Publications by authors named "Joo Yeun Lee"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of Photoreceptor Loss on Retinal Circuitry.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2021 Sep;7:105-128

Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email:

Our sense of sight relies on photoreceptors, which transduce photons into the nervous system's electrochemical interpretation of the visual world. These precious photoreceptors can be disrupted by disease, injury, and aging. Once photoreceptors start to die, but before blindness occurs, the remaining retinal circuitry can withstand, mask, or exacerbate the photoreceptor deficit and potentially be receptive to newfound therapies for vision restoration. To maximize the retina's receptivity to therapy, one must understand the conditions that influence the state of the remaining retina. In this review, we provide an overview of the retina's structure and function in health and disease. We analyze a collection of observations on photoreceptor disruption and generate a predictive model to identify parameters that influence the retina's response. Finally, we speculate on whether the retina, with its remarkable capacity to function over light levels spanning nine orders of magnitude, uses these same adaptational mechanisms to withstand and perhaps mask photoreceptor loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-100119-124713DOI Listing
September 2021

Activity-Induced Synaptic Structural Modifications by an Activator of Integrin Signaling at the Neuromuscular Junction.

J Neurosci 2017 03 20;37(12):3246-3263. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute and

Activity-induced synaptic structural modification is crucial for neural development and synaptic plasticity, but the molecular players involved in this process are not well defined. Here, we report that a protein named Shriveled (Shv) regulates synaptic growth and activity-dependent synaptic remodeling at the neuromuscular junction. Depletion of Shv causes synaptic overgrowth and an accumulation of immature boutons. We find that Shv physically and genetically interacts with βPS integrin. Furthermore, Shv is secreted during intense, but not mild, neuronal activity to acutely activate integrin signaling, induce synaptic bouton enlargement, and increase postsynaptic glutamate receptor abundance. Consequently, loss of Shv prevents activity-induced synapse maturation and abolishes post-tetanic potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity. Our data identify Shv as a novel trans-synaptic signal secreted upon intense neuronal activity to promote synapse remodeling through integrin receptor signaling. The ability of neurons to rapidly modify synaptic structure in response to neuronal activity, a process called activity-induced structural remodeling, is crucial for neuronal development and complex brain functions. The molecular players that are important for this fundamental biological process are not well understood. Here we show that the Shriveled (Shv) protein is required during development to maintain normal synaptic growth. We further demonstrate that Shv is selectively released during intense neuronal activity, but not mild neuronal activity, to acutely activate integrin signaling and trigger structural modifications at the neuromuscular junction. This work identifies Shv as a key modulator of activity-induced structural remodeling and suggests that neurons use distinct molecular cues to differentially modulate synaptic growth and remodeling to meet synaptic demand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3128-16.2017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5373117PMC
March 2017

Phosphorylation of Synaptojanin Differentially Regulates Endocytosis of Functionally Distinct Synaptic Vesicle Pools.

J Neurosci 2016 08;36(34):8882-94

Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Department of Cell and Neurobiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, and Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089

Unlabelled: The rapid replenishment of synaptic vesicles through endocytosis is crucial for sustaining synaptic transmission during intense neuronal activity. Synaptojanin (Synj), a phosphoinositide phosphatase, is known to play an important role in vesicle recycling by promoting the uncoating of clathrin following synaptic vesicle uptake. Synj has been shown to be a substrate of the minibrain (Mnb) kinase, a fly homolog of the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A); however, the functional impacts of Synj phosphorylation by Mnb are not well understood. Here we identify that Mnb phosphorylates Synj at S1029 in Drosophila We find that phosphorylation of Synj at S1029 enhances Synj phosphatase activity, alters interaction between Synj and endophilin, and promotes efficient endocytosis of the active cycling vesicle pool (also referred to as exo-endo cycling pool) at the expense of reserve pool vesicle endocytosis. Dephosphorylated Synj, on the other hand, is deficient in the endocytosis of the active recycling pool vesicles but maintains reserve pool vesicle endocytosis to restore total vesicle pool size and sustain synaptic transmission. Together, our findings reveal a novel role for Synj in modulating reserve pool vesicle endocytosis and further indicate that dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Synj differentially maintain endocytosis of distinct functional synaptic vesicle pools.

Significance Statement: Synaptic vesicle endocytosis sustains communication between neurons during a wide range of neuronal activities by recycling used vesicle membrane and protein components. Here we identify that Synaptojanin, a protein with a known role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis, is phosphorylated at S1029 in vivo by the Minibrain kinase. We further demonstrate that the phosphorylation status of Synaptojanin at S1029 differentially regulates its participation in the recycling of distinct synaptic vesicle pools. Our results reveal a new role for Synaptojanin in maintaining synaptic vesicle pool size and in reserve vesicle endocytosis. As Synaptojanin and Minibrain perturbations are associated with various neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's, autism, and Down syndrome, understanding mechanisms modulating Synaptojanin function provides valuable insights into processes affecting neuronal communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1470-16.2016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995302PMC
August 2016

Maintenance of Stem Cell Niche Integrity by a Novel Activator of Integrin Signaling.

PLoS Genet 2016 05 18;12(5):e1006043. Epub 2016 May 18.

Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Stem cells depend critically on the surrounding microenvironment, or niche, for their maintenance and self-renewal. While much is known about how the niche regulates stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, mechanisms for how the niche is maintained over time are not well understood. At the apical tip of the Drosophila testes, germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic stem cells share a common niche formed by hub cells. Here we demonstrate that a novel protein named Shriveled (Shv) is necessary for the maintenance of hub/niche integrity. Depletion of Shv protein results in age-dependent deterioration of the hub structure and loss of GSCs, whereas upregulation of Shv preserves the niche during aging. We find Shv is a secreted protein that modulates DE-cadherin levels through extracellular activation of integrin signaling. Our work identifies Shv as a novel activator of integrin signaling and suggests a new integration model in which crosstalk between integrin and DE-cadherin in niche cells promote their own preservation by maintaining the niche architecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1006043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871447PMC
May 2016

Non-coding RNAs derived from an alternatively spliced REST transcript (REST-003) regulate breast cancer invasiveness.

Sci Rep 2015 Jun 8;5:11207. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

Physiology &Biophysics and Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

RE1-Silencing Transcription factor (REST) has a well-established role in regulating transcription of genes important for neuronal development. Its role in cancer, though significant, is less well understood. We show that REST downregulation in weakly invasive MCF-7 breast cancer cells converts them to a more invasive phenotype, while REST overexpression in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells suppresses invasiveness. Surprisingly, the mechanism responsible for these phenotypic changes does not depend directly on the transcriptional function of REST protein. Instead, it is driven by previously unstudied mid-size (30-200 nt) non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) derived from the first exon of an alternatively spliced REST transcript: REST-003. We show that processing of REST-003 into ncRNAs is controlled by an uncharacterized serine/arginine repeat-related protein, SRRM3. SRRM3 expression may be under REST-mediated transcriptional control, as it increases following REST downregulation. The SRRM3-dependent regulation of REST-003 processing into ncRNAs has many similarities to recently described promoter-associated small RNA-like processes. Targeting ncRNAs that control invasiveness could lead to new therapeutic approaches to limit breast cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep11207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4459148PMC
June 2015
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