Publications by authors named "Joo Myung Lee"

218 Publications

Association Between Preexisting Elevated Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Clinical Outcomes of Future Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Circ J 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine.

Background: Because no data were available regarding the effect of preexisting left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we evaluated whether preexisting high LVFP can determine outcomes of subsequent AMI events.Methods and Results:Among 399,613 subjects who underwent echocardiography for various reason from August 2004 to June 2019, 231 had experienced subsequent AMI and were stratified according to preexisting LVFP: low LVFP (E/e' ≤14) and high LVFP (E/e' >14). The primary outcome was cardiac death at 30 days and 1 year after AMI. Overall, 19.5% had high LVFP prior to AMI events. Preexisting high LVFP was associated with an increased risk of cardiac death at 30 days (3.8% vs. 11.6%; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 4.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-17.24, P=0.026) and 1 year after AMI (7.9% vs. 35.9%; adjusted HR 4.14, 95% CI 1.79-9.57, P<0.001). Preexisting E/e' as a continuous value was significantly associated with 1-year risk of cardiac death (adjusted HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.15, P=0.007). Follow-up echocardiography showed that patients with high LVFP did not show improvement in systolic or diastolic function.

Conclusions: Preexisting high LVFP was associated with poor clinical course and 1-year cardiac death after subsequent AMI, as well as no improvement in systolic or diastolic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-21-0312DOI Listing
July 2021

Coronary Circulatory Indexes Before and After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Porcine Tandem Stenoses Model.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Aug 19;10(15):e021824. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Cardiology Department of Internal Medicine Heart Vascular Stroke InstituteSamsung Medical CenterSungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Seoul Korea.

Background In tandem stenoses, nonhyperemic pressure ratio pullback is the preferred method to fractional flow reserve (FFR), based on the assumption of stable resting coronary flow. This study aimed to evaluate temporal changes of coronary circulatory indexes in tandem stenoses before and after angioplasty for proximal stenosis. Methods and Results Coronary tandem stenoses were created by porcine restenosis model with 2 bare metal stents in the left anterior descending artery. Four weeks later, changes in distal coronary pressure (Pd), averaged peak velocity, microvascular resistance, transstenotic pressure gradient across distal stenosis, resting Pd/aortic pressure, and FFR were measured before and 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after balloon angioplasty for proximal stenosis. After angioplasty, there were significant changes in both resting and hyperemic Pd, averaged peak velocity, microvascular resistance, and transstenotic pressure gradient across distal stenosis (all values <0.01). After initial acute changes, hyperemic averaged peak velocity and microvascular resistance did not show significant difference from the baseline values (=0.712 and 0.972, respectively). Conversely, resting averaged peak velocity remained increased (10.1±0.7 to 17.8±0.7; <0.001) and resting microvascular resistance decreased (6.0±0.1 to 2.2±0.7; <0.001). Transstenotic pressure gradient across distal stenosis was significantly increased in both resting (13.1±7.6 to 25.3±4.2; =0.040) and hyperemic conditions (11.0±3.0 to 27.4±3.3 mm Hg; <0.001). Actual post-percutaneous coronary intervention Pd/aortic pressure and FFR were significantly lower than predicted values (Pd/aortic pressure, 0.68±0.22 versus 0.85±0.14; <0.001; FFR, 0.63±0.08 versus 0.81±0.08; <0.001). Conclusions After angioplasty for proximal stenosis, transstenotic pressure gradient across distal stenosis showed similar changes between resting and hyperemic conditions. Both actual post-percutaneous coronary intervention resting Pd/aortic pressure and FFR were significantly lower than predicted values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.021824DOI Listing
August 2021

Coronary microcirculation assessment using functional angiography: Development of a wire-free method applicable to conventional coronary angiograms.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Clínico San Carlos IDISSC and Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: We aimed to develop a novel wire- and adenosine-free microcirculatory resistive index from functional angiography (angio-IMR) to estimate coronary microcirculatory resistance, and to investigate how this method can improve clinical interpretation of physiological stenosis assessment with quantitative flow ratio (QFR).

Background: Hyperemic index of coronary microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is a widely used tool to assess microcirculatory dysfunction. However, the need of dedicated intracoronary wire and hyperemia limits its adoption in clinical practice.

Methods: We performed our study in two separate stages: (1) development of a formula (angio-IMR) to estimate IMR from resting angiograms and aortic pressure (Pa), and (2) validation of the method in a clinical population using invasively measured IMR as reference. Additionally, QFR diagnostic performance was assessed considering angio-IMR values.

Results: We developed the formula: angio-IMR = (Pa-[0.1*Pa])*QFR*e-Tmn (where e-Tmn is an estimation of hyperaemic mean transit time) and validated it in 115 vessels (104 patients). Angio-IMR correlated well with IMR (Spearman's rho = 0.70, p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, accuracy and area under the curve of angio-IMR to predict IMR were 87.5% (73.2-95.8), 85.3% (75.3-92.4), 76.1% (64.5-84.8), 92.8% (84.9-96.7), 85% and 0.90 (0.83-0.95), respectively. False positive QFR measurements decreased from 19.5% to 8.5% when angio-IMR was incorporated into the QFR interpretation workflow.

Conclusions: Estimation of IMR without physiology wire and adenosine is feasible. Coronary microcirculatory dysfunction causing high IMR can be ruled-out with high confidence in vessels with low angio-IMR. Awareness of angio-IMR contributes to a better clinical interpretation of functional stenosis assessment with QFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29863DOI Listing
July 2021

Dynamic cardiac PET motion correction using 3D normalized gradient fields in patients and phantom simulations.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

This work expands on the implementation of three-dimensional (3D) normalized gradient fields to correct for whole-body motion and cardiac creep in [N-13]-ammonia patient studies and evaluates its accuracy using a dynamic phantom simulation model.

Methods: A full rigid-body algorithm was developed using 3D normalized gradient fields including a multi-resolution step and sampling off the voxel grid to reduce interpolation artifacts. Optimization was performed using a weighted similarity metric that accounts for opposing gradients between images of blood pool and perfused tissue without the need for segmentation. Forty-three retrospective dynamic [N-13]-ammonia PET/CT rest/adenosine-stress patient studies were motion corrected and the mean motion parameters plotted at each frame time point. Motion correction accuracy was assessed using a comprehensive dynamic XCAT simulation incorporating published physiologic parameters of the heart's trajectory following adenosine infusion as well as corrupted attenuation correction commonly observed in clinical studies. Accuracy of the algorithm was assessed objectively by comparing the errors between isosurfaces and centers of mass of the motion corrected XCAT simulations.

Results: In the patient studies, the overall mean cranial-to-caudal translation was 7 mm at stress over the duration of the adenosine infusion. Noninvasive clinical measures of relative flow reserve and myocardial flow reserve were highly correlated with their invasive analogues. Motion correction accuracy assessed with the XCAT simulations showed an error of <1 mm in late perfusion frames that broadened gradually to <3 mm in earlier frames containing blood pool.

Conclusion: This work demonstrates that patients undergoing [N-13]-ammonia dynamic PET/CT exhibit a large cranial-to-caudal translation related to cardiac creep primarily at stress and to a lesser extent at rest, which can be accurately corrected by optimizing their 3D normalized gradient fields. Our approach provides a solution to the challenging condition where the image intensity and its gradients are opposed without the need for segmentation and remains robust in the presence of PET-CT mismatch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15059DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock: Results From the RESCUE Registry.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e008141. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center (J.H.Y., K.H.C., T.K.P., J.M.L., Y.B.S., J.-Y.H., S.-H.C., H.-C.G.), Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: In the current era of mechanical circulatory support, limited data are available on prognosis of cardiogenic shock (CS) caused by various diseases. We investigated the characteristics and predictors of in-hospital mortality in Korean patients with CS.

Methods: The RESCUE study (Retrospective and Prospective Observational Study to Investigate Clinical Outcomes and Efficacy of Left Ventricular Assist Device for Korean Patients With CS) is a multicenter, retrospective, and prospective registry of patients that presented with CS. Between January 2014 and December 2018, 1247 patients with CS were enrolled from 12 major centers in Korea. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.

Results: In-hospital mortality rate was 33.6%. The main causes of shock were ischemic heart disease (80.7%), dilated cardiomyopathy (6.1%), myocarditis (3.2%), and nonischemic ventricular arrhythmia (2.5%). Vasopressors were used in 1081 patients (86.7%). The most frequently used vasopressor was dopamine (63.4%) followed by norepinephrine (57.3%). An intraaortic balloon pump was used in 314 patients (25.2%) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator in 496 patients (39.8%). In multivariable analysis, age ≥70years (odds ratio [OR], 2.73 [95% CI, 1.89-3.94], <0.001), body mass index <25 kg/m (OR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.08-2.16], =0.017), cardiac arrest at presentation (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.44-3.23], <0.001), vasoactive-inotrope score >80 (OR, 3.55 [95% CI, 2.54-4.95], <0.001), requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (OR, 4.14 [95% CI, 2.88-5.95], <0.001), mechanical ventilator (OR, 3.17 [95% CI, 2.16-4.63], <0.001), intraaortic balloon pump (OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.07-2.24], =0.020), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (OR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.25-2.76], =0.002) were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: The in-hospital mortality of patients with CS remains high despite the high utilization of mechanical circulatory support. Age, low body mass index, cardiac arrest at presentation, amount of vasopressor, and advanced organ failure requiring various support devices were poor prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02985008.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.008141DOI Listing
June 2021

Interpretation of coronary steal syndrome and haemodynamic changes after surgical closure of coronary fistula using Doppler wire and computational fluid dynamics analysis: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 Apr 24;5(4):ytab069. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, 93, Daehak-ro, Nam-gu, Ulsan 44610, Republic of Korea.

Background: Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAFs) are rare but can cause myocardial ischaemia and other complications. However, the haemodynamic and physiologic characteristics of significant CAFs requiring treatment are poorly described. We report a case of CAF causing coronary steal syndrome in which haemodynamic changes were assessed before and after surgical closure using a Doppler wire and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique.

Case Summary: A 51-year-old woman presented with exertional chest pain for 3 years. Progressive dyspnoea occurred with exertion. Treadmill and cardiopulmonary exercise tests showed suspicious myocardial ischaemia. Coronary angiography and contrast-enhanced coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) revealed a coronary fistula arising from the distal left main coronary artery that drained into the pulmonary artery trunk. We observed a persistent coronary steal phenomenon at baseline and during hyperaemia and a systolic dominant flow rate pattern inside the CAF by Doppler wire-based flow rate measurement. According to CFD analysis based on CCTA, low wall shear stress and a high focal oscillatory shear index were observed at the ostial sites of aneurysmal sacs in the CAF. After successful surgical closure of the CAF, the vessel sizes and flow rate distributions of the coronary arteries increased.

Discussion: Doppler wire-based flow rate distribution measurements and CFD analysis may facilitate the identification of significant coronary steal syndrome requiring closure and the evaluation of future risks of life-threatening complications such as thrombosis and rupture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytab069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188863PMC
April 2021

Determination of [N-13]-ammonia extraction fraction in patients with coronary artery disease by calibration to invasive coronary and fractional flow reserve.

J Nucl Cardiol 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory School of Medicine, Emory University, 1841 Clifton Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Background: This study presents a new extraction fraction (EF) model based on physiological measures of invasive coronary flow reserve (CFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and normal index microcirculatory resistance (IMR). To ascertain the clinical relevance of the new EFs, flow measurements using the newly patient-determined EFs were compared to flow measurements using traditional animal-determined EFs.

Methods: 39 patients were retrospectively selected that included a total of 91 vascular territories with invasive coronary angiography physiological measures. [N-13]-ammonia dynamic rest/adenosine-stress PET imaging was conducted in all patients and absolute myocardial flow was estimated using four published compartmental models. The extraction fraction during hyperemic flow was iteratively estimated by maximizing the agreement between invasive CFR and FFR with the non-invasive analogs myocardial flow reserve (MFR) and relative flow reserve (RFR) at similar physiological states, respectively.

Results: Using the new patient-determined EFs, agreement between CFR vs MFR for Model 1 and 2 was moderate and poor for Model 3 and 4. All models showed moderate agreement for FFR vs RFR. When using published models of animal-determined EFs, agreement between CFR vs MFR remained moderate for Model 1 and 2, and poor for Model 3 and 4. Similarly, all models showed moderate agreement for FFR vs RFR using animal-determined EF values. None of the observed differences were statistically significant.

Conclusions: Flow measurements using extraction fraction correction for [N-13]-ammonia based on calibration to invasive intracoronary angiography physiological measures in patients with CAD were not discordant from those reported in the literature. Either patient-determined or traditional animal-determined EF correction, when used with the appropriate flow model, yields moderate agreement with invasive measurements of coronary flow reserve and fractional flow reserve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12350-021-02628-4DOI Listing
May 2021

High-Risk Morphological and Physiological Coronary Disease Attributes as Outcome Markers After Medical Treatment and Revascularization.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the prognostic impact of plaque morphology and coronary physiology on outcomes after medical treatment or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Although fractional flow reserve (FFR) is currently best practice, morphological characteristics of coronary artery disease also contribute to outcomes.

Methods: A total of 872 vessels in 538 patients were evaluated by invasive FFR and coronary computed tomography angiography. High-risk attributes (HRA) were defined as high-risk physiological attribute (invasive FFR ≤0.8) and high-risk morphological attributes including: 1) local plaque burden (minimum lumen area <4 mm and plaque burden ≥70%); 2) adverse plaque characteristics ≥2; and 3) global plaque burden (total plaque volume ≥306.5 mm and percent atheroma volume ≥32.2%). The primary outcome was the composite of revascularization, myocardial infarction, or cardiac death at 5 years.

Results: The mean FFR was 0.88 ± 0.08, and PCI was performed in 239 vessels. The primary outcome occurred in 54 vessels (6.2%). All high-risk morphological attributes were associated with the increased risk of adverse outcomes after adjustment for FFR ≤0.8 and demonstrated direct prognostic effect not mediated by FFR ≤0.8. The 5-year event risk proportionally increased as the number of HRA increased (p for trend <0.001) with lower risk in the PCI group than the medical treatment group in vessels with 1 or 2 HRA (9.7% vs. 14.7%), but not in vessels with either 0 or ≥3 HRA. Of the vessels with pre-procedural FFR ≤0.8, ischemia relief by PCI (pre-PCI FFR ≤0.8 and post-PCI FFR >0.8) significantly reduced vessel-oriented composite outcome risk compared with medical treatment alone in vessels with 0 or 1 high-risk morphological attributes (hazard ratio: 0.33; 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.93; p = 0.035), but the risk reduction was attenuated in vessels with ≥2 high-risk morphological attributes.

Conclusions: High-risk morphological attributes offered additive prognostic value to coronary physiology and may optimize selection of treatment strategies by adding to FFR-based risk predictions (CCTA-FFR Registry for Development of Comprehensive Risk Prediction Model; NCT04037163).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.04.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Characteristic findings of microvascular dysfunction on coronary computed tomography angiography in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, 4-1-1 Otsuno, Tsuchiura City, Ibaraki, 300-0028, Japan.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the prevalence of coexistence of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in patients with intermediate epicardial stenosis and to explore coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-derived lesion-, vessel-, and cardiac fat-related characteristic findings associated with CMD.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional single-center study included a total of 177 patients with intermediate stenosis in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) who underwent CCTA and invasive physiological measurements. The 320-slice CCTA analysis included qualitative and quantitative assessments of plaque, vessel, epicardial fat volume (ECFV) and epicardial fat attenuation (ECFA), and pericoronary fat attenuation (FAI). CMD was defined by the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) ≥ 25.

Results: In the entire cohort, median fractional flow reserve (FFR) and median IMR values were 0.77 (0.69-0.84) and 19.0 (13.7-27.7), respectively. The prevalence of CMD was 32.8 % (58/177) in the total cohort. The coexistence of CMD and functionally significant stenosis was 34.3 % (37/108), whereas CMD in nonsignificant intermediate stenosis was 30.4 % (21/69). CMD was significantly associated with greater lumen volume (p = 0.031), greater fibrofatty and necrotic component (FFNC) volume (p = 0.030), and greater ECFV (p = 0.030), but not with FAI (p = 0.832) and ECFA (p = 0.445). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, vessel volume, vessel lumen volume, lesion remodeling index, ECFV, and lesion FFNC volume were independent predictors of CMD.

Conclusions: The prevalence of CMD was about one-third in patients with intermediate stenosis in LAD regardless of the presence or absence of functional stenosis significance. The integrated CCTA assessment may help in the identification of CMD.

Key Points: • The coexistence of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) and functionally significant stenosis was 34.3 %, whereas CMD in nonsignificant intermediate stenosis was 30.4 %. • Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-derived CMD characteristics were vessel volume, vessel lumen volume, remodeling index, epicardial fat volume, and fibrofatty necrotic core volume. • Integrated CCTA assessment may help identify the coexistence of CMD and epicardial stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07909-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Non-randomized comparison between revascularization and deferral for intermediate coronary stenosis with abnormal fractional flow reserve and preserved coronary flow reserve.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 28;11(1):9126. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehang-ro, Chongno-gu, Seoul, 110-744, Korea.

Limited data are available regarding comparative prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus deferral of revascularization in patients with intermediate stenosis with abnormal fractional flow reserve (FFR) but preserved coronary flow reserve (CFR). From the International Collaboration of Comprehensive Physiologic Assessment Registry (NCT03690713), a total of 330 patients (338 vessels) who had coronary stenosis with FFR ≤ 0.80 but CFR > 2.0 were selected for the current analysis. Patient-level clinical outcome was assessed by major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 5 years, a composite of all-cause death, target-vessel myocardial infarction (MI), or target-vessel revascularization. Among the study population, 231 patients (233 vessels) underwent PCI and 99 patients (105 vessels) were deferred. During 5 years of follow-up, cumulative incidence of MACE was 13.0% (31 patients) without significant difference between PCI and deferred groups (12.7% vs. 14.0%, adjusted HR 1.301, 95% CI 0.611-2.769, P = 0.495). Multiple sensitivity analyses by propensity score matching and inverse probability weighting also showed no significant difference in patient-level MACE and vessel-specific MI or revascularization. In this hypothesis-generating study, there was no significant difference in clinical outcomes between PCI and deferred groups among patients with intermediate stenosis with FFR ≤ 0.80 but CFR > 2.0. Further study is needed to confirm this finding.Clinical Trial Registration: International Collaboration of Comprehensive Physiologic Assessment Registry (NCT03690713; registration date: 10/01/2018).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88732-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080642PMC
April 2021

Long-term Outcomes of Clopidogrel Monotherapy versus Prolonged Dual Antiplatelet Therapy beyond 12 Months after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in High-risk Patients.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Apr 26;36(16):e106. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: There are no data on comparison between clopidogrel monotherapy and prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients at high-risk undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Of 2,082 consecutive patients undergoing PCI using second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES), we studied 637 patients at high-risk either angiographically or clinically who received clopidogrel longer than 24 months and were event-free at 12 months after index PCI. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the clopidogrel monotherapy group and the prolonged DAPT group. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), definite or probable stent thrombosis, or stroke between 12 months and 36 months after the index PCI.

Results: In propensity score-matched population (246 pairs), the cumulative rate of primary outcome was 4.5% in the clopidogrel monotherapy group and 4.9% in the prolonged DAPT group (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-2.75; = 0.643). There was no significant difference in all-cause death, MI, stent thrombosis, stroke between the clopidogrel monotherapy group and the prolonged DAPT group.

Conclusion: Compared with prolonged DAPT, clopidogrel monotherapy showed similar long-term outcomes in patients at high-risk after second-generation DES implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076847PMC
April 2021

Prognostic Implication of RV Coupling to Pulmonary Circulation for Successful Weaning From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore if right ventricular (RV) contractile function and its coupling to pulmonary circulation (PC) were associated with successful weaning from venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) at maintenance of pump flow.

Background: Limited data are available on predictors of successful weaning from VA-ECMO. under full cardiac support of VA-ECMO.

Methods: A total of 79 patients with cardiogenic shock underwent transthoracic echocardiography to evaluate weaning from ECMO and were prospectively enrolled between 2016 and 2019. The noninvasively measured RV-PC coupling index was acquired by indexing tricuspid annular S' velocity, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), fractional area change (FAC), and RV free-wall longitudinal strain (FWLS) to right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP).

Results: Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at a median 3.0 days (range 1 to 6 days) after ECMO initiation at a median ECMO flow of 3.2 l/min (range 3.0 to 3.6 l/min). The RV-PC coupling matrix, tricuspid annular S'/RVSP, TAPSE/RVSP, and RV FWLS/RVSP exhibited satisfactory predictive performances for predicting successful weaning from ECMO. Using the best cutoff values derived from the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve, tricuspid annular S'/RVSP demonstrated a significantly better predictive performance than conventional echocardiographic parameters (left ventricular ejection fraction >20%, left ventricular outflow tract time-velocity integral ≥10 cm, and mitral annular S' ≥6 cm/s).

Conclusions: Echocardiographic RV-PC coupling metrics exhibited a significantly better performance for predicting successful weaning from VA ECMO compared with conventional echocardiographic criteria at maintenance of pump flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.02.018DOI Listing
April 2021

P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after coronary stenting according to type of P2Y12 inhibitor.

Heart 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cardiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of).

Objective: To compare P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with 12-month DAPT according to the type of P2Y12 inhibitor in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: The Smart Angioplasty Research Team: Comparison Between P2Y12 Antagonist Monotherapy vs Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients Undergoing Implantation of Coronary Drug-Eluting Stents (SMART-CHOICE) randomised trial compared 3-month DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy with 12-month DAPT. In this trial, 2993 patients undergoing successful PCI with drug-eluting stent were enrolled in Korea. As a prespecified analysis, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT versus 12-month DAPT were compared among patients receiving clopidogrel and those receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitor (ticagrelor or prasugrel), respectively. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or stroke at 12 months after the index procedure.

Results: Among 2993 patients (mean age 64 years), 58.2% presented with acute coronary syndrome. Clopidogrel was prescribed in 2312 patients (77.2%) and a potent P2Y12 inhibitor in 681 (22.8%). There were no significant differences in the primary endpoint between the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group and the DAPT group among patients receiving clopidogrel (3.0% vs 3.0%; HR: 1.02; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.65; p=0.93) as well as among patients receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitors (2.4% vs 0.7%; HR: 3.37; 95% CI 0.77 to 14.78; p=0.11; interaction p=0.1). Among patients receiving clopidogrel, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy compared with DAPT showed consistent treatment effects across various subgroups for the primary endpoint. Among patients receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitors, the rate of bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium types 2- 5) was significantly lower in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group than in the DAPT group (1.5% vs 5.0%; HR: 0.33; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.87; p=0.03).

Conclusions: Compared with 12-month DAPT, clopidogrel monotherapy after 3-month DAPT showed comparable cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing PCI.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02079194.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318821DOI Listing
March 2021

Prognostic value of pericoronary inflammation and unsupervised machine-learning-defined phenotypic clustering of CT angiographic findings.

Int J Cardiol 2021 06 17;333:226-232. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Pericoronary adipose tissue attenuation expressed by fat attenuation index (FAI) on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) reflects pericoronary inflammation and is associated with cardiac mortality.

Objective: The aim of this study was to define the sub-phenotypes of coronary CCTA-defined plaque and whole vessel quantification by unsupervised machine learning (ML) and its prognostic impact when combined with pericoronary inflammation.

Methods: A total of 220 left anterior descending arteries (LAD) with intermediate stenosis who underwent fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement and CCTA were studied. After removal of outcome and FAI data, the phenotype heterogeneity of CCTA-defined plaque and whole vessel quantification was investigated by unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis based on Ward's method. Detailed features of CCTA findings were assessed according to the clusters (CS1 and CS2). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE)-free survivals were assessed according to the stratifications by FAI and the clusters.

Results: Compared with CS2 (n = 119), CS1 (n = 101) were characterized by greater vessel size, increased plaque volume, and high-risk plaque features. FAI was significantly higher in CS1. ROC analyses revealed that best cut-off value of FAI to predict MACE was -73.1. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that lesions with FAI ≥ -73.1 had a significantly higher risk of MACE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that age, FAI ≥ -73.1, and the clusters were independent predictors of MACE.

Conclusion: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed two distinct CCTA-defined subgroups and discriminated by high-risk plaque features and increased FAI. The risk of MACE differs significantly according to the increased FAI and ML-defined clusters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.03.019DOI Listing
June 2021

Age and Functional Relevance of Coronary Stenosis: a Post-Hoc Analysis of the ADVISE II Trial.

EuroIntervention 2021 03 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Interventional Cardiology Unit, Hospital Clinico San Carlos IDISSC, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The influence of age-dependent changes on fractional flow reserve (FFR) or instantaneous free-wave ratio (iFR) and the response to pharmacological hyperaemia has not been investigated.

Aims: We investigated the impact of age on these indices.

Methods: This is as post-hoc analysis of the ADVISE II trial, including a total of 690 pressure recordings (in 591 patients). Age-dependent correlations with FFR and iFR were calculated and adjusted for stenosis severity. Patients were stratified into three age terciles. The hyperaemic response to adenosine, calculated as the difference between resting and hyperaemic pressure ratios, and the prevalence of FFR-iFR discordance were assessed.

Results: Age correlated positively with FFR (r=0.08, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.15, p=0.015), but not with iFR (r=-0.03, 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.04, p=0.411). The hyperaemic response to adenosine decreased with patient age (0.12 ± 0.07, 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.09 ± 0.05, for the 1st[33-58 years], 2nd[59-69 years] and 3rd[70-94 years] age tertiles, respectively, p<0.001) and showed significant correlation with age (r=-0.14, 95% CI -0.21 to -0.06, p<0.001). The proportion of patients with FFR≤0.80 + iFR>0.89 discordance doubled in the first age-tercile (14.1% vs 7.1% vs 7.0%, p=0.005).

Conclusions: The hyperaemic response of the microcirculation to adenosine administration is age-dependent. FFR values increase with patient age, while iFR values remain constant across the age spectrum. These findings contribute to explain differences observed in functional stenosis classification with hyperaemic and non-hyperaemic coronary indices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-20-01163DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical Implications of Physiologic Assessment After Stenting: Practical Tool Beyond Simple Digits.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 03 9;14(3):e010592. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Korea (B.-K.K.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.121.010592DOI Listing
March 2021

Late Survival Benefit of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Compared With Medical Therapy in Patients With Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Mar 4;10(6):e019022. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Cardiology Department of Medicine Heart Vascular and Stroke Institute Samsung Medical CenterSungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Seoul Republic of Korea.

Background As an initial treatment strategy, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) did not show midterm survival benefits compared with optimal medical therapy (OMT). We sought to evaluate the benefit of PCI compared with OMT in patients with CTO over extended long-term follow-up. Methods and Results Between March 2003 and February 2012, 2024 patients with CTO were enrolled in a single-center registry and followed for ≈10 years. We excluded patients with CTO who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (n=477) and classified patients into the CTO-PCI group (n=883) or OMT group (n=664) according to initial treatment strategy. Patients with multivessel disease received PCI for obstructive non-CTO lesions in both groups. In the CTO-PCI group, 699 patients (79.2%) underwent successful revascularization. The CTO-PCI group had a lower 10-year rate of cardiac death (10.4% versus 22.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.44 [95% CI, 0.32-0.59]; <0.001) than the OMT group. After propensity score matching analyses, the CTO-PCI group had a lower 10-year rate of cardiac death (13.6% versus 20.8%; HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.45-0.91]; =0.01) than the OMT group. The relative reduction in cardiac death at 10 years was mainly driven by a relative reduction between 3 and 10 years (8.3% versus 16.6%; HR, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.27-0.71]; <0.001) but not at 3 years (5.7% versus 5.0%; HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.63-2.00]; =0.71). The beneficial effects of CTO-PCI were consistent among subgroups. Conclusions As an initial treatment strategy, CTO-PCI might reduce late cardiac death compared with OMT in patients with CTO. Extended follow-up of randomized trials may confirm the findings of the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174228PMC
March 2021

Differential Prognostic Implications of Vasoactive Inotropic Score for Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock According to Use of Mechanical Circulatory Support.

Crit Care Med 2021 May;49(5):770-780

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To identify whether the prognostic implications of Vasoactive Inotropic Score according to use of mechanical circulatory support differ in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

Design: A multicenter retrospective and prospective observational cohort study.

Setting/patient: The REtrospective and prospective observational Study to investigate Clinical oUtcomes and Efficacy registry includes 1,247 patients with cardiogenic shock from 12 centers in Korea. A total of 836 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock were finally selected, and the study population was stratified by quartiles of Vasoactive Inotropic Score (< 10, 10-30, 30-90, and > 90) for the present study.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality and secondary endpoint was follow-up mortality. Among the study population, 326 patients (39.0%) received medical treatment alone, 218 (26.1%) received intra-aortic balloon pump, and 292 (34.9%) received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In-hospital mortality occurred in 305 patients (36.5%) and was significantly higher in patients with higher Vasoactive Inotropic Score (15.6%, 20.8%, 40.2%, and 67.3%, for < 10, 10-30, 30-90, and > 90; p < 0.001). Vasoactive Inotropic Score showed better ability to predict in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction patients with cardiogenic shock who received medical treatment alone (area under the curve: 0.797; 95% CI, 0.728-0.865) than in those who received intra-aortic balloon pump (area under the curve, 0.704; 95% CI, 0.625-0.783) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (area under the curve, 0.644; 95% CI, 0.580-0.709). The best cutoff value of Vasoactive Inotropic Score for the prediction of in-hospital mortality also differed according to the use of mechanical circulatory support (16.5, 40.1, and 84.0 for medical treatment alone, intra-aortic balloon pump, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, respectively). There was a significant interaction between Vasoactive Inotropic Score as a continuous value and the use of mechanical circulatory support including intra-aortic balloon pump (interaction-p = 0.006) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (interaction-p < 0.001) for all-cause mortality during follow-up.

Conclusions: High Vasoactive Inotropic Score was associated with significantly higher in-hospital and follow-up mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. The predictive value of Vasoactive Inotropic Score for mortality was significantly higher in acute myocardial infarction patients with cardiogenic shock treated by medical treatment alone than in those treated by mechanical circulatory support such as intra-aortic balloon pump or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004815DOI Listing
May 2021

Sex difference in long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention: A propensity-matched analysis of National Health Insurance data in Republic of Korea.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Medical Device Management and Research, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences & Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: We investigated the gender difference in the 5-year outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using an unselected population data.

Background: Sex-specific outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not consistent among studies.

Methods: A total of 48,783 patients were enrolled from a Korean nationwide cohort of PCI in year 2011. Outcomes adjusted with age and propensity for clinical characteristics were compared. Primary outcome was 5-year cumulative incidence of all-cause death. Nonfatal major adverse clinical event (MACE) consisting of revascularization, shock, or stroke was also assessed.

Results: In unadjusted analysis, women were older and had higher frequency of comorbidities including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes compared to men (p < .001, all). Women had higher 5-year death risk than men (21.8 vs. 17.3%; hazard ratio [HR] 1.29, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.23-1.34). In propensity score-matched analysis (N = 28,924), women had lower 5-year death risk (20.2 vs. 26.1%, HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.71-0.78). This lower death risk in women was consistent in subgroup analyses of age, risk factors, and clinical diagnosis including angina or acute myocardial infarction (p < .05, all).

Conclusions: Older age and more common comorbidities in women contributed to the apparent worse outcome after PCI in women. After adjusting these disadvantages, women had better outcome after PCI than men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29511DOI Listing
February 2021

Influence of lesion and disease subsets on the diagnostic performance of the quantitative flow ratio in real-world patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 4;11(1):2995. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Cardiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

The quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a novel angiography-based computational method assessing functional ischemia caused by coronary stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative flow ratio (QFR) in patients with angina and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to identify the conditions with low diagnostic performance. We assessed the QFR for 1077 vessels under fractional flow ratio (FFR) evaluation in 915 patients with angina and AMI. The diagnostic accuracies of the QFR for identifying an FFR ≤ 0.8 were 95.98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.52 to 97.14%) for the angina group and 92.42% (95% CI 86.51 to 96.31%) for the AMI group. The diagnostic accuracy of the QFR in the borderline FFR zones (> 0.75, ≤ 0.85) (91.23% [95% CI 88.25 to 93.66%]) was significantly lower than that in others (difference: 4.32; p = 0.001). The condition accompanying both AMI and the borderline FFR zone showed the lowest QFR diagnostic accuracy in our data (83.93% [95% CI 71.67 to 92.38]). The diagnostic accuracy was reduced for tandem lesions (p = 0.04, not correcting for multiple testing). Our study found that the QFR method yielded a high overall diagnostic performance in real-world patients. However, low diagnostic accuracy has been observed in borderline FFR zones with AMI, and the hybrid FFR approach needs to be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82235-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862355PMC
February 2021

Association of Quantitative Flow Ratio with Lesion Severity and Its Ability to Discriminate Myocardial Ischemia.

Korean Circ J 2021 Feb;51(2):126-139

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Background And Objectives: Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is an angiography-based technique for functional assessment of coronary artery stenosis. This study investigated the response of QFR to different degree of stenosis severity and its ability to predict the positron emission tomography (PET)-defined myocardial ischemia.

Methods: From 109 patients with 185 vessels who underwent both 13N-ammonia PET and invasive physiological measurement, we compared QFR, fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) for the responses to the different degree of anatomical (percent diameter stenosis [%DS]) and hemodynamic (relative flow reserve [RFR], coronary flow reserve, hyperemic stenosis resistance, and stress myocardial flow) stenosis severity and diagnostic performance against PET-derived parameters.

Results: QFR, FFR, and iFR showed similar responses to both anatomic and hemodynamic stenosis severity. Regarding RFR, the diagnostic accuracy of QFR was lower than FFR (76.2% vs. 83.2%, p=0.021) and iFR (76.2% vs. 84.3%, p=0.031). For coronary flow capacity (CFC), QFR showed a lower accuracy than iFR (74.1% vs. 82%, p=0.031) and lower discriminant function than FFR (area under curve: 0.74 vs. 0.79, p=0.044). Discordance between QFR and FFR or iFR was shown in 14.6% of cases and was driven by the difference in %DS and heterogeneous distribution of PET-derived RFR and stress myocardial blood flow.

Conclusions: QFR demonstrated a similar response to different anatomic and hemodynamic stenosis severity as FFR or iFR. However, its diagnostic performance was inferior to FFR and iFR when PET-derived RFR and CFC were used as a reference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853889PMC
February 2021

Effects of Prolonged Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in ST-Segment Elevation vs. Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Circ J 2021 May 9;85(6):817-825. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine.

Background: The benefits and risks of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) have not been studied extensively across a broad spectrum of acute coronary syndromes. In this study we investigated whether treatment effects of prolonged DAPT were consistent in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) vs. non-STEMI (NSTEMI).Methods and Results:As a post hoc analysis of the SMART-DATE trial, effects of ≥12 vs. 6 months DAPT were compared among 1,023 patients presenting with STEMI and 853 NSTEMI patients. The primary outcome was a composite of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) or stent thrombosis at 18 months after the index procedure. Compared with the 6-month DAPT group, the rate of the composite endpoint was significantly lower in the ≥12-month DAPT group (1.2% vs. 3.8%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.77; P=0.012). The treatment effect of ≥12- vs. 6-month DAPT on the composite endpoint was consistent among NSTEMI patients (0.2% vs. 1.2%, respectively; HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.02-1.70; P=0.140; P=0.718). In addition, ≥12-month DAPT increased Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) Type 2-5 bleeding among both STEMI (4.4% vs. 2.0%; HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.03-4.60; P=0.041) and NSTEMI (5.1% vs. 2.2%; HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.08-5.17; P=0.031; P=0.885) patients.

Conclusions: Compared with 6-month DAPT, ≥12-month DAPT reduced recurrent MI or stent thrombosis regardless of the type of MI at presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0704DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety of 3-Month Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Implantation of Ultrathin Sirolimus-Eluting Stents With Biodegradable Polymer (Orsiro): Results From the SMART-CHOICE Trial.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 01 21;10(1):e018366. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Samsung Medical Center Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Seoul Korea.

Background This study sought to investigate the safety of 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients receiving ultrathin sirolimus-eluting stents with biodegradable polymer (Orsiro). Methods and Results The SMART-CHOICE (Smart Angioplasty Research Team: Comparison Between P2Y12 Antagonist Monotherapy vs Dual Anti- platelet Therapy in Patients Undergoing Implantation of Coronary Drug-Eluting Stents) randomized trial compared 3-month DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy with 12-month DAPT in 2993 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The present analysis was a prespecified subgroup analysis for patients receiving Orsiro stents. As a post hoc analysis, comparisons between Orsiro and everolimus-eluting stents were also done among patients receiving 3-month DAPT. Of 972 patients receiving Orsiro stents, 481 patients were randomly assigned to 3-month DAPT and 491 to 12-month DAPT. At 12 months, the target vessel failure, defined as a composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization, occurred in 8 patients (1.7%) in the 3-month DAPT group and in 14 patients (2.9%) in the 12-month DAPT group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.24-1.39; =0.22). In whole population who were randomly assigned to receive 3-month DAPT (n=1495), there was no significant difference in the target vessel failure between the Orsiro group and the everolimus-eluting stent group (n=1014) (1.7% versus 1.8%; HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.41-2.22; =0.92). Conclusions In patients receiving Orsiro stents, clinical outcomes at 1 year were similar between the 3-month DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy and 12-month DAPT strategies. With 3-month DAPT, there was no significant difference in target vessel failure between Orsiro and everolimus-eluting stents. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02079194.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955499PMC
January 2021

CT Angiographic and Plaque Predictors of Functionally Significant Coronary Disease and Outcome Using Machine Learning.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Mar 25;14(3):629-641. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to investigate the association of stenosis and plaque features with myocardial ischemia and their prognostic implications.

Background: Various anatomic, functional, and morphological attributes of coronary artery disease (CAD) have been independently explored to define ischemia and prognosis.

Methods: A total of 1,013 vessels with fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement and available coronary computed tomography angiography were analyzed. Stenosis and plaque features of the target lesion and vessel were evaluated by an independent core laboratory. Relevant features associated with low FFR (≤0.80) were identified by using machine learning, and their predictability of 5-year risk of vessel-oriented composite outcome, including cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization, were evaluated.

Results: The mean percent diameter stenosis and invasive FFR were 48.5 ± 17.4% and 0.81 ± 0.14, respectively. Machine learning interrogation identified 6 clusters for low FFR, and the most relevant feature from each cluster was minimum lumen area, percent atheroma volume, fibrofatty and necrotic core volume, plaque volume, proximal left anterior descending coronary artery lesion, and remodeling index (in order of importance). These 6 features showed predictability for low FFR (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve: 0.797). The risk of 5-year vessel-oriented composite outcome increased with every increment of the number of 6 relevant features, and it had incremental prognostic value over percent diameter stenosis and FFR (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve: 0.706 vs. 0.611; p = 0.031).

Conclusions: Six functionally relevant features, including minimum lumen area, percent atheroma volume, fibrofatty and necrotic core volume, plaque volume, proximal left anterior descending coronary artery lesion, and remodeling index, help define the presence of myocardial ischemia and provide better prognostication in patients with CAD. (CCTA-FFR Registry for Risk Prediction; NCT04037163).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2020.08.025DOI Listing
March 2021

Differential effects of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients presented with acute coronary syndrome vs. stable ischaemic heart disease after coronary artery bypass grafting.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06351, Republic of Korea.

Aims: The current study sought to evaluate whether long-term clinical outcomes according to the use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) or single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) differed between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable ischaemic heart disease (SIHD) patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG).

Methods And Results: Between January 2001 and December 2017, 3199 patients with ACS (55.3%) and 2583 with SIHD (44.7%) who underwent isolated CABG were enrolled. The study population was stratified using DAPT or SAPT in ACS patients and SIHD patients. The primary outcome was a cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (MI) at 5 years. After CABG, DAPT was more frequently used in patients with ACS than in those with SIHD [n = 1960 (61.3%) vs. n = 1313 (50.8%), P < 0.001]. Among patients with ACS, the DAPT group showed a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular death or MI at 5 years than the SAPT group [DAPT vs. SAPT, 4.0% vs. 7.8%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.521, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.339-0.799; P = 0.003]. In contrast, among patients with SIHD, there was no significant difference in the rate of cardiovascular death or MI at 5 years between the use of DAPT and SAPT (4.0% vs. 4.0%, HR 0.991, 95% CI 0.604-1.626; P = 0.971). These findings were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses and competing risk analysis. In the subgroup analysis, the use of DAPT was associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular death or MI among SIHD patients with a previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), with a significant interaction between the use of DAPT and PCI history (interaction P = 0.011).

Conclusion: Among ACS patients who underwent CABG, the use of DAPT was associated with lower cardiovascular death or MI than the use of SAPT, but this was not the case in SIHD patients.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03870815.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvaa080DOI Listing
July 2020

Automated Algorithm Using Pre-Intervention Fractional Flow Reserve Pullback Curve to Predict Post-Intervention Physiological Results.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 11 14;13(22):2670-2684. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: This study sought to develop an automated algorithm using pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) fractional flow reserve (FFR) pullback recordings to predict post-PCI physiological results in the pre-PCI phase.

Background: Both FFR and percent FFR increase measured after PCI showed incremental prognostic implications. However, there is no current method to predict post-PCI physiological results using physiological assessment in the pre-PCI phase.

Methods: An automated algorithm that analyzes instantaneous FFR gradient per unit time (dFFR(t)/dt) was developed from the derivation cohort (n = 30). Using dFFR(t)/dt, the pattern of atherosclerotic disease in each patient was classified into 3 groups (major, mixed, and minor FFR gradient groups) in both the internal validation cohort with constant pullback method (n = 234) and the external validation cohort with nonstandardized pullback methods (n = 252). All patients in the validation cohorts underwent PCI on the basis of pre-PCI FFR ≤0.80. Suboptimal post-PCI physiological results were defined as both post-PCI FFR <0.84 and percent FFR increase ≤15%. From the derivation cohort, cutoffs of dFFR(t)/dt for major and minor FFR gradient were 0.035/s and 0.015/s, respectively.

Results: In validation cohorts, dFFR(t)/dt showed significant correlations with percent FFR increase (R = 0.801; p < 0.001) and post-PCI FFR (R = 0.099; p = 0.029). In both the internal and external validation cohorts, the major FFR gradient group showed significantly higher post-PCI FFR and percent FFR increase compared with those in the mixed or minor FFR gradient groups (all p values <0.001). The proportions of suboptimal post-PCI physiological results were significantly different among 3 groups (10.4% vs. 25.8% vs. 45.7% for the major, mixed, and minor FFR gradient groups, respectively; p < 0.001) in validation cohorts. Absence of major FFR gradient lesion (odds ratio: 2.435, 95% [CI]: 1.252 to 4.734; p = 0.009) and presence of minor FFR gradient lesion (odds ratio: 2.756, 95% confidence interval: 1.629 to 4.664; p < 0.001) were independent predictors for suboptimal post-PCI physiological results.

Conclusions: The automated algorithm analyzing pre-PCI pullback curve was able to predict post-PCI physiological results. The incidence of suboptimal post-PCI physiological results was significantly different according to algorithm-based classifications in the pre-PCI physiological assessment. (Automated Algorithm Detecting Physiologic Major Stenosis and Its Relationship with Post-PCI Clinical Outcomes [Algorithm-PCI]; NCT04304677).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.06.062DOI Listing
November 2020

Predictors of Survival to Discharge After Successful Weaning From Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock.

Circ J 2020 11 10;84(12):2205-2211. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine.

Background: This study identified predictors of hospital mortality after successful weaning of patients with cardiogenic shock off venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support.Methods and Results:Adult patients who received peripheral VA ECMO from January 2012 to April 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. After excluding patients who died on ECMO support, predictors for survival to discharge were investigated in patients who were successfully weaned off ECMO. Of 191 patients successfully weaned off ECMO, 143 (74.9%) survived to discharge. The prevalence of a history of stroke and coronary artery disease, as well as ECMO-related complications, including newly developed stroke and sepsis, was a higher in patients who did not survive to discharge than in those who did. On the day of ECMO weaning, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and serum lactate were higher in patients who did not survive to discharge, although there was no significant difference in blood pressure and the use of vasoactive drugs between the 2 groups. On multivariable analysis, stroke and sepsis during ECMO support, a lower Glasgow Coma Scale and acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy after weaning were significant predictors for in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: Complications that occurred during ECMO and the presence of extracardiac organ dysfunction after weaning were associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock who were successfully weaned off ECMO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0550DOI Listing
November 2020

Prognostic Value of Prerevascularization Fractional Flow Reserve Mediated by the Postrevascularization Level.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 09 1;3(9):e2018162. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan.

Importance: The prognostic value of pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) fractional flow reserve (FFR) may be associated with the post-PCI FFR and their interaction. To correctly interpret the prognostic value of pre-PCI FFR, it is essential to understand to what extent the association of pre-PCI FFR with clinical outcomes is explained by post-PCI FFR.

Objective: To investigate the extent to which post-PCI FFR mediates the association of pre-PCI FFR with vessel-related outcomes using an international, multicenter collaboration registry.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study used pooled patient data from 4 international FFR registries. A total of 1488 patients with pre-PCI FFR of 0.80 or less who underwent elective PCI were included. Data collection was conducted from November 2011 to August 2019, and analysis was conducted from September 2019 to July 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was target vessel failure (TVF) during 2 years of follow-up. The extent to which post-PCI FFR of less than 0.90 mediated the association of pre-PCI FFR less than 0.75 (vs pre-PCI FFR of 0.75 or greater) with TVF was evaluated using a mediation analysis in a counterfactual framework.

Results: Among 1488 patients, the mean (SD) age was 63.5 (9.9) years and 1161 patients (78.0%) were men. The median (interquartile range) pre-PCI and post-PCI FFR were 0.71 (0.62-0.76) and 0.88 (0.83-0.92), respectively. The direct association of low pre-PCI FFR (ie, <0.75) with TVF was significant (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.03-3.17; P = .04), while the mediation by post-PCI FFR level of less than 0.90 was not (indirect association: odds ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.98-1.09; P = .24). In sensitivity analyses using several pre-PCI cutoffs, the mediations by post-PCI FFR were consistently weak.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, the association of pre-PCI FFR with TVF was not significantly mediated by post-PCI FFR. Poor prognosis due to progressed atherosclerosis, represented as low FFR, may not be reversed by successful PCI that increases FFR. Therefore, the prognostic value of pre-PCI FFR may mainly reflect the global atherosclerotic burden, not the extent of the modifiable epicardial stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.18162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527875PMC
September 2020

Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Nonhyperemic Pressure Ratios: Resting Full-Cycle Ratio, Diastolic Pressure Ratio, and Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 09 11;9(18):e016818. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center Seoul National University Hospital Seoul South Korea.

Background Nonhyperemic pressure ratios (NHPRs) such as instantaneous wave-free ratio, resting full-cycle ratio, or diastolic pressure ratio have emerged as invasive physiologic indices precluding the need for hyperemic agents. The current study sought to evaluate the long-term prognostic implications of NHPRs compared with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods and Results NHPRs were calculated from resting pressure tracings by an independent core laboratory in 1024 vessels (435 patients). The association between NHPRs and the risk of 5-year vessel-oriented composite outcomes (VOCO, a composite of cardiac death, vessel-related myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven revascularization) were analyzed among 864 deferred vessels. Lesions with positive NHPRs (instantaneous wave free ratio, resting full-cycle ratio, and diastolic pressure ratio ≤0.89) or FFR (≤0.80) showed significantly higher risk of VOCO at 5 years than those with negative NHPRs or FFR, respectively. Discriminant ability for 5-year VOCO was not different among NHPRs and FFR (C-index: 0.623-0.641, for comparison=0.215). In comparison of VOCO among the groups with deferred concordant negative (NHPRs-/FFR-), deferred discordant (NHPRs+/FFR- or NHPRs-/FFR+), and revascularized vessels, the cumulative incidence of VOCO were 7.5%, 14.4%, and 14.8% (log-rank <0.001), respectively. The deferred discordant group showed similar risk of VOCO with the revascularized vessel group (hazard ratio, 0.981; 95% CI 0.434-2.217, =0.964). Conclusions Currently available invasive pressure-derived indices showed similar prognostic implications for vessel-related events at 5 years. Deferred lesions with discordant results between NHPRs and FFR did not show higher risk of vessel-related events at 5 years than revascularized vessels. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT01621438, NCT01621438.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.016818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726993PMC
September 2020
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