Publications by authors named "Jonny Stephens"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Analysis of Critical Care Severity of Illness Scoring Systems in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Analysis of Three U.K. ICUs.

Crit Care Med 2021 01;49(1):e105-e107

Centre for Perioperative Medicine and Critical Care Research, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737699PMC
January 2021

The Career Impact of the National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition.

World Neurosurg 2020 Jan 25;133:e535-e539. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Centre for Learning Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Background: Neurosurgery is a notoriously difficult career to enter and requires medical students to engage in extracurricular activities to demonstrate their commitment to the specialty. The National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition (NUNC) was established in 2013 as a means for students to display this commitment as well as academic ability.

Methods: A bespoke 22-item questionnaire was designed to determine career outcomes and the role of competition attendance in job applications. It was distributed using the SurveyMonkey website to the 87 attendees at the 2013 and 2014 competitions.

Results: Responses were received by 40 competitors (response rate, 46.0%). Twenty-four responders (60.0%) intended to pursue a career in either neurosurgery (n = 18) or neurology (n = 6). This included 10 responders (25.0%) who had successfully entered either neurosurgery (n = 9) or neurology (n = 1). The performance of these 10 was significantly better than the other responders (57.0 ± 13.6% vs. 46.5 ± 13.5% [n = 30]; P = 0.036). Seventeen responders (42.5%) either included their attendance at NUNC in a post-Foundation job application or intend to.

Conclusions: The NUNC provides the opportunity for medical students to demonstrate their interest in neurosurgery. It has the potential to be used as a tool for recognizing medical students suitable for neurosurgery training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.09.086DOI Listing
January 2020

Motor vehicle accidents-related maxillofacial injuries: a multicentre and prospective study.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2019 Sep 13;128(3):199-204. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The purpose of this European multicenter prospective study was to obtain more precise information about the demographic characteristics and etiologic/epidemiologic patterns of motor vehicle accidents (MVA)-related maxillofacial fractures.

Study Design: Of the 3260 patients with maxillofacial fractures admitted within the study period, 326 traumas were caused by MVAs with a male/female ratio of 2.2:1.

Results: The maximum incidence was found in Zagreb (Croatia) (18%) and the minimum in Bergen (Norway) (0%). The most frequent mechanisms were car accidents, with 177 cases, followed by motorcycle accidents. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible, with 199 fractures, followed by maxillo-zygomatic-orbital (MZO) fractures.

Conclusions: In all the 3 groups (car, motorcycle, and pedestrian), mandibular and MZO fractures were the 2 most frequently observed fractures, with some variations. The importance of analyzing MVA-related facial injuries and their features and characteristics should be stressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2018.12.009DOI Listing
September 2019

The Efficacy of Frontline Near-Peer Teaching in a Modern Medical Curriculum.

Anat Sci Educ 2019 May 17;12(3):236-244. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Centre for Learning Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Within medical education a reduction in curriculum time for subjects, such as anatomy puts pressure on educators to ensure the same learning outcomes are conveyed in less time. This has the potential to impact negatively on student experience. Near-peer teaching (NPT) is often praised as an effective revision tool, but its use as a frontline teaching resource remains unreported. The study explores the potential for NPT to promote delivery of learning outcomes and maximize student experience within a neuroanatomy module for second year medical students. The study occurred in three educational settings, (1) frontline NPT of cranial nerves, (2) revision session NPT of cranial nerves, and (3) NPT alongside faculty staff in laboratory-based neuroanatomy practical exercises. For the first and second components, knowledge was measured using a pre- and post-session test and student perception was ascertained with a questionnaire. For the third component, student perception was assessed with an end-of-module survey. The results show that overall, NPT was well received by learners. A significant knowledge gain was seen between the pre- and post-session test of the frontline NPT session. The study presents evidence in favor of using NPTs to supplement the delivery of learning outcomes in a time and resource constrained curriculum. In particular, for the effective delivery of frontline material. Anat Sci Educ 0: 1-9. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ase.1827DOI Listing
May 2019

The National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition: Lessons Learned from Partnering with Students to Innovate Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Education.

Neuroscientist 2019 06 21;25(3):271-280. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

1 Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Undergraduates often perceive neuroscience to be a challenging discipline. As the scope of neuroscience continues to expand, it is important to provide undergraduates with sufficient opportunities to develop their knowledge and skills with the aim of encouraging the future generation of basic and clinical neuroscientists. Through our experience of developing the National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition (NUNC), we have accrued an extensive volume of performance data and subjective insight into the delivery of undergraduate neuroanatomy education, which has the potential to inform how to better engage students within this field. More broadly, our group has implemented a technology enhanced learning platform alongside a peer-assisted teaching program. These achieve the dual purpose of compensating for the reduction in dedicated neuroanatomy teaching hours and encouraging undergraduates to develop an interest in the neurosciences. Here, we consider how improving the learning experience at an undergraduate level encourages further engagement in the neurosciences and the importance of this within the wider neuroscience community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073858418788000DOI Listing
June 2019

The benefits of being a near-peer teacher.

Clin Teach 2018 10 23;15(5):403-407. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Centre for Learning Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK.

Background: Near-peer teaching is used in anatomy education because of its benefits to the learner, teacher and faculty members. Despite the range of reports focusing on the learner, the advantages for the teacher, which are thought to include communication skills, subject knowledge and employability, are only beginning to be explored.

Method: A questionnaire was distributed to the teachers involved in anatomy near-peer teaching at the University of Southampton and Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS). This questionnaire was designed using a rating scale of 0-10 to assess teacher perspectives on their level of knowledge, teaching skills and enjoyment of teaching. Free-text responses determined the teachers' motivation and perceived benefits from the teaching.

Results: Twenty-eight questionnaires were gathered (54.9% response rate), including 20 from Southampton and eight from BSMS. Long-term knowledge retention and better understanding of the material were rated 8.1 and 7.9 out of 10, respectively. Eight responses were from currently practising doctors, who rated how much they now use their teaching skills as doctors as 8.9 out of 10. Of the eight doctors, seven gained points for their foundation programme applications as a direct result of near-peer teaching. The most common motivator for engaging in teaching was to improve subject matter knowledge and the most common benefit was improved communication skills. There are numerous advantages to being a near-peer teacher in medical school DISCUSSION: There are numerous advantages to being a near-peer teacher in medical school, which include knowledge improvement, transferrable professional skills and employability. These initial results support the hypothesised benefits to the teachers and provide a foundation for further longitudinal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tct.12784DOI Listing
October 2018

Investigating the effect of distance between the teacher and learner on the student perception of a neuroanatomical near-peer teaching programme.

Surg Radiol Anat 2016 Dec 25;38(10):1217-1223. Epub 2016 May 25.

Division of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Learning Anatomical Sciences, University of Southampton, Mailpoint 845, South Academic Block, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.

Purpose: Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a highly valuable resource for the education of medical undergraduates with benefits to the students, teachers themselves, and the faculty. To maximise the effectiveness of such teaching programmes, the aim of this study was to determine how the student learning experience, and underpinning social and cognitive congruencies changes as the learner-teacher distance increases.

Methods: Second-year medical students at the University of Southampton participated in a series of neuroanatomy, extra-curricular revision sessions taught by the third-, fourth-, and fifth-year medical students and junior doctors. The students completed a validated questionnaire after the session rating various aspects of the teaching.

Results: Although all teachers delivered sessions that we rated highly with a mean perceived gain in knowledge of 18 % amongst all students, it was found that the third- and fourth-year medical students delivered a session that was rated significantly better than the fifth-year students and junior doctors across all, but one areas of feedback.

Conclusions: We believe that these findings may be explained by the diminishing social and cognitive congruencies shared between learner and teacher with increasing distance. From our results, we hypothesise that graduation is an important threshold, where there is a significant drop in congruencies between the learner and teacher, therefore, having a significant impact on the perception of the NPT session.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-016-1700-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5104784PMC
December 2016

Can medical students accurately predict their learning? A study comparing perceived and actual performance in neuroanatomy.

Anat Sci Educ 2016 Oct 1;9(5):488-95. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Centre for Learning Anatomical Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

It is important that clinicians are able to adequately assess their level of knowledge and competence in order to be safe practitioners of medicine. The medical literature contains numerous examples of poor self-assessment accuracy amongst medical students over a range of subjects however this ability in neuroanatomy has yet to be observed. Second year medical students attending neuroanatomy revision sessions at the University of Southampton and the competitors of the National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition were asked to rate their level of knowledge in neuroanatomy. The responses from the former group were compared to performance on a ten item multiple choice question examination and the latter group were compared to their performance within the competition. In both cohorts, self-assessments of perceived level of knowledge correlated weakly to their performance in their respective objective knowledge assessments (r = 0.30 and r = 0.44). Within the NUNC, this correlation improved when students were instead asked to rate their performance on a specific examination within the competition (spotter, rS = 0.68; MCQ, rS = 0.58). Despite its inherent difficulty, medical student self-assessment accuracy in neuroanatomy is comparable to other subjects within the medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 9: 488-495. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ase.1601DOI Listing
October 2016

Near peer teaching in medical curricula: integrating student teachers in pathology tutorials.

Med Educ Online 2015 30;20:27921. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

Centre For Learning Anatomical Sciences, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Introduction: Due to increased cognitive and social congruence with their tutees, near peer teachers (NPTs) may be capable of more effectively delivering course material. This study examines NPTs as pathology tutors alongside more traditional teachers (e.g., consultants and registrars) to explore their acceptability, effectiveness, and years of 'distance' between tutors and tutees.

Method: In total, 240 first- and second-year undergraduate medical students were taught set material in a pathology tutorial setting by NPTs (fourth-year medical students), registrars, or consultants. Learners were then asked to provide feedback using a 15-item, Likert-type scale.

Results: On 11 of the 15 items, there were no significant differences in students' median ratings. However, NPTs were perceived to be significantly more approachable than consultants, more aware of learning outcomes, more receptive to student input, and more invested in exam success. Compared with second-year students, first-year students showed a preference towards registrar tutors in terms of perceived gain of knowledge and use of time. In contrast, second-year students showed a preference towards NPTs, who provided more perceived knowledge gain and investment in exam success. No significant differences were found regarding consultant tutors.

Discussion: Perhaps due to increased congruence with tutees, NPTs show promise as tutors within medical curricula. This provides advantages not only to tutees, but also to tutors - who may gain vital teaching experience and offer an effective supplement to 'traditional' faculty educators.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4488334PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/meo.v20.27921DOI Listing
February 2016

European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) in children: a multicenter and prospective study.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 May 24;119(5):499-504. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

Department of Maxillofacial surgery, Stomatology Clinic, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia.

Objective: The aim of this study is to present and discuss the results of a European multicentre prospective study about pediatric maxillofacial trauma epidemiology during a year.

Study Design: The following data were recorded: gender, age, etiology, site of fracture, date of injury. Of the 3396 patients with maxillofacial fractures admitted within the study period, 114 (3.3%) were children aged 15 years and younger, with a male/female ratio of 2.6:1. Mean age was 10.9 years. Most patients (63%) were aged 11-15 years.

Results: The most frequent cause of injury was fall (36 patients). Sport injuries and assaults were almost limited to the oldest group, whereas falls were more uniformly distributed in the 3 groups. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible with 47 fractures. In particular, 18 condylar fractures were recorded, followed by 12 body fractures.

Conclusions: Falls can be acknowledged as the most important cause of facial trauma during the first years of life. The high incidence of sport accidents after 10 years may be a reason to increase the use of mouthguards and other protective equipment. Finally, the mandible (and in particular the condyle) was confirmed as the most frequent fracture site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2014.12.012DOI Listing
May 2015

Assault-related maxillofacial injuries: the results from the European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) multicenter and prospective collaboration.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Apr 11;119(4):385-91. Epub 2014 Dec 11.

Department of Maxillofacial surgery, Stomatology Clinic, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia.

Objective: The aim of this study is to present and discuss the demographic characteristics and patterns of assault-related maxillofacial fractures as reported by a European multicenter prospective study.

Study Design: Demographic and injury data were recorded for each patient who was a victim of an assault.

Results: Assaults represented the most frequent etiology of maxillofacial trauma with an overall rate of 39% and the values ranging between 60.8% (Kiev, Ukraine) and 15.4% (Bergen, Norway). The most frequent mechanisms of assault-related maxillofacial fractures were fists in 730 cases, followed by kicks and fists. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible (814 fractures), followed by orbito-zygomatic-maxillary complex fractures and orbital fractures.

Conclusions: Our data confirmed the strong possibility that patients with maxillofacial fractures may be victims of physical aggression. The crucial role of alcohol in assault-related fractures was also confirmed by our study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2014.12.004DOI Listing
April 2015

European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) project: a multicentre and prospective study.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2015 Jan 22;43(1):62-70. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The purpose of this study was to analyse the demographics, causes and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures managed at several European departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over one year. The following data were recorded: gender, age, aetiology, site of facial fractures, facial injury severity score, timing of intervention, length of hospital stay. Data for a total of 3396 patients (2655 males and 741 females) with 4155 fractures were recorded. The mean age differed from country to country, ranging between 29.9 and 43.9 years. Overall, the most frequent cause of injury was assault, which accounted for the injuries of 1309 patients; assaults and falls alternated as the most important aetiological factor in the various centres. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible with 1743 fractures, followed by orbital-zygomatic-maxillary (OZM) fractures. Condylar fractures were the most commonly observed mandibular fracture. The results of the EURMAT collaboration confirm the changing trend in maxillofacial trauma epidemiology in Europe, with trauma cases caused by assaults and falls now outnumbering those due to road traffic accidents. The progressive ageing of the European population, in addition to strict road and work legislation may have been responsible for this change. Men are still the most frequent victims of maxillofacial injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2014.10.011DOI Listing
January 2015