemic effects were based on the observed changes in insulin, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Furthermore, the changes in the weight of the pancreas, including its histopathology and immunohistochemical investigation were also performed. Moreover, the nephroprotective effects were analyzed by observing the changes in kidney weight, its histopathology, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine levels.

Results: The results showed that the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced control mice showed a noticeable increase in blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, BUN, and creatinine levels. Furthermore, growth was observed in lipid droplet deposition related to the degenerative lesions in the vacuolated renal tubules with the evident enlargement and hyperplasia of the pancreatic islets. In addition, in the endocrine pancreas, there was an increase in the insulin-and glucagon-producing cells, as well as in the insulin/glucagon cell ratios. On the other hand, compared to the HFD-treated mice group, all these diabetic and related complications were ameliorated significantly in a dose-dependent manner after 84 days of the continuous oral administration of BHBe at 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg, and a dramatic resettlement in the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities was observed.

Conclusions: By assessing the key parameters for T2DM, the present study showed that the BHBe could act as a potential herbal agent to cure diabetes (type II) and associated ailments in HFD-induced mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2019.13.5.367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6760985PMC
October 2019

Hepatoprotective effects of blue honeysuckle on CCl-induced acute liver damaged mice.

Food Sci Nutr 2019 Jan 27;7(1):322-338. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Food and Nutrition College of BioNano Technology Gachon University Seongnam-si Gyeonggi-do Korea.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of blue honeysuckle (BH) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced acute hepatic damage in mice. The experiment used a total of 60 ICR mice, which were divided into six groups. Except for the intact control groups, all groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl after a 7 day pre-treatment period with distilled water, BH extracts, or silymarin. Twenty-four hours after the CCl injection, the following observations, representative of classical oxidative stress-mediated centrolobular necrotic acute liver injuries, were observed: decreased body weight; small nodule formation and enlargement on the gross inspections with related liver weight increase; elevation of serum AST and ALT, increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation and related depletion of endogenous antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes; centrolobular necrosis; increases in apoptotic markers, lipid peroxidation markers, and oxidative stress markers. However, liver damage was significantly inhibited by the pre-treatment with BH extracts. The present study demonstrated that oral administration of BH extracts prior to exposure to CCl conferred favorable hepatoprotective effects. These results demonstrated that BHe possessed suitable properties for use as a potent hepatoprotective medicinal food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341158PMC
January 2019

Evaluation of in vitro anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean and Chinese .

Nutr Res Pract 2018 Dec 16;12(6):486-493. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342, Seongnam-daero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13120, Korea.

Background/objectives: The honeysuckle berry (HB) contains ascorbic acid and phenolic components, especially anthocyanins, flavonoids, and low-molecular-weight phenolic acids. In order to examine the potential of HB as a hepatoprotective medicinal food, we evaluated the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean HB (HBK) and Chinese HB (HBC).

Materials/methods: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts were examined in HepG2 and RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. The anti-oxidant capacity was determined by DPPH, SOD, CAT, and ARE luciferase activities. The production of nitric oxide (NO) as an inflammatory marker was also evaluated. The -mediated mRNA levels of heme oxygenase-1 (), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (), and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit () were measured. The concentrations of HB extracts used were 3, 10, 30, 100, and 300 µg/mL.

Results: The radical scavenging activity of all HB extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner ( < 0.01 or < 0.05). SOD ( < 0.05) and CAT ( < 0.01) activities were increased by treatment with 300 µg/mL of each HB extract, when compared to those in the control. NO production was observed in cells pretreated with 100 or 300 µg/mL of HBC and HBK ( < 0.01). Treatment with 300 µg/mL of HBC significantly increased ( < 0.01) and ( < 0.05) mRNA levels compared to those in the control. Treatment with 300 µg/mL of HBK ( < 0.05) and HBC ( < 0.01) also significantly increased the mRNA level compared to that in the control.

Conclusions: Thus, the Korean and Chinese HBs were found to possess favorable anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. and its related anti-oxidant genes were associated with both anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in HB-treated cells. Further studies are needed to confirm these effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2018.12.6.486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277309PMC
December 2018

Anti-obesity and fatty liver-preventing activities of Lonicera caerulea in high-fat diet-fed mice.

Int J Mol Med 2018 Dec 14;42(6):3047-3064. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13120, Republic of Korea.

Blue honeysuckle (BH, Lonicera caerulea) is used as a traditional medicine in Russia, Japan and China, but is not commonly considered as an edible berry in Europe, USA or Korea. BH has been revealed to decrease serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol (triglyceride or TG) levels through the activation of AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK), thus it is expected to be a health functional food and pharmaceutical agent for the prevention of non‑alcoholic liver damage, in addition to effects as a suppressor of hyperlipidemia and as an anti‑obesity agent. In the present study, the pharmacological activity of BH extract (BHe) was observed in high‑fat diet (HFD)‑fed mice. Significant increases in fat pad weight, body weight, fat accumulation (body and abdominal fat density, and thickness of the periovarian and abdominal wall) and serum biochemical levels (aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ‑glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, low‑density lipoprotein and TG, with the exception of high‑density lipoprotein) were observed in HFD‑fed mice. In addition, increases in adipocyte hypertrophy, the area of steatohepatitis and hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed, whereas decreased zymogen content was identified upon histopathological observation. Increased deterioration of the endogenous antioxidant defense system (liver catalase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase) and hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed. In addition, there were decreases in hepatic glucokinase activity, AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 mRNA expression, adipose tissue uncoupling protein 2 expression, and adiponectin mRNA expression, increases in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose‑6‑phosphatase activity, hepatic acetyl‑CoA carboxylase 1 mRNA expression, and the expression of leptin, CCAAT/enhancer‑binding protein (C/EBP) α, C/EBPβ and sterol‑regulatory‑element‑binding protein 1c mRNA in the periovarian tissue. Furthermore, non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity were significantly inhibited by the continuous administration of BHe for 84 days. These results revealed that BHe may be a promising novel drug or functional food candidate for the treatment of obesity and NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2018.3879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202101PMC
December 2018

Immunomodulatory Effects of Kuseonwangdogo-Based Mixed Herbal Formula Extracts on a Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression Mouse Model.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 8;2018:6017412. Epub 2018 Apr 8.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Hanuidae-ro, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 38610, Republic of Korea.

Aim: Kuseonwangdogo is a traditional Korean immunomodulatory polyherbal prescription. However, there are no systemic findings on its complex immunomodulatory effects on models. In this study, we observed the immunomodulatory effects of Kuseonwangdogo-based mixed herbal formula aqueous extracts (MHFe) on cyclophosphamide- (CPA-) induced immunosuppression mouse model.

Methods: In total, 60 male 6-week-old ICR mice (10 mice/group) were selected based on body weight 24 h after the second CPA treatment and used in this experiment. Twelve hours after the end of the last (fourth) oral administration of MHFe, the animals were sacrificed.

Results: Following CPA treatment, a noticeable decrease in the body, thymus, spleen, and submandibular lymph node (LN) weights; white blood cell, red blood cell, platelet number, hemoglobin, and hematocrit concentrations; serum interferon- levels; splenic tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin- (IL-) 1, and IL-10 content; and peritoneal and splenic natural killer cell activities was observed. Depletion of lymphoid cells in the thymic cortex, splenic white pulp, and submandibular LN-related atrophic changes were also observed. However, these CPA-induced myelosuppressive signs were markedly and dose-dependently inhibited by the oral administration of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg MHFe.

Conclusion: MHFe can be a promising, potent immunomodulatory therapeutic agent for various immune disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6017412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5911329PMC
April 2018

Protective effects of guggulsterone against colitis are associated with the suppression of TREM-1 and modulation of macrophages.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 07 15;315(1):G128-G139. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine , Seoul , Korea.

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1)-expressing intestinal macrophages are significantly increased in the colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We focused here on the effects of guggulsterone on macrophage modulation in colitis as a potential therapeutic molecule in human IBD and explore the underlying mechanisms. Gene expression in macrophages was examined and wound-healing assay using HT-29 cells was performed. Colitis in wild-type and IL-10-, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-, and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)-deficient mice was induced via the administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into the colon. In both in vitro and in vivo experiments, guggulsterone suppressed intestinal inflammation amplified by TREM-1 stimulation, in which the suppression of NF-κB, activating protein-1, and proteasome pathways was involved. In the TNBS-induced colitis model, guggulsterone reduced disease activity index scores and TREM-1 expression, stimulated IL-10 production, and improved survival in wild-type mice. These effects were not observed in IL-10-, TLR4-, and MyD88-deficient mice. Guggulsterone also suppressed M1 polarization, yet induced the M2 phenotype in macrophages from IBD patients as well as from mice. These findings indicate that guggulsterone blocks the hyperactivation of macrophages via TREM-1 suppression and induces M2 polarization via IL-10 mediated by the TLR4 signaling pathway. Furthermore, this study provides a new rationale for the therapeutic potential of guggulsterone in the treatment of IBD. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that guggulsterone attenuates triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1)-mediated hyperactivation of macrophages and polarizes macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. This was mediated by IL-10 and partly Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways. Overall, these data support that guggulsterone as a natural plant sterol modulates macrophage phenotypes in colitis, which may be of novel therapeutic importance in inflammatory bowel disease treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00027.2018DOI Listing
July 2018

Molecular mechanisms of cutis laxa- and distal renal tubular acidosis-causing mutations in V-ATPase subunits, ATP6V0A2 and ATP6V0A4.

J Biol Chem 2018 02 8;293(8):2787-2800. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Dental Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1G6; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address:

The subunit is the largest of 15 different subunits that make up the vacuolar H-ATPase (V-ATPase) complex, where it functions in proton translocation. In mammals, this subunit has four paralogous isoforms, 1-4, which may encode signals for targeting assembled V-ATPases to specific intracellular locations. Despite the functional importance of the subunit, its structure remains controversial. By studying molecular mechanisms of human disease-causing missense mutations within subunit isoforms, we may identify domains critical for V-ATPase targeting, activity and/or regulation. cDNA-encoded FLAG-tagged human wildtype ATP6V0A2 (2) and ATP6V0A4 (4) subunits and their mutants, 2 (causing cutis laxa), and 4 and 4 (causing renal tubular acidosis, dRTA), were transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells. -Glycosylation was assessed using endoglycosidases, revealing that 2, 4, and 4 were fully -glycosylated. Cycloheximide (CHX) chase assays revealed that 2 and 4 were unstable relative to wildtype. 4 was degraded predominantly in the proteasomal pathway, whereas 2 was degraded in both proteasomal and lysosomal pathways. Immunofluorescence studies disclosed retention in the endoplasmic reticulum and defective cell-surface expression of 4 and defective Golgi trafficking of 2 Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed an increase in association of 4 with the assembly factor VMA21, and a reduced association with the sector subunit, ATP6V1B1 (B1). For 4, where stability, degradation, and trafficking were relatively unaffected, 3D molecular modeling suggested that the mutation causes dRTA by blocking the proton pathway. This study provides critical information that may assist rational drug design to manage dRTA and cutis laxa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.818872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5827428PMC
February 2018

Anti-obesity effects of yellow catfish protein hydrolysate on mice fed a 45% kcal high-fat diet.

Int J Mol Med 2017 Sep 10;40(3):784-800. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Major in Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, Busan 46958, Republic of Korea.

Obesity contributes to the etiologies of a variety of comorbid conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, the anti-obesity effects of yellow catfish protein hydrolysate (YPh) were observed in mice fed a 45% kcal high-fat diet (HFD) compared with those of mice treated with simvastatin. The HFD-fed control mice exhibited noticeable increase in body weight, and whole-body and abdominal fat densities, periovarian and abdominal wall-deposited fat pad weight, as well as in the levels of triglycerides (TG), blood total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and in the fecal TG and TC contents. However, they exhibited a decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein levels. In addition, an increase was detected in periovarian and dorsal abdominally deposited fat pad thickness, adipocyte hypertrophy, the number of steatohepatitis regions, hepatocyte hypertrophy and lipid droplet deposition-related renal tubular vacuolation degenerative lesions, along with increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and a deteriorated endogenous antioxidant defense system (glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase). However, all the above-mentioned obesity-related complications were dose-dependently and significantly inhibited after 84 days of thye consecutive oral administration of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg YPh. In addition, YPh dose-dependently depleted the liver endogenous antioxidant defense system and inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation. Overall, the effects of 250 mg/kg YPh on HFD-induced obesity and related complications were similar or more potent than those of 10 mg/kg simvastatin. These results indicate that YPh is a promising new potent medicinal ingredient for possible use in the treatment of obesity and related complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5548026PMC
September 2017

N-linked glycosylation of a subunit isoforms is critical for vertebrate vacuolar H -ATPase (V-ATPase) biosynthesis.

J Cell Biochem 2018 01 4;119(1):861-875. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The a subunit of the V membrane-integrated sector of human V-ATPase has four isoforms, a1-a4, with diverse and crucial functions in health and disease. They are encoded by four conserved paralogous genes, and their vertebrate orthologs have positionally conserved N-glycosylation sequons within the second extracellular loop, EL2, of the a subunit membrane domain. Previously, we have shown directly that the predicted sequon for the a4 isoform is indeed N-glycosylated. Here we extend our investigation to the other isoforms by transiently transfecting HEK 293 cells to express cDNA constructs of epitope-tagged human a1-a3 subunits, with or without mutations that convert Asn to Gln at putative N-glycosylation sites. Expression and N-glycosylation were characterized by immunoblotting and mobility shifts after enzymatic deglycosylation, and intracellular localization was determined using immunofluorescence microscopy. All unglycosylated mutants, where predicted N-glycosylation sites had been eliminated by sequon mutagenesis, showed increased relative mobility on immunoblots, identical to what was seen for wild-type a subunits after enzymatic deglycosylation. Cycloheximide-chase experiments showed that unglycosylated subunits were turned over at a higher rate than N-glycosylated forms by degradation in the proteasomal pathway. Immunofluorescence colocalization analysis showed that unglycosylated a subunits were retained in the ER, and co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that they were unable to associate with the V-ATPase assembly chaperone, VMA21. Taken together with our previous a4 subunit studies, these observations show that N-glycosylation is crucial in all four human V-ATPase a subunit isoforms for protein stability and ultimately for functional incorporation into V-ATPase complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.26250DOI Listing
January 2018

Blood glycemia-modulating effects of melanian snail protein hydrolysates in mice with type II diabetes.

Int J Mol Med 2017 Jun 26;39(6):1437-1451. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Major in Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, Sasang-gu, Busan 46958, Republic of Korea.

Freshwater animal proteins have long been used as nutrient supplements. In this study, melanian snail (Semisulcospira libertina) protein hydrolysates (MPh) were found to exert anti-diabetic and protective effects against liver and kidney damage in mice with type II diabetes adapted to a 45% kcal high-fat diet (HFD). The hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of MPh were analyzed after 12 weeks of the continuous oral administration of MPh at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Diabetic control mice exhibited an increase in body weight, and blood glucose and insulin levels, with a decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. In addition, an increase in the regions of steatohepatitis, hepatocyte hypertrophy, and lipid droplet deposit-related renal tubular vacuolation degenerative lesions were detected, with noticeable expansion and hyperplasia of the pancreatic islets, and an increase in glucagon- and insulin-producing cells, insulin/glucagon cell ratios in the endocrine pancreas and hepatic lipid peroxidation, as well as decreased zymogen contents. Furthermore, a deterioration of the endogenous antioxidant defense system was observed, with reduced glucose utilization related hepatic glucokinase (GK) activity and an increase in hepatic gluconeogenesis-related phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose‑6-phosphatase (G6pase) activity. However, all of these diabetic complications were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with MPh in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the marked dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic lipid peroxidation, the depletion of the liver endogenous antioxidant defense system, and changes in hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities were also observed. The results of this study suggest that MPh exerts potent anti-diabetic effects, along with the amelioration of related complications in mice with type II diabetes. The overall effects of MPh at a dose of 125 mg/kg on HFD-induced diabetes and related complications were similar or more potent than those of metformin (250 mg/kg).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.2967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5428967PMC
June 2017

The involvement of ginseng berry extract in blood flow via regulation of blood coagulation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

J Ginseng Res 2017 Apr 15;41(2):120-126. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Background: The present study investigated the effect of ginseng berry hot water extract (GBx) on blood flow via the regulation of lipid metabolites and blood coagulation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD).

Methods: Sixty rats were divided into five groups in descending order of body weight. Except for the control group, the other four groups were fed a HFD containing 45% kcal from fat for 11 wk without GBx. GBx groups were then additionally treated by gastric gavage with GBx dissolved in distilled water at 50 (GBx 50) mg/kg, 100 (GBx 100) mg/kg, or 150 (GBx 150) mg/kg body weight for 6 wk along with the HFD. To investigate the effects of GBx on rats fed a HFD, biochemical metabolite, blood coagulation assay, and histological analysis were performed.

Results: In the experiments to measure the serum levels of leptin and apolipoprotein B/A, GBx treatment attenuated the HFD-induced increases in these metabolites ( < 0.05). Adiponectin and apolipoprotein E levels in GBx-treated groups were significantly higher than the HFD group. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were increased in all GBx-treated groups. In the GBx-treated groups, the serum levels of thromboxane A and serotonin were decreased and concentrations of serum fibrinogen degradation products were increased ( < 0.05). Moreover, histomorphometric dyslipidemia-related atherosclerotic changes were significantly improved by treatment with GBx.

Conclusion: These results suggest the possibility that GBx can ameliorate blood flow by decreasing intima-media thickness via the regulation of blood coagulation factors related to lipid metabolites in rats fed a HFD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2016.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5386124PMC
April 2017

Ameliorating effects of herbal formula hemomine on experimental subacute hemorrhagic anemia in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Feb 9;198:205-213. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Gachon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Hemomine (HM) is an herbal mixture consisting of 5 varieties of the hematopoietic herbal extracts (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz ex Stueudel, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer).

Aim Of The Study: Anemia has been treated with iron supplements, whereas it could cause adverse side effects such as digestive discomfort. In the present study, HM was applied to SHA rats to test for several activities so as to verify its therapeutic potentials on anemia and digestive discomfort.

Materials And Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to seven groups: (Two controls, two references (ferric hydroxide polymatose (FM) and ferritin extract glycerin hydrate (FA)), three different concentrations of HM, n=8 per groups), and induced subacute hemorrhagic anemia (SHA) through blood exsanguinations once a day for 7 days.

Results: The SHA animal model showed changes in the markers related to classic iron-deficient and regenerative anemia in this experiment. However, the SHA related anemic signs were dose-dependently inhibited by the administration of HM 2, 1, and 0.5ml/kg for 7 days, and more favorably than the equal dosages of FM and FA. In addition, FM and FA showed the typical constipation signs, including reduction of in thickness of the colonic mucosa, in contrast, HM 2, 1, and 0.5ml/kg groups had no effects on the gastrointestinal motilities and the colonic mucous components when compared to the controls. The results suggested that the HM significantly showed to have therapeutic effects in the experimental SHA in rats, and is more potent than the commercial iron supplement through the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells with reduced digestive discomfort.

Conclusions: Therefore, Hemomine may prove to be a promising hematopoietic and therapeutic agent for anemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.01.010DOI Listing
February 2017

Polycan, a β-glucan from SM-2001, mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

Exp Ther Med 2016 Sep 27;12(3):1251-1262. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-715, Republic of Korea.

The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Polycan, a β-glucan from SM-2001, in a rat model of ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were orally administered 31.25, 62.5 or 125 mg/kg/day Polycan for 126 days, and alterations in body weight, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, failure load, histological profiles and histomorphometric indices were analyzed. In particular, serum levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP), calcium and phosphorus, and the urine deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio, were measured. Furthermore, the femur, tibia and lumbar vertebrae were harvested from all rats, and histomorphometrical analyses were conducted in order to assess the mass and structure of the bones, and the rates of bone resorption and formation. One group of rats was treated with alendronate, which served as the reference drug. The results of the present study suggested that Polycan treatment was able to inhibit ovariectomy-induced alterations in bone resorption and turnover in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the serum expression levels of bALP and all histomorphometrical indices for bone formation were markedly increased in the Polycan-treated groups. These results indicated that Polycan was able to preserve bone mass and strength, and increase the rate of bone formation in OVX rats; thus suggesting that Polycan may be considered a potential effective anti-osteoporosis agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2016.3485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4998138PMC
September 2016

The Effect of K and Acidity of NiW-Loaded HY Zeolite Catalyst for Selective Ring Opening of 1-Methylnaphthalene.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016 May;16(5):4335-41

Bi-functional catalysts were prepared using HY zeolites with various SiO2/Al2O3 ratios for acidic function, NiW for metallic function, and K for acidity control. 1-Methylnaphthalene was selected as a model compound for multi-ring aromatics in heavy oil, and its selective ring opening reaction was investigated using the prepared bi-functional catalysts with different levels of acidity in a fixed bed reactor system. In NiW/HY catalysts without K addition, the acidity decreased with the SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio of the HY zeolite. Ni1.1W1.1/HY(12) catalyst showed the highest acidity but slightly lower yields for the selective ring opening than Ni1.1W1.1/HY(30) catalyst. The acidity of the catalyst seemed to play an important role as the active site for the selective ring opening of 1-methylnaphthalene but there should be some optimum catalyst acidity for the reaction. Catalyst acidity could be controlled between Ni1.1W1.1/HY(12) and Ni1.1W1.1/HY(30) by adding a moderate amount of K to Ni1.1W1.1/HY(12) catalyst. K0.3Ni1.1W1.1/HY(12) catalyst should have the optimum acidity for the selective ring opening. The addition of a moderate amount of K to the NiW/HY catalyst must improve the catalytic performance due to the optimization of catalyst acidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2016.10996DOI Listing
May 2016

Selective Ring Opening of 1-Methylnaphthalene Over NiW-Supported Catalyst Using Dealuminated Beta Zeolite.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016 Feb;16(2):1715-9

Nanoporous Beta zeolite was dealuminated by weak acid treatment for reducing the acidity. Bi-functional catalysts were prepared using commercial Beta zeolites and the dealuminated zeolites for acidic function, NiW for metallic function. 1-Methylnaphthalene was selected as a model compound for multi-ring aromatics in heavy oil, and its selective ring opening reaction has been investigated using the prepared bi-functional catalysts with different acidity in fixed bed reaction system. The dealuminated Beta zeolites, which crystal structure and nanoporosity were maintained, showed the higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratio and smaller acidity than their original zeolite. NiW-supported catalyst using the dealuminated Beta zeolite with SiO2/Al203 mole ratio of 55 showed the highest performance for the selective ring opening. The acidity of catalyst seemed to play an important role as active sites for the selective ring opening of 1-methylnaphthalene but there should be some optimum catalyst acidity for the reaction. The acidity of Beta zeolite could be controlled by the acid treatment and the catalyst with the optimum acidity for the selective ring opening could be prepared.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2016.11997DOI Listing
February 2016

Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of a standardized potato extract in / mice.

Exp Ther Med 2016 Jul 14;12(1):354-364. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Aribio, Inc., Byeoksan Digital Valley, Suite 1004, Yeongdeungpo-Gu, Seoul 150-095, Republic of Korea.

The potato () has been cultivated globally for food for millenia. Potato contains proteinase inhibitor II, which catalyzes the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), leading to delayed gastric emptying in humans. The present study investigated the anti-obesity effects of Slendesta™ Potato Extract (SLD), a standardized potato extract containing 5% proteinase inhibitor II, in the obese mice. Three doses of SLD (50, 150 or 300 mg/kg) were orally administered to mice once a day for 28 days, whereas control mice were administered distilled water. Four weeks after SLD treatment, the changes in body weight, food consumption, epididymal fat weight, serum chemistry, insulin, leptin and adiponectin contents, and fat histopathology were determined and compared with mice treated with 750 mg/kg conjugate linoleic acid. As a result of SLD treatment in the obese mice, body weight, food consumption, epididymal fat, serum biochemistry, histomorphological changes of fat and pancreas were significantly and dose-dependently decreased compared with control mice. These obesity and type 2 diabetes associated alterations were significantly inhibited after SLD treatment for 28 days. Thus, the present results indicate that SLD has potential as an alternative therapeutic agent for obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2016.3256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4906612PMC
July 2016

The Effects of Topical Application of Polycal (a 2:98 (g/g) Mixture of Polycan and Calcium Gluconate) on Experimental Periodontitis and Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats.

Molecules 2016 Apr 22;21(4):527. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 38610, Korea.

The aim of this study was to observe whether Polycal has inhibitory activity on ligation-induced experimental periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats following topical application to the gingival regions. One day after the ligation placements, Polycal (50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL solutions at 200 μL/rat) was topically applied to the ligated gingival regions daily for 10 days. Changes in bodyweight, alveolar bone loss index, and total number of buccal gingival aerobic bacterial cells were monitored, and the anti-inflammatory effects were investigated via myeloperoxidase activity and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were also evaluated. Bacterial proliferation, periodontitis, and alveolar bone loss induced by ligature placements were significantly inhibited after 10 days of continuous topical application of Polycal. These results indicate that topical application of Polycal has a significant inhibitory effect on periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats mediated by antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6274269PMC
April 2016

Effect of Polycalcium, a mixture of Polycan and calcium lactate-gluconate in a 1:9 weight ratio, on rats with surgery-induced osteoarthritis.

Exp Ther Med 2015 May 4;9(5):1780-1790. Epub 2015 Mar 4.

Glucan Corporation Research Institute, Marine Biotechnology Center, Busan 702-701, Republic of Korea.

In the present study, the beneficial and synergistic effects of Polycalcium, a mixture of Polycan and calcium (Ca) lactate-gluconate in a 1:9 weight ratio, on a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA) were explored. Polycalcium (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally once per day for 28 days from 1 week after the OA-modeling surgery. Diclofenac sodium (2 mg/kg) was administered as a reference drug. Following the OA surgery, increases in the maximum extension angles, edematous changes in knee and capsule thickness, reductions in chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels, as well as changes in cartilage degeneration were observed. However, these OA-related symptoms were inhibited after 28 days of continuous oral treatment with Polycalcium. Anti-OA effects, including the induction of chondrocyte proliferation, were detected in the Polycalcium-treated rats and were more favorable compared with those in rats treated with Polycan or Ca lactate-gluconate alone (100 mg). Therefore, a mixture of Polycan and Ca lactate-gluconate was demonstrated to have beneficial synergistic effects on OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2015.2332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4471810PMC
May 2015

Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2015 12;2015:872428. Epub 2015 May 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Dong-eui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan 614-052, Republic of Korea ; Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, College of Natural Sciences & Human Ecology, Dong-eui University, Busan 614-714, Republic of Korea.

The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF) on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX-) induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/872428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4443785PMC
March 2016

The administration of Fructus Schisandrae attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice.

Int J Mol Med 2015 Jul 4;36(1):29-42. Epub 2015 May 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan 614-052, Republic of Korea.

In the present study, we aimed to determine whether ethanol extracts of Fructus Schisandrae (FS), the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Baillon, mitigates the development of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. Adult SPF/VAT outbred CrljOri:CD1 (ICR) mice were either treated with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Some mice were treated with various concentrations of FS or oxymetholone, a 17α-alkylated anabolic-androgenic steroid. Muscle thickness and weight, calf muscle strength, and serum creatine and creatine kinase (CK) levels were then measured. The administration of FS attenuated the decrease in calf thickness, gastrocnemius muscle thickness, muscle strength and weight, fiber diameter and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles which was induced by dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FS also prevented the dexamethasone-induced increase in serum creatine and creatine kinase levels, histopathological muscle fiber microvacuolation and fibrosis, and the immunoreactivity of muscle fibers for nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal, inducible nitric oxide synthase and myostatin. In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner. FS downregulated the mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and muscle ring-finger protein-1 (involved in muscle protein degradation), myostatin (a potent negative regulator of muscle growth) and sirtuin 1 (a representative inhibitor of muscle regeneration), but upregulated the mRNA expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt1, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4, involved in muscle growth and the activation of protein synthesis. The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone. The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone, by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on muscle fibers, which may be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2015.2200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4494578PMC
July 2015

Effect of polycan, a β-glucan originating from on a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipemic hamster model.

Exp Ther Med 2015 Apr 29;9(4):1369-1378. Epub 2015 Jan 29.

Glucan Corporation, Marine Bio-Industry Development Center, Busan 619-912, Republic of Korea.

The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of polycan, a β-glucan originating from , on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipemia and hepatic damage. A total of 30 hamsters were divided into 6 groups based on their body weight following acclimatization: control, sham, simvastatin (SIMVA) and 3 Polycan groups. In the polycan groups, Polycan, at three concentrations (31.25, 62.5 and 125 mg/kg), was administered orally once a day for 56 days, in addition to the HFD. On the day of sacrifice, changes in the body weight, food consumption, liver weight and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and total cholesterol (T-CHOL) were observed, as well as changes to the liver and aorta (thoracic and abdominal) histopathology and histomorphometry. The results from the polycan groups were compared with a SIMVA 10 mg/kg oral treatment group, in addition to the sham and vehicle control groups. After the HFD-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters were administered Polycan, there was no significant change in their body weight and food consumption when compared with the hamsters in the vehicle control group. However, the serum levels of AST, ALT, triglyceride, T-CHOL and LDL were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the vehicle control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the levels of liver steatosis and arteriosclerosis in the abdominal and thoracic aorta were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). In the SIMVA-treated group, body weight (P<0.05), the serum level of lipids (triglyceride, T-CHOL and LDL; P<0.01) and the level of arteriosclerosis (P<0.01) were significantly reduced when compared with the vehicle control group. However, liver weight and the serum levels of AST, ALT, and liver steatosis increased when compared with the vehicle control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that polycan exerts a favorable effect in decreasing HFD-induced hyperlipemia and associated atherosclerosis, with relatively good protective effects on liver damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2015.2238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4353769PMC
April 2015

Essential oils purified from Schisandrae semen inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2015 Feb 5;15. Epub 2015 Feb 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan, 614-052, Republic of Korea.

Background: The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells from the tunica media to the subendothelial region may be a key event in the development of atherosclerosis after arterial injury. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanisms underlying the anti-atherosclerotic effects of Schisandrae Semen essential oil (SSeo) in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs).

Methods: Metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) activity was evaluated by gelatin zymography and gelatinase activity assay kit. The possible mechanisms underlying SSeo-mediated reduction of by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced cell invasion and inhibition of secreted and cytosolic MMP-9 production in HASMCs were investigated.

Results: Our results indicate that SSeo treatment has an inhibitory effect on activation as well as expression of MMP-9 induced by TNF-α in HASMCs in a dose-dependent manner without significant cytotoxicity. SSeo attenuated nuclear translocation of TNF-α-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and blocked degradation of the NF-κB inhibitor proteins as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. SSeo also reduced TNF-α-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 and inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HASMCs. Furthermore, the Matrigel migration assay showed that SSeo effectively reduced TNF-α-induced HASMC migration compared with that in the control group.

Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that SSeo treatment suppresses TNF-α-induced HASMC migration by selectively inhibiting MMP-9 expression, which was associated with suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that SSeo has putative potential anti-atherosclerotic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0523-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4323209PMC
February 2015

Genotoxicity of rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction.

Biol Pharm Bull 2014 ;37(12):1963-70

RIS Center, IACF, Silla University.

Rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction (RB-SCE) reportedly exhibits pharmacological activities such as antioxidant and in vivo hair growth-inducing effects. Such activities raise the possibility of the development of novel hair growth-inducing agents using RB-SCE. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential genotoxic effects of RB-SCE in three short-term mutagenicity assays (bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus assay). RB-SCE showed no genotoxicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay up to 5000 mg/plate and in the in vivo micronucleus test up to 600 mg/kg body weight. However, at 120 µg/mL with S9 mix and 200 µg/mL without S9 mix RB-SCE showed significantly different genotoxicity than the negative control in the in vitro chromosome aberration test. The induction of chromosomal aberrations under the present conditions may have no biological significance. We have herein demonstrated that RB-SCE can be regarded as a non-genotoxic material based on the available in vivo and in vitro results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b14-00552DOI Listing
August 2015

Laxative effects of fermented rice extract in rats with loperamide-induced constipation.

Exp Ther Med 2014 Dec 17;8(6):1847-1854. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-715, Republic of Korea.

Constipation is a common problem in males and females. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the laxative effects of fermented rice extract (FRe) on rats with loperamide-induced constipation. FRe (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally once per day for six days following 1 h loperamide treatment. The laxative effects of FRe were compared with those of sodium picosulfate (S. picosulfate). Following the induction of constipation in the rats, a marked decrease was observed in the fecal pellet number and water content discharged over 24 h, the surface mucus thickness in the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness of the colonic mucosa and the number of mucus-producing cells, while an increase was observed in the number of fecal pellets remaining in the colonic lumen and their mean diameter, as compared with the normal vehicle control rats. These conditions were significantly alleviated following the administration of the three doses of FRe when compared with the loperamide control group. However, the alleviating effects were lower than those of S. picosulfate, with the exception of the intestinal charcoal transit ratio. Similar effects on the intestinal charcoal transit ratio were detected for the three doses of FRe when compared with the S. picosulfate-treated rats. In conclusion, the results indicated that FRe exhibits a laxative effect without causing diarrhea, as compared with sodium picosulfate; thus, FRe may be effective as a complementary medicine in patients suffering from lifestyle-induced constipation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2014.2030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4218700PMC
December 2014

Synergistic effect of fermented rice extracts on the probiotic and laxative properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 20;2014:878503. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University, 290 Yugok-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-715, Republic of Korea.

Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe) on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1%) was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness, and number of mucous-producing goblet cells in the colonic mucosa, whereas it increased the remnant fecal pellet number and the mean diameter of the colonic lumen. However, this loperamide-induced constipation was ameliorated by treatment with FRe, yoghurt single formula, or 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% BFRe (10 mL/kg). Additionally, the viable numbers of Lactobacillus in the cecal contents and feces were markedly higher than those in constipated rats. Moreover, greater probiotic and laxative effects were detected in BFRe-treated rats than in rats treated with equivalent doses of yoghurt or FRe single formula. Conclusion. The results suggest that addition of FRe to liquid yoghurt will enhance the probiotic and beneficial laxative effects of yoghurt in the digestive tract, without causing side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/878503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4158107PMC
September 2014

Antiosteoporotic effects of Polycan in combination with calcium lactate-gluconate in ovariectomized rats.

Exp Ther Med 2014 Sep 20;8(3):957-967. Epub 2014 Jun 20.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 712-715, Republic of Korea.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimum composition of Polycan (β-glucan complex) and calcium lactate-gluconate (CaLG) that exhibited the most beneficial effects in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic rats. Polycan and CaLG single formulas (100 mg/kg each), and three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of three mixed formulas [polycan:CaLG (PCLG)=1:99, 5:95 and 10:90] were orally administered once a day for 84 days. The effects of the test materials were compared with those of a risedronate sodium-treated group. OVX resulted in an increase in body weight, decreased bone formation, elevated serum osteocalcin levels and urine deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio, as well as decreased serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels, femur indices, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and failure load. However, these OVX-induced osteoporotic changes markedly decreased following the administration of the test materials. Continuous oral treatment of Polycan or CaLG single formulas and the PCLG mixed formulas preserved bone mass and strength. The PCLG 10:90 mixed formula exhibited the most favorable synergistic antiosteoporotic effects in the OVX-induced osteoporotic rats as compared with equal doses of the Polycan or CaLG single formulas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2014.1793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4113539PMC
September 2014

Protective effects of calcium gluconate on osteoarthritis induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy in Sprague-Dawley rats.

J Orthop Surg Res 2014 Mar 7;9(1):14. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-715, Repulic of Korea.

Background: This study aimed to determine whether calcium gluconate exerts protective effects on osteoarthritis (OA) induced by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection and partial medial meniscectomy.

Methods: Calcium gluconate was administered by mouth daily for 84 days to male ACL transected and partial medial meniscectomized Sprague-Dawley rats 1 week after operation.

Results: Eighty-four days of treatment with 50 mg/kg calcium gluconate led to a lower degree of articular stiffness and cartilage damage compared to the OA control, possibly through inhibition of overexpressed cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and related chondrocyte apoptosis. Similar favorable effects on stiffness and cartilage were detected in calcium gluconate-administered rats. Additionally, calcium gluconate increased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake based on observation of BrdU-immunoreactive cells on both the femur and tibia articular surface cartilages 84 days after intra-joint treatment with calcium gluconate.

Conclusions: Taken together, our results demonstrate that calcium gluconate has a protective effect against OA through inhibition of COX-2 and related chondrocyte apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1749-799X-9-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3973837PMC
March 2014

In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.

Biol Pharm Bull 2014 ;37(1):44-53

RIS Center, IACF, Silla University.

The potential hair growth-promoting activity of rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) and major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid, policosanol, γ-oryzanol, and γ-tocotrienol, were evaluated with the histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 mice. RB-SCE showed hair growth-promoting potential to a similar extent as 3% minoxidil, showing that the hair follicles were induced to be in the anagen stage. The numbers of the hair follicles were significantly increased. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were also significantly increased and that of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) decreased in RB-SCE-treated groups. Among the major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid and γ-oryzanol induced the formation of hair follicles according to examination of histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RB-SCE, particularly linoleic acid and γ-oryzanol, promotes hair growth and suggests RB-SCE can be applied as hair loss treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b13-00528DOI Listing
August 2014
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