Publications by authors named "Jong-Min Lee"

819 Publications

Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The relationship between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Our study assessed the prognostic implications of visit-to-visit BPV in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present study enrolled 7,375 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for AMI and at least five measurements of blood pressure after hospital discharge. Visit-to-visit BPV was estimated as variability independent of mean. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The secondary endpoints were major cardiovascular events (the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke) and hospitalization for heart failure. During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, adjusted risks of all-cause mortality, major cardiovascular events, and hospitalization for heart failure continuously increased as systolic BPV and diastolic BPV increased. Patients in the highest quartile of systolic BPV (versus lowest) had increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.51 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.85]), major cardiovascular events (aHR 1.31 [95% CI 1.1-1.55]), and hospitalization for heart failure (aHR 2.15 [95% CI 1.49-3.1]). Patients in the highest quartile of diastolic BPV was also associated with all-cause mortality (aHR 1.39 [95% CI 1.14-1.7]), major cardiovascular events (aHR 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.53]), and hospitalization for heart failure (aHR 2.01[95% CI 1.4-2.87]). Both systolic and diastolic BPV improved the predictive ability of the GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) risk score for both all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events. Higher visit-to-visit BPV was associated with increased risks of mortality and cardiovascular events in patients after AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00594-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Machine learning-assisted optimization of TBBPA-bis-(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) extraction process from ABS polymer.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 2;287(Pt 2):132128. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Energy Research Institute, Nangyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141, Singapore; School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459, Singapore. Electronic address:

The increasing amount of e-waste plastics needs to be disposed of properly, and removing the brominated flame retardants contained in them can effectively reduce their negative impact on the environment. In the present work, TBBPA-bis-(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) (TBBPA-DBP), a novel brominated flame retardant, was extracted by ultrasonic-assisted solvothermal extraction process. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) achieved by machine learning (support vector regression, SVR) was employed to estimate the optimum extraction conditions (extraction time, extraction temperature, liquid to solid ratio) in methanol or ethanol solvent. The predicted optimum conditions of TBBPA-DBP were 96 min, 131 mL g, 65 °C, in MeOH, and 120 min, 152 mL g, 67 °C in EtOH. And the validity of predicted conditions was verified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132128DOI Listing
September 2021

A DNA-derived phage nose using machine learning and artificial neural processing for diagnosing lung cancer.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Aug 14;194:113567. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Bio-IT Fusion Technology Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, South Korea; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, United States. Electronic address:

There is a growing interest in electronic nose-based diagnostic systems that are fast and portable. However, existing technologies are suitable only for operation in the laboratory, making them difficult to apply in a rapid, non-face-to-face, and field-suitable manner. Here, we demonstrate a DNA-derived phage nose (DpNose) as a portable respiratory disease diagnosis system requiring no pretreatment. DpNose was produced based on phage colour films implanted with DNA sequences from mammalian olfactory receptor cells, and as a result, it possesses the comprehensive reactivity of these cells. The manipulated surface chemistry of the genetically engineered phages was verified through a correlation analysis between the calculated and the experimentally measured reactivity. Breaths from 31 healthy subjects and 31 lung cancer patients were collected and exposed to DpNose without pretreatment. With the help of deep learning and neural pattern separation, DpNose has achieved a diagnostic success rate of over 75% and a classification success rate of over 86% for lung cancer based on raw human breath. Based on these results, DpNose can be expected to be directly applicable to other respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113567DOI Listing
August 2021

Neural correlates of self-awareness of cognitive deficits in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background And Purpose: The aim was to investigate the neural correlates of impaired self-awareness of cognitive deficits (IACd) in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 153 drug-naïve and non-demented PD patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, dopamine transporter (DAT) positron emission tomography, detailed neuropsychological testing, and the Cognitive Complaints Interview at baseline. Based on the presence of mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive complaints, patients were grouped into those with IACd (PD-IACd+, n = 33) and those with normal recognition of cognitive function (n = 82) or underestimation of cognitive function (n = 38). Cortical thickness, white matter (WM) integrity, DAT availability and cognitive function were compared between the groups.

Results: The prevalence of IACd was 21.6% in drug-naïve patients with PD. The PD-IACd+ group had a lower z-score in the Stroop color reading test than the other groups. Patients in the PD-IACd+ group had WM disintegrity, especially in the genu of the corpus callosum and anterior limb of the internal capsule, compared to those without IACd, whilst cortical thickness or striatal DAT availability was comparable regardless of the presence of IACd. Amongst patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with IACd had more severe WM disintegrity than those without IACd.

Conclusion: Structural connectivity between and from the frontal lobes is closely associated with self-awareness of cognitive deficits in PD. Evaluating frontal structural connectivity from the early stages of PD will be important in assessing the actual cognitive and daily life performance of patients with PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.15095DOI Listing
September 2021

Use of an Intramedullary Nail to Guide Distal Femoral Resection in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 09 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Case: A 67-year-old female patient presented for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) 4 years after receiving an antegrade femoral nail for bisphosphonate-induced femur fracture. She underwent a single-stage procedure with retention of femoral hardware. The femoral nail was used as a surrogate guide to reference the anatomical axis of the femur to position the distal femoral cutting block with good results.

Conclusion: TKA is possible in patients with femoral intramedullary hardware without the need for hardware removal or extramedullary referencing. This report highlights a technique for the alignment of the femoral component by using the implanted femoral nail as an in situ guide for the placement of the distal femoral cutting block.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.21.00229DOI Listing
September 2021

Risks of Recurrent Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in 1-Year Survivors of Acute Myocardial Infarction Implanted with Newer-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents.

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 17;10(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Current treatments for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have dramatically improved clinical outcomes during the first year after AMI. Less is known, however, about the subsequent risks of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality in patients who survive 1 year after AMI. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes in 1-year AMI survivors who were implanted with newer-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs) since 2010. The COREA-AMI (CardiOvascular Risk and idEntificAtion of potential high-risk population in AMI) registry consecutively enrolled AMI patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and patients who received newer-generation DESs since 2010 were analyzed. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), and secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Of 6242 AMI patients, 5397 were alive 1 year after the index procedure. The cumulative incidence of MACEs and all-cause death 1 to 7 years after AMI were 28.4% (annually 4-6%) and 20.2% (annually 3-4%), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration, as well as traditional risk factors, were associated with MACEs and all-cause death. Recurrent non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and bleeding events within 1 year were significantly associated with all-cause death. The risks of adverse cardiovascular events and death remain high in AMI patients more than 1 year after the index PCI with newer-generation DESs. Traditional risk factors, uncontrolled SBP and LDL-C, and non-fatal adverse events within 1 year after the index procedure strongly influence long-term clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396866PMC
August 2021

Comparisons of survival outcomes between bevacizumab and olaparib in -mutated, platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group study (KGOG 3052).

J Gynecol Oncol 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon, Korea.

Objective: To compare survival outcomes between bevacizumab (BEV) and olaparib (OLA) maintenance therapy in -mutated, platinum-sensitive relapsed (PSR) high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC).

Methods: From 10 institutions, we identified HGSOC patients with germline and/or somatic mutations, who experienced platinum-sensitive recurrence between 2013 and 2019, and received second-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients were divided into BEV (n=29), OLA (n=83), and non-BEV/non-OLA users (n=36). The OLA and non-BEV/non-OLA users were grouped as the OLA intent group. We conducted 1:2 nearest neighbor-matching between the BEV and OLA intent groups, setting the proportion of OLA users in the OLA intent group from 65% to 100% at 5% intervals, and compared survival outcomes among the matched groups.

Results: Overall, OLA users showed significantly better progression-free survival (PFS) than BEV users (median, 23.8 vs. 17.4 months; p=0.004). Before matching, PFS improved in the OLA intent group but marginal statistical significance (p=0.057). After matching, multivariate analyses adjusting confounders identified intention-to-treat OLA as an independent favorable prognostic factor for PFS in the OLA 65P (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.505; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.280-0.911; p=0.023) to OLA 100P (aHR=0.348; 95% CI=0.184-0.658; p=0.001) datasets. The aHR of intention-to-treat OLA for recurrence decreased with increasing proportions of OLA users. No differences in overall survival were observed between the BEV and OLA intent groups, and between the BEV and OLA users.

Conclusion: Compared to BEV, intention-to-treat OLA and actual use of OLA maintenance therapy were significantly associated with decreased disease recurrence risk in patients with -mutated, PSR HGSOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e90DOI Listing
August 2021

Characterization of Latilactobacillus curvatus MS2 isolated from Korean traditional fermented seafood and cholesterol reduction effect as synbiotics with isomalto-oligosaccharide in BALB/c mice.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Sep 26;571:125-130. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Biopharmaceutical Engineering Major, Division of Applied Bioengineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan, 47340, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study investigated the properties of Latilactobacillus curvatus MS2 isolated from Korean traditional fermented seafood as probiotics and the effect of reducing cholesterol as a synbiotic with isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) in BALB/c mice. The isolated strain showed high resistance to acids and bile acids and exhibited a high DPPH scavenging capacity of 72.27 ± 0.38 %. In the intestinal adhesion test using HT-29 cells, the adhesion rate of MS2 was 17.10 ± 1.78 %, which was higher than the adhesion rate of the other investigated probiotics. MS2 showed good antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens, especially Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio vulnificus. This strain had high availability for IMO among the prebiotics of fructo-oligosaccharide, inulin and IMO. Oral administration of MS2 and IMO to BALB/c mice for 5 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in blood cholesterol levels by regulating liver lipid metabolism. These results suggest that the combination of MS2 and IMO has potential for application in functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.07.073DOI Listing
September 2021

Expansion of cytotoxic natural killer cells in multiple myeloma patients using K562 cells expressing OX40 ligand and membrane-bound IL-18 and IL-21.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Research Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Gwangju, South Korea.

Background: Natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach for multiple myeloma (MM), but obtaining a sufficient number of activated NK cells remains challenging. Here, we report an improved method to generate ex vivo expanded NK (eNK) cells from MM patients based on genetic engineering of K562 cells to express OX40 ligand and membrane-bound (mb) IL-18 and IL-21.

Methods: K562-OX40L-mbIL-18/-21 cells were generated by transducing K562-OX40L cells with a lentiviral vector encoding mbIL-18 and mbIL-21, and these were used as feeder cells to expand NK cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors (HDs) and MM patients in the presence of IL-2/IL-15. Purity, expansion rate, receptor expression, and functions of eNK cells were determined over four weeks of culture.

Results: NK cell expansion was enhanced by short exposure of soluble IL-18 and IL-21 with K562-OX40L cells. Co-culture of NK cells with K562-OX40L-mbIL-18/-21 cells resulted in remarkable expansion of NK cells from HDs (9,860-fold) and MM patients (4,929-fold) over the 28-day culture period. Moreover, eNK cells showed increased expression of major activation markers and enhanced cytotoxicity towards target K562, U266, and RPMI8226 cells.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that genetically engineered K562 cells expressing OX40L, mbIL-18, and mbIL-21 improve the expansion of NK cells, increase activation signals, and enhance their cytolytic activity towards MM cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-02982-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical assessment and management of auricular arteriovenous malformation: retrospective study.

Arch Craniofac Surg 2021 Jun 25;22(3):141-147. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Background: Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) which is a high-blood-flow lesion with connections between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary bed, is difficult to manage. The ear is the second most common site of extracranial AVM. However, studies regarding the management of this condition remain lacking. The purpose of this study was to share managing experiences in our center and to investigate the treatment effect through a retrospective analysis of cases.

Methods: Among 265 patients with AVM treated in our vascular anomalies center between January 2008 and January 2021, 10 patients with auricular AVM were included in the study to investigate the lesion distribution, clinical stage, and treatment methods by performing a retrospective evaluation.

Results: Among 10 patients, five patients had AVMs distributed in the upper half of the ear, one patient in the lower half of the ear, and four patients in whole ear, respectively. Seven patients had Schobinger stage II, and three had stage III. One patient received surgical treatment only, four patients received sclerotherapy only, and five patients received both surgical treatment and sclerotherapy. The posttreatment status was checked as controlled in two patients, improved in seven patients, persistent in one patient. There were no worsening patients.

Conclusion: Auricular AVM is a disease that is difficult to manage by one specific department, thus requiring a collaborative management effort from multidisciplinary team.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7181/acfs.2021.00192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257445PMC
June 2021

Key Intrinsic Connectivity Networks for Individual Identification With Siamese Long Short-Term Memory.

Front Neurosci 2021 18;15:660187. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.

In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, many studies have been conducted on inter-subject variability as well as intra-subject reproducibility. These studies indicate that fMRI could have unique characteristics for individuals. In this study, we hypothesized that the dynamic information during 1 min of fMRI was unique and repetitive enough for each subject, so we applied long short-term memory (LSTM) using initial time points of dynamic resting-state fMRI for individual identification. Siamese network is used to obtain robust individual identification performance without additional learning on a new dataset. In particular, by adding a new structure called region of interest-wise average pooling (RAP), individual identification performance could be improved, and key intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) for individual identification were also identified. The average performance of individual identification was 97.88% using the test dataset in eightfold cross-validation analysis. Through the visualization of features learned by Siamese LSTM with RAP, ICNs spanning the parietal region were observed as the key ICNs in identifying individuals. These results suggest the key ICNs in fMRI could represent individual uniqueness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.660187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249867PMC
June 2021

Association Analysis of Chromosome X to Identify Genetic Modifiers of Huntington's Disease.

J Huntingtons Dis 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expanded (>35) CAG trinucleotide repeat in huntingtin (HTT). Age-at-onset of motor symptoms is inversely correlated with the size of the inherited CAG repeat, which expands further in brain regions due to somatic repeat instability. Our recent genetic investigation focusing on autosomal SNPs revealed that age-at-onset is also influenced by genetic variation at many loci, the majority of which encode genes involved in DNA maintenance/repair processes and repeat instability.

Objective: We performed a complementary association analysis to determine whether variants in the X chromosome modify HD.

Methods: We imputed SNPs on chromosome X for ∼9,000 HD subjects of European ancestry and performed an X chromosome-wide association study (XWAS) to test for association with age-at-onset corrected for inherited CAG repeat length.

Results: In a mixed effects model XWAS analysis of all subjects (males and females), assuming random X-inactivation in females, no genome-wide significant onset modification signal was found. However, suggestive significant association signals were detected at Xq12 (top SNP, rs59098970; p-value, 1.4E-6), near moesin (MSN), in a region devoid of DNA maintenance genes. Additional suggestive signals not involving DNA repair genes were observed in male- and female-only analyses at other locations.

Conclusion: Although not genome-wide significant, potentially due to small effect size compared to the power of the current study, our data leave open the possibility of modification of HD by a non-DNA repair process. Our XWAS results are publicly available at the updated GEM EURO 9K website hosted at https://www.hdinhd.org/ for browsing, pathway analysis, and data download.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JHD-210485DOI Listing
June 2021

Huntington's disease: Nearly four decades of human molecular genetics.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MA 02114, USA.

Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurogenetic disorder whose familial nature and progressive course were first described in the 19th century but for which no disease-modifying treatment is yet available. Through the active participation of HD families, this disorder has acted as a flagship for the application of human molecular genetic strategies to identify disease genes, understand pathogenesis and identify rationale targets for development of therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab170DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent Advances in Electrocatalysts for Alkaline Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction.

Small 2021 Jun 23:e2100391. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Energy Storage Devices, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, P. R. China.

With the rapid development of anion-exchange membrane technology and adequate supply of high-performance non-noble metal oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts in alkaline media, the commercialization of anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) become possible. However, the kinetics of the anodic hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) in AEMFCs is significantly decreased compared to the HOR in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Therefore, it is urgent to develop HOR catalysts with low price, high activity, and robust stability. However, comprehensive timely reviews on this specific subject do not exist enough yet and it is necessary to update reported major achievements and to point out future investigation directions. In this review, the current reaction mechanisms on HOR are summarized and deeply understood. The debates between the mechanisms are greatly harmonized. Recent advances in developing highly active and stable electrocatalysts for the HOR are reviewed. Moreover, the side reaction control is for the first time systematically introduced. Finally, the challenges and future opportunities in the field of HOR catalysis are outlined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100391DOI Listing
June 2021

Fluorine-Decorated Graphene Nanoribbons for an Anticorrosive Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 3;13(23):26936-26947. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Fuel Cell Research and Demonstration Center, New and Renewable Energy Institute, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Buan-gun, Jeollabuk-do 56332, Republic of Korea.

Pt-supported carbon material-based electrocatalysts are formidably suffering from carbon corrosion when HO and O molecules are present at high voltages in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this study, we discovered that the edge site of a fluorine-doped graphene nanoribbon (F-GNR) was slightly adsorbed with HO and was thermodynamically unfavorable with O atoms after defining the thermodynamically stable structure of the F-GNR from DFT calculations. Based on computational predictions, the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of F-GNRs with/without Pt nanoparticles derived from a modified Hummer's method and the polyol process were investigated as support materials for electrocatalysts and additives in the cathode of a PEMFC, respectively. The Pt/F-GNR showed the lowest degradation rate in carbon corrosion and was effective in the cathode as additives, resulting from the enhanced carbon corrosion durability owing to the improved structural stability and water management. Notably, the F-GNR with highly stable carbon corrosion contributed to achieving a more durable PEMFC for long-term operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04132DOI Listing
June 2021

Electronic Modulation of Non-van der Waals 2D Electrocatalysts for Efficient Energy Conversion.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 25;33(26):e2008422. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637459, Singapore.

The exploration of efficient electrocatalysts for energy conversion is important for green energy development. Owing to their high surface areas and unusual electronic structure, 2D electrocatalysts have attracted increasing interest. Among them, non-van der Waals (non-vdW) 2D materials with numerous chemical bonds in all three dimensions and novel chemical and electronic properties beyond those of vdW 2D materials have been studied increasingly over the past decades. Herein, the progress of non-vdW 2D electrocatalysts is critically reviewed, with a special emphasis on electronic structure modulation. Strategies for heteroatom doping, vacancy engineering, pore creation, alloying, and heterostructure engineering are analyzed for tuning electronic structures and achieving intrinsically enhanced electrocatalytic performances. Lastly, a roadmap for the future development of non-vdW 2D electrocatalysts is provided from material, mechanism, and performance viewpoints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202008422DOI Listing
July 2021

Investigation of colorimetric biosensor array based on programable surface chemistry of M13 bacteriophage towards artificial nose for volatile organic compound detection: From basic properties of the biosensor to practical application.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Sep 16;188:113339. Epub 2021 May 16.

Bio-IT Fusion Technology Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea; Department of Nano Fusion Technology, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea; Department of Nanoenergy Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Various threats such as explosives, drugs, environmental hormones, and spoiled food manifest themselves with the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in our environment. In order to recognize and respond to these threats early, the demand for highly sensitive and selective electronic noses is increasing. The M13 bacteriophage-based optoelectronic nose is an excellent candidate to meet all these requirements. However, the phage-based electronic nose is still in its infancy, and strategies that include a systematic approach and development are still essential. Here, we have integrated theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze the correlation between the surface chemistry of genetically engineered phage and the phage-based optoelectronic nose properties. The reactivity of the genetically engineered phage color film to some VOCs were quantitatively analyzed, and the correlation with the binding affinity value calculated by Density-functional theory (DFT) was compared. This demonstrates that phage color films have controllable reactivity through a genetic engineering. We have selected phages that are advantageous in distinguishing each VOCs in this work through hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The reason for this difference was verified through the optimized geometry calculated by DFT. Through this, it was confirmed that the tryptophan-based and the Histidine-based of genetically engineered phage film are important in distinguishing the VOCs (Y-hexanolactone, 2-isopropyl-4-methylthiazole, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, and acetaldehyde) used in this work to evaluate the peach freshness quality. This was applied to the design of a field-applied phage-based optoelectronic nose and verified by measuring the freshness of the actual fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113339DOI Listing
September 2021

Automatic control of simulated moving bed process with deep Q-network.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jun 27;1647:462073. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Optimal control of a simulated moving bed (SMB) process is challenging because the system dynamics is represented as nonlinear partial differential-algebraic equations combined with discrete events. In addition, product purity constraints are active at the optimal operating condition, which implies that these constraints can be easily violated by disturbance. Recently, artificial intelligence techniques have received significant attention for their ability to address complex problems, involving a large number of state variables. In this study, a data-based deep Q-network, which is a model-free reinforcement learning method, is applied to the SMB process to train a near-optimal control policy. Using a deep Q-network, the control policy of a complex dynamic system can be trained off-line as long as a sufficient number of data is provided. These data can be efficiently generated by performing numerical simulations in parallel on multiple machines. The on-line computation of the control input using a trained Q-network is fast enough to satisfy the computational time limit for the SMB process. However, because the Q-network does not predict the future state, it is not possible to explicitly impose state constraints. Instead, the state constraints are indirectly imposed by providing a relatively large penalty (negative reward) when the constraints are violate. Furthermore, logic-based switching control is utilized to limit the ranges of the extract and raffinate purities, which helps to satisfy the state constraints and reduce the regions in the state space for reinforcement learning to explore. The simulation results demonstrate the advantages of applying deep reinforcement learning to control the SMB process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462073DOI Listing
June 2021

Metallenes as functional materials in electrocatalysis.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jun;50(12):6700-6719

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459, Singapore.

Metallenes, atomically thin layers composed primarily of under-coordinated metal atoms, have emerged as the newest members in the family of 2D nanomaterials. Furthermore, the remarkable physicochemical properties associated with metallenes coupled with the ease of applying chemical modifications result in exciting opportunities towards catalyst engineering for electrochemical conversions. Especially in recent years, interest around metallenes has grown, evidenced by the surge in available literature. As such, it is imperative to review the findings and present directions for the future. In this review, we highlight the techniques available for deriving metallenes and further discuss the modification strategies commonly employed in devising metallenes to better suit applications in electrocatalysis. We provide a rational understanding of how each strategy drives performance enhancements and present gaps in the knowledge, necessary for further advancements in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs01041cDOI Listing
June 2021

White matter hyperintensities segmentation using the ensemble U-Net with multi-scale highlighting foregrounds.

Neuroimage 2021 08 3;237:118140. Epub 2021 May 3.

USC Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are abnormal signals within the white matter region on the human brain MRI and have been associated with aging processes, cognitive decline, and dementia. In the current study, we proposed a U-Net with multi-scale highlighting foregrounds (HF) for WMHs segmentation. Our method, U-Net with HF, is designed to improve the detection of the WMH voxels with partial volume effects. We evaluated the segmentation performance of the proposed approach using the Challenge training dataset. Then we assessed the clinical utility of the WMH volumes that were automatically computed using our method and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. We demonstrated that the U-Net with HF significantly improved the detection of the WMH voxels at the boundary of the WMHs or in small WMH clusters quantitatively and qualitatively. Up to date, the proposed method has achieved the best overall evaluation scores, the highest dice similarity index, and the best F1-score among 39 methods submitted on the WMH Segmentation Challenge that was initially hosted by MICCAI 2017 and is continuously accepting new challengers. The evaluation of the clinical utility showed that the WMH volume that was automatically computed using U-Net with HF was significantly associated with cognitive performance and improves the classification between cognitive normal and Alzheimer's disease subjects and between patients with mild cognitive impairment and those with Alzheimer's disease. The implementation of our proposed method is publicly available using Dockerhub (https://hub.docker.com/r/wmhchallenge/pgs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382044PMC
August 2021

Conductive GelMA-Collagen-AgNW Blended Hydrogel for Smart Actuator.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04107, Korea.

Blended hydrogels play an important role in enhancing the properties (e.g., mechanical properties and conductivity) of hydrogels. In this study, we generated a conductive blended hydrogel, which was achieved by mixing gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) with collagen, and silver nanowire (AgNW). The ratio of GelMA, collagen and AgNW was optimized and was subsequently gelated by ultraviolet light (UV) and heat. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the conductive blended hydrogels showed that collagen and AgNW were present in the GelMA hydrogel. Additionally, rheological analysis indicated that the mechanical properties of the conductive GelMA-collagen-AgNW blended hydrogels improved. Biocompatibility analysis confirmed that the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) encapsulated within the three-dimensional (3D), conductive blended hydrogels were highly viable. Furthermore, we confirmed that the molecule in the conductive blended hydrogel was released by electrical stimuli-mediated structural deformation. Therefore, this conductive GelMA-collagen-AgNW blended hydrogel could be potentially used as a smart actuator for drug delivery applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13081217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068890PMC
April 2021

Effects of Smoking on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes and Lung Cancer in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Korean Circ J 2021 Apr;51(4):336-348

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Objectives: Smoking is well-established as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, recent studies demonstrated favorable results, including reduced mortality, among smokers, which are referred to as the "smoker's paradox". This study examined the impact of smoking on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Patients with AMI undergoing PCI between 2004 and 2014 were enrolled and classified according to smoking status. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization.

Results: Among the 10,683 patients, 4,352 (40.7%) were current smokers. Smokers were 10.7 years younger and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and prior PCI. Smokers had less MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.644; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.594-0.698; p<0.001) and cardiac death (HR, 0.494; 95% CI, 0.443-0.551; p<0.001) compared to nonsmokers during the 5 years in an unadjusted model. However, after propensity-score matching, smokers showed higher risk of MACE (HR, 1.125; 95% CI, 1.009-1.254; p=0.034) and cardiac death (HR, 1.190; 95% CI, 1.026-1.381; p=0.022). Smoking was a strong independent predictor of lung cancer (propensity-score matched HR, 2.749; 95% CI, 1.416-5.338; p=0.003).

Conclusions: In contrast to the unadjusted model, smoking is associated with worse cardiovascular outcome and higher incidence of lung cancer after adjustment of various confounding factors. This result can be explained by the characteristics of smokers, which were young and had fewer comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022024PMC
April 2021

Phenotypic Diversity of Cardiomyopathy Caused by an Frameshift Mutation in a Korean Family: A Case Report.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 18;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Cardiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is one of the rarest cardiac disorders, with a very poor prognosis, and heart transplantation is the only long-term treatment of choice. We reported that a Korean family presented different cardiomyopathies, such as idiopathic RCM and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), caused by the same mutation in different individuals. A 74-year-old male was admitted for the evaluation of exertional dyspnea, palpitations, and pitting edema in both legs for several months. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed RCM with biatrial enlargement and pericardial effusion. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images revealed normal left ventricular chamber size, borderline diffuse left ventricular hypertrophy and very large atria. In contrast to the proband, CMR images showed asymmetric septal hypertrophy of the left ventricle, consistent with a diagnosis of HCM in the proband's two daughters. Of the five heterozygous variants identified as candidate causes of inherited cardiomyopathy by whole exome sequencing in the proband, Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a heterozygous frameshift mutation (NM_000256.3:c.3313_3314insGG; p.Ala1105Glyfs*85) in in the proband and his affected daughters, but not in his unaffected granddaughter. There is clinical and genetic overlap of HCM with restrictive physiology and RCM, especially when HCM is combined with severe myocardial fibrosis. Family screening with genetic testing and CMR imaging could be excellent tools for the evaluation of idiopathic RCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57030281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002862PMC
March 2021

Structural connectivity networks in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease.

Brain Behav 2021 05 1;11(5):e02112. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: We evaluated disruption of the white matter (WM) network related with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy body disease (LBD), which includes Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies.

Methods: We consecutively recruited 37 controls and 77 patients with AD-related cognitive impairment (ADCI) and/or LBD-related cognitive impairment (LBCI). Diagnoses of ADCI and LBCI were supported by amyloid PET and dopamine transporter PET, respectively. There were 22 patients with ADCI, 19 patients with LBCI, and 36 patients with mixed ADCI/LBCI. We investigated the relationship between ADCI, LBCI, graph theory-based network measures on diffusion tensor images, and cognitive dysfunction using general linear models after controlling for age, sex, education, deep WM hyperintensities (WMH), periventricular WMH, and intracranial volume.

Results: LBCI, especially mixed with ADCI, was associated with increased normalized path length and decreased normalized global efficiency. LBCI was related to the decreased nodal degree of left caudate, which was further associated with broad cognitive dysfunction. Decreased left caudate nodal degree was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the brain regions vulnerable to LBD. Compared with the control group, the LBCI group had an increased betweenness centrality in the occipital nodes, which was associated with decreased FA in the WM adjacent to the striatum and visuospatial dysfunction.

Conclusion: Concomitant ADCI and LBCI are associated with the accentuation of LBCI-related WM network disruption centered in the left caudate nucleus. The increase of occipital betweenness centrality could be a characteristic biologic change associated with visuospatial dysfunction in LBCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119831PMC
May 2021

Hybrid Graphene-Gold Nanoparticle-based Nucleic Acid Conjugates for Cancer-Specific Multimodal Imaging and Combined Therapeutics.

Adv Funct Mater 2021 Jan 23;31(5). Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 123 Bevier Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

Nanoparticle-based nucleic acid conjugates (NP-NACs) hold great promise for theragnostic (diagnostic and therapeutic) applications. However, several limitations have hindered the realization of their full potential in the clinical treatment of cancer and other diseases. In diagnosis, NP-NACs, combined with conventional optical sensing systems, have been applied for cancer detection , but low signal-to-noise ratios limit their broad applications. Meanwhile, the efficiency of NP-NAC-mediated cancer therapies has been limited through the adaptation of alternative pro-survival pathways in cancer cells. The recent emergence of personalized and precision medicine has outlined the importance of both accurate diagnosis and efficient therapeutics in a single platform. As such, we report the controlled assembly of hybrid graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle-based cancer-specific NACs ([email protected] NP-NACs) for multimodal imaging and combined therapeutics. Our developed [email protected] NP-NACs shows excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-mediated live-cell cancer detection and multimodal synergistic cancer therapy through the use of photothermal, genetic, and chemotherapeutic strategies. Synergistic and selective killing of cancer cells were then demonstrated by using microfluidic models and nine different cancer cell lines by further incorporating near-infrared photothermal hyperthermia, a Topoisomerase II anti-cancer drug, and cancer targeting peptides. Moreover, with distinctive advantages of the [email protected] NP-NACs for cancer theragnostics, we further demonstrated precision cancer treatment through the detection of cancer cells using SERS followed by efficient ablation of the tumor. Therefore, our [email protected] NP-NACs could pave a new road for the advanced theragnostics of cancer as well as many other diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202006918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996391PMC
January 2021

Timing and Impact of Psychiatric, Cognitive, and Motor Abnormalities in Huntington Disease.

Neurology 2021 05 25;96(19):e2395-e2406. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

From the Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences (B.M., N.M.W., P.H., L.J., T.H.M.), Brain Repair Group (A.E.R.), Schools of Medicine and Biosciences, and Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute (A.E.R.), Cardiff University, UK; Molecular Neurogenetic Unit (J.F.G., J.-M.L., M.E.M.), Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital; Department of Genetics (J.F.G., J.-M.L., M.E.M.), Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Neurology (G.B.L.), University of Ulm, Germany; and Swiss Huntington's Disease Centre (M.O.), Siloah, Bern, Switzerland.

Objective: To assess the prevalence, timing, and functional impact of psychiatric, cognitive, and motor abnormalities in Huntington disease (HD) gene carriers, we analyzed retrospective clinical data from individuals with manifest HD.

Methods: Clinical features of patients with HD were analyzed for 6,316 individuals in an observational study of the European Huntington's Disease Network (REGISTRY) from 161 sites across 17 countries. Data came from clinical history and the patient-completed Clinical Characteristics Questionnaire that assessed 8 symptoms: motor, cognitive, apathy, depression, perseverative/obsessive behavior, irritability, violent/aggressive behavior, and psychosis. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze relationships between symptoms and functional outcomes.

Results: The initial manifestation of HD is increasingly likely to be motor and less likely to be psychiatric as age at presentation increases and is independent of pathogenic CAG repeat length. The Clinical Characteristics Questionnaire captures data on nonmotor symptom prevalence that correlate specifically with validated clinical measures. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms are common in HD gene carriers, with earlier onsets associated with longer CAG repeats. Of patients with HD, 42.4% reported at least 1 psychiatric or cognitive symptom before motor symptoms, with depression most common. Each nonmotor symptom was associated with significantly reduced total functional capacity scores.

Conclusions: Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms are common and functionally debilitating in HD gene carriers. They require recognition and targeting with clinical outcome measures and treatments. However, because it is impossible to distinguish confidently between nonmotor symptoms arising from HD and primary psychiatric disorders, particularly in younger premanifest patients, nonmotor symptoms should not be used to make a clinical diagnosis of HD.

Trial Registration Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01590589.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166441PMC
May 2021

Nocardioides antri sp. nov., Isolated from Soil in a Rock Cave.

Curr Microbiol 2021 May 11;78(5):2130-2135. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Industrial Biomaterial Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Korea.

A Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated as BN140041, was isolated from cave soil at Gubyeongsan Mountain, Boeun-gun, Chungbuk province in Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain is closely related to Nocardioides silvaticus S-34, N. pelophilus THG-T63, and N. immobilis FLL521 with 97.4%, 97.1%, and 96.8% similarity. The draft genome length was 4.27 Mb containing 424 contigs with a DNA G + C content of 70.5 mol%. The ANI value between strain BN140044 and its closely related species N. silvaticus S-34 was 82.6%. The genome sequence of BN140041 displayed a key enzyme involved in the bioremediation of organic pollutants. The diagnostic diamino acid of peptidoglycan was LL-2,6-diaminopimelic acid. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8(H4), and the major fatty acids (> 5% of the total fatty acids) were iso-C (55.3%), Cω9c (7.7%) and iso-C (5.7%). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol. The results of genotypical, physiological, and biochemical characterization allow the phenotypic differentiation of strain BN140041 from related the Nocardioides strains. Therefore, strain BN140041 represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which we propose the name Nocardioides antri sp. nov. The type strain is BN140041 (= KCTC 49080 = CCTCC AB 2018226).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-021-02370-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Description of desferrioxamine-producing bacterium Chitinophaga agrisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 Jun 10;114(6):741-750. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Industrial Biomaterial Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-806, Korea.

A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, yellow-pigmented and non-spore forming rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain BN140078, was isolated from farmland soil, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea. It was able to grow aerobically at 10-40 °C (optimum 28 °C), pH 5.5-7.5 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0-2.0% (w/v) NaCl concentration (optimum 1.0%) on Reasoner's 2A (R2A) agar medium. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain BN140078 had 96.9%, 96.5% and 96.1% 16S rRNA gene similarities with Chitinophaga ginsengihumi KACC 17604, Chitinophaga rupis KACC 14521 and Chitinophaga japonensis KACC 12057, respectively. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-7 and the major fatty acids (≥ 5%) were C ω5c, iso-C, iso-C 3-OH and Summed Feature 3 (C ω7c and/or C ω6c). The polar lipids were composed of phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified amino lipids and six unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 49.5 mol%. The genome of strain BN140078 comprises a number of biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites, in particular those for non-ribosomal peptide products. The polyphasic taxonomic study clearly distinguished this strain from its closest phylogenetic neighbors. Thus, we propose that the BN140078 represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga agrisoli sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain is BN140078 (=KCTC 62555 = CCTCC AB 2018162).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-021-01554-2DOI Listing
June 2021

3D print material study to reproduce the function of pig heart tissue.

Technol Health Care 2021 ;29(S1):27-34

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Sangyeok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu, South Korea.

Background: Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for heart simulation can be represented as complex anatomical structures, and objective information can be provided.

Objective: We studied 3D print material to find a material with the same elastic coefficient as pig elastic coefficient.

Methods: Pig heart sample, Agilus sample, Tango sample, TPU sample, and silicone sample were studied. The elastic coefficient of each specimen was measured using an elastic coefficient measuring instrument. The analysis was performed using the average value of ten specimens of the same size. We suggested an equation to find the elastic coefficient of material by the thickness using the elastic coefficient of Agilus, Tango, and silicone.

Results: The sample with similar elasticity to the pig sample did not show the same coefficient of elasticity at the same sample size. In Tango, the 0.5 mm high elastic force was about 3 times higher than the pig sample 7 mm elastic force.

Conclusions: The study was conducted using 3D print material and silicone which can reproduce the elasticity of pig heart. However, no material is currently available to reproduce pig heart sample of the same size. However, if the heart is developed considering only elasticity, it can be sufficiently reproduced using the research results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-218003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150471PMC
August 2021

Genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci of brain atrophy to NFIA and ST18 in Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 06 3;102:200.e1-200.e11. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

To identify genetic variants influencing cortical atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of mean cortical thicknesses in 17 AD-related brain. In this study, we used neuroimaging and genetic data of 919 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort, which include 268 cognitively normal controls, 488 mild cognitive impairment, 163 AD individuals. We performed GWAS with 3,041,429 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cortical thickness. The results of GWAS indicated that rs10109716 in ST18 (ST18 C2H2C-type zinc finger transcription factor) and rs661526 in NFIA (nuclear factor I A) genes are significantly associated with mean cortical thicknesses of the left inferior frontal gyrus and left parahippocampal gyrus, respectively. The rs661526 regulates the expression levels of NFIA in the substantia nigra and frontal cortex and rs10109716 regulates the expression levels of ST18 in the thalamus. These results suggest a crucial role of identified genes for cortical atrophy and could provide further insights into the genetic basis of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.01.021DOI Listing
June 2021
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