Publications by authors named "Jong-Hee Kim"

61 Publications

Effects of Interval Exercise Training on Serum Biochemistry and Bone Mineral Density in Dogs.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Aug 28;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Physical Education, College of Performing Arts and Sport, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Korea.

Exercise has been suggested as a powerful intervention for health care and fitness management in humans; however, few studies have demonstrated the benefits of exercise training in dogs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise training on heart rate (HR), bone mineral density (BMD), muscle volume (MV), and hematological and serum biomarkers in dogs. Six healthy beagles completed the interval treadmill exercise, developed on the basis of the FITT principle, two times a week for 12 weeks. To evaluate the physiological parameters, the HR values were analyzed using the Polar H10 system during the entire exercise period. At pre-and post-exercise, quantitative computed tomography and hematological and serum biochemical parameters were analyzed. The interval exercise resulted in a normal HR response and no adverse behavioral or physiological effects on the dogs. We showed that exercise improved BMD in the femur (541.6 ± 16.7 vs. 610.2 ± 27.8 HA, < 0.01) and increased serum total alkaline phosphatase (TALP; 68.6 ± 9.2 vs. 81.3 ± 17.2, < 0.01), aspartate aminotransferase (23.5 ± 1.0 vs. 33.5 ± 1.6, < 0.01), and creatine kinase (114.8 ± 5.3 vs. 214.0 ± 20.8, < 0.01) levels. There was a positive relationship between BMD and TALP (femur: r = 0.760, = 0.004; vertebrae: r = 0.637; = 0.025). Our findings suggest that interval exercise training is beneficial to increase BMD in the femur, and an increased TALP level would be a concomitant mechanism for enhancing BMD with exercise in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11092528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468388PMC
August 2021

Overexpression Confers Heat Shock Tolerance in Transgenic through Inherent Chaperone Activity, Induced Glucosinolate Biosynthesis, and Differential Regulation of Abiotic Stress Response Genes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 16;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (NAS), Rural Development Administration, Jeonju 54874, Korea.

Plant phosphoprotein phosphatases are ubiquitous and multifarious enzymes that respond to developmental requirements and stress signals through reversible dephosphorylation of target proteins. In this study, we investigated the hitherto unknown functions of protein phosphatase 5.2 () by transgenic overexpression of lines. The overexpression of in transgenic lines conferred heat shock tolerance in 65-89% of the young transgenic seedlings exposed to 46 °C for 25 min. The examination of purified recombinant BrPP5.2 at different molar ratios efficiently prevented the thermal aggregation of malate dehydrogenase at 42 °C, thus suggesting that BrPP5.2 has inherent chaperone activities. The transcriptomic dynamics of transgenic lines, as determined using RNA-seq, revealed that 997 and 1206 (FDR < 0.05, logFC ≥ 2) genes were up- and down-regulated, as compared to non-transgenic controls. Statistical enrichment analyses revealed abiotic stress response genes, including heat stress response (HSR), showed reduced expression in transgenic lines under optimal growth conditions. However, most of the HSR DEGs were upregulated under high temperature stress (37 °C/1 h) conditions. In addition, the glucosinolate biosynthesis gene expression and total glucosinolate content increased in the transgenic lines. These findings provide a new avenue related to BrPP5.2 downstream genes and their crucial metabolic and heat stress responses in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234546PMC
June 2021

Plant RNA Binding Proteins as Critical Modulators in Drought, High Salinity, Heat, and Cold Stress Responses: An Updated Overview.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 23;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (NAS), RDA, Jeonju 54874, Korea.

Plant abiotic stress responses are tightly regulated by different players at multiple levels. At transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels, several RNA binding proteins (RBPs) regulate stress response genes through RNA metabolism. They are increasingly recognized as critical modulators of a myriad of biological processes, including stress responses. Plant RBPs are heterogeneous with one or more conservative RNA motifs that constitute canonical/novel RNA binding domains (RBDs), which can bind to target RNAs to determine their regulation as per the plant requirements at given environmental conditions. Given its biological significance and possible consideration as a potential tool in genetic manipulation programs to improve key agronomic traits amidst frequent episodes of climate anomalies, studies concerning the identification and functional characterization of RBP candidate genes are steadily mounting. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of canonical and novel RBPs and their functions in major abiotic stresses including drought, heat, salt, and cold stress conditions. To some extent, we also briefly describe the basic motif structure of RBPs that would be useful in forthcoming studies. Additionally, we also collected RBP genes that were modulated by stress, but that lacked functional characterization, providing an impetus to conduct further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269355PMC
June 2021

The dog as an exercise science animal model: a review of physiological and hematological effects of exercise conditions.

Phys Act Nutr 2020 Dec 31;24(4):1-6. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Physical Education, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Exercise is a fundamental way to maintain and improve health and physical fitness. Many human studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of exercise on various biological parameters. However, studies investigating the effects of exercise in dogs are limited. This review summarized the current data from studies that examined the effects of different exercise conditions (treadmill vs. non-treadmill and acute vs. chronic) on physiological and hematological parameters in dogs.

Methods: Papers addressing the effects of exercise in dogs published from January 2000 to October 2020 were retrieved from the online databases of Scopus, Google Scholar, and PubMed and were selected and reviewed.

Results: The exercise conditions differentially affected physiological and hematological responses and adaptation in dogs. Therefore, the development and comprehensive evaluation of scientific exercise programs for dogs are necessary.

Conclusion: The dog would be a valuable exercise science animal model, and studies aiming at the optimal health, well-being, and quality of life of dogs need to be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20463/pan.2020.0021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923746PMC
December 2020

Potency and Quality of Reconstituted Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A According to Storage Temperatures.

Dermatol Surg 2020 12;46(12):1657-1660

Departments of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: In clinical practice, one of the most important issues regarding the use of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) is the proper storage conditions and the change in potency and quality over time after reconstitution.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the change in potency and quality of reconstituted prabotulinumtoxin A (PraBoNT-A) over time when stored at different storage temperatures.

Materials And Methods: ICR/CD-1 mice and PraBoNT-A were used for the mouse intraperitoneal lethal dose 50% (LD50) test. A thorough quality evaluation of the product was performed.

Results: All of the reconstituted PraBoNT-A stored at different temperatures met the evaluation criteria for the suggested limits of estimated potency and for the quality assessment at every evaluated time point. When the stability of reconstituted PraBoNT-A was evaluated by regression analysis, the shelf life of reconstituted PraBoNT-A was found to be 99.24, 73.80, and 16.34 weeks in the case of PraBoNT-A stored at freezing, refrigeration, or room temperatures, respectively.

Conclusion: Based on the results, the authors conclude that the efficacy and quality of the reconstituted PraBoNT-A product are not compromised at least for a certain period of time and that the shelf life of reconstituted PraBoNT-A is longest when stored at the freezing temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DSS.0000000000002557DOI Listing
December 2020

Changes in Beneficial -glycosylflavones and Policosanol Content in Wheat and Barley Sprouts Subjected to Differential LED Light Conditions.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 6;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (NAS), RDA, Jeonju 54874, Korea.

The spectral quality and intensity of light, photoperiodism, and other environmental factors have profound impacts on the metabolic composition of light-dependent higher plants. Hence, we investigate the effects of fluorescent light (96 μmol ms) and white (100 μmol ms), blue (100 μmol ms), and red (93 μmol ms) light-emitting diode (LED) light irradiation on the -glycosylflavone and policosanol contents in young seedlings of wheat and barley. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analyses of -glycosylflavone contents in barley reveal that the saponarin content is significantly enhanced under blue LED light irradiation. Under similar conditions, isoorientin and isoschaftoside contents are improved in wheat seedlings. The contents of these -glycosylflavones differed along with the light quality and growth period. The highest accumulation was observed in sprouts after three days under blue LED light irradiation. GC/MS analyses of policosanol contents showed that 1-hexacosanol (C26:o-OH) in barley and 1-octacosanol (C28:o-OH) in wheat seedlings were reduced under LED light irradiation, compared to seedlings under fluorescent light conditions. Nonetheless, the policosanol contents gradually improved with the extension of growth times and treatments, irrespective of the light quality. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between the expression pattern of biosynthesis-related genes and the respective metabolite content in barley. This study demonstrates that blue LED light irradiation is useful in maximizing the -glycosylflavone content in barley and wheat sprouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694615PMC
November 2020

Generation and Transcriptome Profiling of Slr1-d7 and Slr1-d8 Mutant Lines with a New Semi-Dominant Dwarf Allele of Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System in Rice.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 31;21(15). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Division of Horticultural Biotechnology, Hankyong National University, Anseong 17579, Korea.

The rice gene encodes the DELLA protein, and a loss-of-function mutation is dwarfed by inhibiting plant growth. We generate slr1-d mutants with a semi-dominant dwarf phenotype to target mutations of the DELLA/TVHYNP domain using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in rice. Sixteen genetic edited lines out of 31 transgenic plants were generated. Deep sequencing results showed that the mutants had six different mutation types at the target site of the TVHYNP domain of the gene. The homo-edited plants selected individuals without DNA (T-DNA) transcribed by segregation in the T1 generation. The slr1-d7 and slr1-d8 plants caused a gibberellin (GA)-insensitive dwarf phenotype with shrunken leaves and shortened internodes. A genome-wide gene expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that the expression levels of two GA-related genes, (Gibberellin oxidase) and , were increased in the edited mutant plants, suggesting that acts as a convert of GA signaling. These mutant plants are required by altering GA responses, at least partially by a defect in the phytohormone signaling system process and prevented cell elongation. The new mutants, namely, the slr1-d7 and slr1-d8 lines, are valuable semi-dominant dwarf alleles with potential application value for molecule breeding using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432230PMC
July 2020

Short-Term ONX-0914 Administration: Performance and Muscle Phenotype in Mice.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 07 19;17(14). Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Department of Physical Education, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-wasting disease. Although the lack of dystrophin protein is the primary defect responsible for the development of DMD, secondary disease complications such as persistent inflammation contribute greatly to the pathogenesis and the time-dependent progression of muscle destruction. The immunoproteasome is a potential therapeutic target for conditions or diseases mechanistically linked to inflammation. In this study, we explored the possible effects of ONX-0914 administration, an inhibitor specific for the immunoproteasome subunit LMP7 (ß5i), on motor performance, muscular pathology and protein degradation in 7-week old mice, an age when the dystrophic muscles show extensive degeneration and regeneration. ONX-0914 (10 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously on Day 2, 4, and 6. The mice were evaluated for physical performance (walking speed and strength) on Day 1 and 8. We show that this short-term treatment of ONX-0914 in mice did not alter strength nor walking speed. The physical performance findings were consistent with no change in muscle inflammatory infiltration, percentage of central nuclei and proteasome content. Taken together, muscle structure and function in the young adult mouse model are not altered with ONX-0914 treatment, indicating the administration of ONX-0914 during this critical time period does not exhibit any detrimental effects and may be an effective treatment of secondary complications of muscular dystrophy after further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399807PMC
July 2020

Vascular Protection by Exercise in Obesity: Inflammasome-associated Mechanisms.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2020 12;52(12):2538-2545

Laboratory of Integrated Physiology, Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston, Houston, TX.

Purpose: The nodlike receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a critical player in vascular pathology as it regulates caspase-1-mediated interleukin (IL)-1β processing. Physical activity ameliorates obesity-induced inflammation and vascular dysfunction, but the mechanisms responsible for these positive changes are incompletely understood. Here, the protective effect of physical activity on the inflammasome-associated vascular dysfunction in obesity and its putative mechanisms were investigated.

Methods: Mice were fed a control low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) and provided with running wheel access (LF-RUN or HF-RUN) or denied wheel access for our sedentary condition (LF-SED or HF-SED). The NLRP3 inflammasome-associated pathway, including NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β, in mice aorta was examined by RT-qPCR and FLICA and DAB staining. The protein expression of zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), ZO-2, adiponectin (APN), and adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) in aortic endothelial cells was determined by immunofluorescence double staining. Intracellular reactive oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) production were monitored with fluorescence probes, dihydroethidium, and diaminofluorecein.

Results: HFD increased caspase-1 and IL-1β at mRNA and protein levels in endothelial cells of the aorta, and this was attenuated by voluntary running. HFD decreased ZO-1 and ZO-2 expression and reduced APN and AdipoR1 signaling; these were restored by running. The elevated intracellular superoxide (O2) production observed in HF-SED was ameliorated in HF-RUN. Finally, HF-RUN improved NO production in the aorta compared with HF-SED.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that voluntary running ameliorates mechanisms associated with vascular dysfunction by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome, improving NO production, and reducing oxidative stress. Such benefits of physical activity may be, at least in part, associated with APN-AdipoR1 signaling and tight junction protein expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002419DOI Listing
December 2020

Gender difference in colorectal cancer indicators for exercise interventions: the National Health Insurance Sharing Service-Derived Big Data Analysis.

J Exerc Rehabil 2019 Dec 31;15(6):811-818. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Physical Education, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

We aimed to examine various characterized features and effects of gender-associated different parameters including exercise on the prevalence of colorectal cancer by using data from the National Health Insurance Sharing Service Database (NHISS DB). Data from NHISS were collected on Koreans aged from 40 to 85 years and were subjected to thematic analysis. The colorectal cancer codes (C19, C20, D011, and D012) from Korean Standard Classification of Disease and Causes of Death selected a target study group, and -test and logistic regression were used. As results, the age was higher for men who had colorectal cancer than the noncancer group; however, high and low blood pressure, hemoglobin, and age had lower values for the cancer group compared to their counterparts in women. Only total cholesterol in men and waist size in women between cancer and noncancer groups were shown to have significant differences. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alanine aminotransaminase (SGPT_ALT) showed significant differences for both sexes. In exercise-related parameter, the response number 2 (1-2 times/wk, 0.535 for odd ratio) in women and response number 3 (3-4 times/wk, 0.466 for odd ratio) in men were associated with a reduced incidence of colon cancer. There was a difference in parameters in colorectal cancer patients over 40 years old for both sexes, but not in SGPT_ALT. Regular physical activity might be one of strong factors affecting or predicting colorectal cancer incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.1938692.346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6944878PMC
December 2019

Associations Between Skeletal Muscle Mass, Grip Strength, and Physical and Cognitive Functions in Elderly Women: Effect of Exercise with Resistive Theraband.

J Exerc Nutrition Biochem 2019 Sep;23(3):50-55

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical and cognitive functions and to examine the effects of resistive Theraband® exercise on sarcopenia-associated variables in the older population.

Methods: A total of 28 elderly women (age: 69.90 ± 0.8 years) participated in this study, 15 of whom underwent elastic band exercise for 1 hour per day, twice per week for 8 weeks. The correlation analysis was conducted to identify the associations between body composition, skeletal muscle mass indices, grip strength, and physical and cognitive functions. All variables were assessed at baseline and post-exercise.

Results: Skeletal muscle mass was significantly associated with grip strength and physical function. Gait speed was positively correlated with grip strength and physical function, but not with cognitive function. Theraband® exercise significantly improved gait speed and physical function.

Conclusion: The present data suggest that skeletal muscle mass is highly correlated with grip strength and physical function. Eight weeks of resistive Theraband® exercise favorably affects sarcopenia by improving gait speed and mobility of elderly women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20463/jenb.2019.0023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823645PMC
September 2019

Incidence of thyroid cancer and medical cost among patients with newly diagnosed thyroid nodules in Korea: A retrospective cohort study using nationwide data.

J Cancer Res Ther 2019 Jul-Sep;15(3):676-680

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Aims: The frequency of newly diagnosed thyroid nodules is increasing in South Korea. However, few studies have investigated the incidence of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodules using national data. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the incidence of thyroid cancer and medical costs among patients newly diagnosed with thyroid nodules in South Korea.

Settings And Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Subjects and Methods: We analyzed the national health claim database, which includes all hospital records and covers almost every population managed by the National Health Insurance System. We selected patients aged 20-120 years with new thyroid nodules in 2008 using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition codes. We followed the selected cases for at least 2 years after thyroid nodule diagnosis to investigate cancer development and medical costs.

Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency analysis was used.

Results: We identified 283,844 eligible patients with thyroid nodules. Their mean age was 48 ± 13.2, and 234,388 (82.58%) cases were female. During the median follow-up of 2.4 years, 21,538 (7.6%) patients were diagnosed with thyroid cancer, and 93.5% of them underwent treatment such as thyroidectomy, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. The average medical cost was 3,996,391 KRW after diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

Conclusions: Here, national representative statistics regarding the incidence and medical costs of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer are presented. The information provided herein will improve understanding of the natural course of thyroid nodules in Asians. Further study is needed to identify the risk factors of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroid nodules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.204895DOI Listing
November 2019

Evaluation of adjacent tooth displacement in the posterior implant restoration with proximal contact loss by superimposition of digital models.

J Adv Prosthodont 2019 Apr 26;11(2):88-94. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Prosthodontics, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate patterns of adjacent tooth displacement in the posterior implant with interproximal contact loss (ICL) by 3-D digital superimposition method.

Materials And Methods: Posterior partially edentulous patients, restored with implant fixed partial prostheses before 2011 and suffered from food impaction of ICL between 2009 and 2011, were included. Two dental casts, at the time of delivery and at the time of food impaction in a same patient, was converted into 3-D digital models through scanning and superimposition was performed to assess chronologic changes of the dentition. Directions of tooth displacement were evaluated and the amount of ICL was calculated. Correlations between the amount of ICL and elapsed time, or between the amount of ICL and age after function, were assessed at a significance level of <.05.

Results: A total number of 13 patients (8 males, 5 females) with a mean age of 65.76 ± 9.94 years and 17 areas (4 maxillae, 13 mandibles) were included in this retrospective study. Teeth adjacent to the implant restoration showed complex displacements but characteristic tendency according to the location of the arch. The mean amount of ICL was 0.33 ± 0.14 mm. Elapsed time from function to ICL was 61.47 ± 31.27 months. There were no significant differences between the amount of ICL and elapsed time, or age (>.05).

Conclusion: Natural teeth showed various directional movements to result in occlusal change in the arch. The 3-D superimposition of chronologic digital models was a helpful method to analyze the changes of dentition and individual tooth displacement adjacent to implant restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4047/jap.2019.11.2.88DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6491362PMC
April 2019

Increasing myosin light chain 3f (MLC3f) protects against a decline in contractile velocity.

PLoS One 2019 9;14(4):e0214982. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Physical Therapy and Athletic Training, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Disuse induces adaptations in skeletal muscle, which lead to muscle deterioration. Hindlimb-unloading (HU) is a well-established model to investigate cellular mechanisms responsible for disuse-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction. In myosin heavy chain (MHC) type IIB fibers HU induces a reduction in contraction speed (Vo) and a reduction in the relative myosin light chain 3f (MLC3f) protein content compared with myosin light chain 1f (MLC1f) protein. This study tested the hypothesis that increasing the relative MLC3f protein content via rAd-MLC3f vector delivery would attenuate the HU-induced decline in Vo in single MHC type IIB fibers. Fischer-344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, HU for 7 days, and HU for 7 days plus rAd-MLC3f. The semimembranosus muscles were injected with rAd-MLC3f (3.75 x 1011-5 x 1011 ifu/ml) at four days after the initiation of HU. In single MHC type IIB fibers the relative MLC3f content decreased by 25% (12.00±0.60% to 9.06±0.66%) and Vo was reduced by 29% (3.22±0.14fl/s vs. 2.27±0.08fl/s) with HU compared to the control group. The rAd-MLC3f injection resulted in an increase in the relative MLC3f content (12.26±1.19%) and a concomitant increase in Vo (2.90±0.15fl/s) of MHC type IIB fibers. A positive relationship was observed between the percent of MLC3f content and Vo. Maximal isometric force and specific tension were reduced with HU by 49% (741.45±44.24μN to 379.09±23.77μN) and 33% (97.58±4.25kN/m2 to 65.05±2.71kN/m2), respectively compared to the control group. The rAd-MLC3f injection did not change the HU-induced decline in force or specific tension. Collectively, these results indicate that rAd-MLC3f injection rescues hindlimb unloading-induced decline in Vo in MHC type IIB single muscle fibers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214982PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456215PMC
December 2019

The vitamin D receptor expression in skeletal muscle of women with distal radius fracture.

Arch Osteoporos 2018 Mar 12;13(1):24. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

We evaluated the vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in the forearm flexor muscle of women with distal radius fracture. High VDR expression was associated with low appendicular lean mass index.

Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the VDR expression in the muscle cell and the muscle mass in women with a distal radius fracture (DRF).

Methods: We prospectively recruited 45 women over 50 years of age (mean age, 66 years) with DRF and acquired biopsy of the forearm flexor muscle. The muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and VDR expression were measured using immunohistochemistry staining. The clinical parameters including grip strength, gait speed, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), and serum vitamin D levels were compared between patients grouped by appendicular lean mass index and were correlated with the VDR expression.

Results: Twelve patients (27%) showed a decreased appendicular lean mass index, less than the cut-off value of 5.4 kg/m which was suggested by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Patients with a low appendicular lean mass index had significantly lower muscle CSA (p = 0.037), but a higher VDR expression (p = 0.045) than those with higher indices. VDR expression was negatively correlated with BMI (r = - 0.417, p = 0.004) and appendicular lean mass index (r = - 0.316, p = 0.044).

Conclusions: DRF patients with low appendicular lean mass index presented high VDR expression and low CSA in forearm muscle cells. This suggests that the VDR expression might be upregulated in the attempt to compensate for the decreasing muscle mass. Further studies are necessary to explore the role of VDR in the progression of sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-018-0442-8DOI Listing
March 2018

Evaluation of Weldability for MAG and LASER with Galvannealed Steel.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 Mar;18(3):1787-1791

Department of Welding and Joining Science Engineering, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-Gu, Gwangju, 501-759, Korea.

Lower-arm, one of the components in automotive suspension module, has been fabricated by MAG welding in general which is lap jointed with 2 mm thick galvannealed steel sheet (SGAPH440). This welding process produces some problems such as significantly much spatters and weld defects of porosity in welded joint, which degrades productivity and weldability. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, this study has been tried to apply two types of solid wires with different chemical composition rate of Si and Mn, in MAG welding process. Moreover, the laser welding process has been adopted to fabricate the low-arm and compared with those of MAG welding, in terms of mechanical and metallurgical characteristics. It was observed that in MAG welded joints, much more spatters were occurred in using solid wire with higher Si and Mn contains. The maximum tensile-shear strength in laser welded joints was approximately 16.7 kN, which was almost equal to that of in MAG welded joints. The microstructure showed ferrite and martensite in weld metal in MAG and laser welded joints indicating no significantly grain size change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2018.14996DOI Listing
March 2018

The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Cardiovascular Disease and Exercise.

Int J Vasc Med 2017 10;2017:2049217. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Laboratory of Integrated Physiology, Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston, Texas, TX 77204, USA.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is highly associated with cardiovascular disease, is triggered by a disturbance in ER function because of protein misfolding or an increase in protein secretion. Prolonged disruption of ER causes ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and leads to various diseases. Eukaryotic cells respond to ER stress via three major sensors that are bound to the ER membrane: activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1), and protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK). Chronic activation of ER stress causes damage in endothelial cells (EC) via apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress signaling pathways. The alleviation of ER stress has recently been accepted as a potential therapeutic target to treat cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Exercise training is an effective nonpharmacological approach for preventing and alleviating cardiovascular disease. We here review the recent viewing of ER stress-mediated apoptosis and inflammation signaling pathways in cardiovascular disease and the role of exercise in ER stress-associated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/2049217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569752PMC
August 2017

A mini-overview of single muscle fibre mechanics: the effects of age, inactivity and exercise in animals and humans.

Swiss Med Wkly 2017 25;147:w14488. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Department of Physical Education, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Many basic movements of living organisms are dependent on muscle function. Muscle function allows for the coordination and harmonious integrity of movement that is necessary for various biological processes. Gross and fine motor skills are both regulated at the micro-level (single muscle fibre level), controlled by neuronal regulation, and it is therefore important to understand muscle function at both micro- and macro-levels to understand the overall movement of living organisms. Single muscle mechanics and the cellular environment of muscles fundamentally allow for the harmonious movement of our bodies. Indeed, a clear understanding of the functionality of muscle at the micro-level is indispensable for explaining muscular function at the macro-(whole gross muscle) level. By investigating single muscle fibre mechanics, we can also learn how other factors such Ca2+ kinetics, enzyme activity and contractile proteins can contribute to muscle mechanics at the micro- and macro-levels. Further, we can also describe how aging affects the capacity of skeletal muscle cells, as well as how exercise can prevent aging-based sarcopenia and frailty. The purpose of this review is to introduce and summarise the current knowledge of single muscle fibre mechanics in light of aging and inactivity. We then describe how exercise mitigates negative muscle adaptations that occur under those circumstances. In addition, single muscle fibre mechanics in both animal and human models are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2017.14488DOI Listing
June 2018

Combined Effects of Phytochemicals and Exercise on Fatty Acid Oxidation.

J Exerc Nutrition Biochem 2016 12;20(4):20-26

Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston, Houston, U.S.A.

Purpose: The purpose of this review is to discuss current views regarding the acute effects of phytochemicals, exercise, and exercise plus phytochemicals on fatty acid oxidation.

Methods: Data acquired from human and animal studies were comprehensively assessed to determine the single and combined effects of phytochemicals and exercise on fatty acid oxidation. In addition, underlying mechanisms associated with those conditions that may contribute to the regulation of fat metabolism are discussed.

Results: Although not all phytochemicals are effective at increasing fatty acid oxidation, some significantly improve the rate of fatty acid oxidation at rest. In addition, dietary supplementation of p-synephrine, catechins, or anthocyanins in combination with moderately intense exercise has the additive effect of increasing fatty acid oxidation, but not total energy expenditure during exercise.

Conclusion: The data reported from current reviewed studies suggest positive outcomes regarding facilitation of fatty acid oxidation from the combined effects of certain phytochemicals with exercise. Those data provide new insight for developing a strategy to boost fat loss and control weight in obese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20463/jenb.2016.0053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5545207PMC
December 2016

Effect of Chicory Fiber and Smoking on Quality Characteristics of Restructured Sausages.

Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2016 28;36(1):131-6. Epub 2016 Feb 28.

Swine Science and Technology Center, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju 660-758, Korea.

Unlabelled: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chicory fiber for the replacement of fat and smoking on quality characteristics of restructured sausages. Treatments were as follows;

Control: Pork backfat 20%, T1: Pork backfat 10% + Chicory fiber 10%, T2: CONTROL + Smoking, T3: T1 + Smoking. The addition of chicory fiber significantly reduced the moisture, fat, hardness and pH values, whereas the smoking treatment increased the fat, redness and pH values of restructured sausages (p<0.01). Additionally, interaction of them significantly affected the ash, chewiness and hardness values of restructured sausages. As a result, although the addition of chicory fiber decreased the quality characteristics of sausage, smoking treatment improved the reduced quality. Therefore, the chicory fiber and smoking treatment is helpful to develop restructured sausage products with reduced fat and compensated quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.1.131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4973935PMC
August 2016

Properties of Ferrofluids Prepared with an Isoparaffin Base.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016 Jun;16(6):6440-4

Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by adding ammonium hydroxide to an iron chloride solution. An unsaturated oleate surfactant was adsorbed on the magnetic particles, and a nonionic Span 20 surfactant was applied onto the oleate-adsorbed particles to form a bilayer structure. The bilayer nanoparticles formed stable dispersions with isoparaffin as the liquid base. The experimental parameters were determined at each concentration to prepare isoparaffin-based ferrofluids with concentrations of 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/mL; these were characterized by density, dispersion, magnetization and viscosity. The density of the fluids increased in proportion to the concentration from 0.93 g/mL to 1.22 g/mL, whereas the dispersion stability decreased from 97% to 69% with increasing ferrofluid concentration. The saturation magnetization of the ferrofluids depended upon the content of particles in the fluid, with values of 17.8 to 42.2 mT at the concentrations of 200 to 500 mg/mL, respectively. The fluid viscosity increased exponentially with the concentration increase in the same range, from 5.1 cP to 53.7 cP at 20 degrees C and from 3.2 cP to 25.6 cP at 40 degrees C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2016.12112DOI Listing
June 2016

Differences of adaptation to school and self-resilience before and after sleep education for adolescent.

J Exerc Rehabil 2016 Jun 30;12(3):176-81. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Department of Physical Education, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea.

This study aims to verify the effectiveness of sleep education by identifying the differences of adaption to school and self-resilience of the high school students before and after sleep education for a certain period of time. The conclusion of this study is presented below: First, there were differences in adaptation to school and self-resilience of the high school students before and after sleep education for the high school students. After sleep education, adaptation to school environment and school friends became higher, and also the emotion control, personal relations and optimism, which are the subvariables of self-resilience, became higher. Second, there were differences in adaptation to school and self-resilience before and after sleep education by grade of the high school students. The freshmen's adaptation to school friends and adaptation to school life, which are the subvariables of adaptation to school, increased after sleep education. The sophomores' adaptation to school environment, which is the subvariable of adaptation to school, went up higher after sleep education. The freshmen's emotion control, vitality and personal relations, which are the subvariables of self-resilience, were higher after sleep education. The sophomores' personal relations, which are a subvariable of self-resilience, went up higher.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.1632588.294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4934961PMC
June 2016

Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2015 28;35(1):130-6. Epub 2015 Feb 28.

Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea.

This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2015.35.1.130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4682504PMC
January 2016

Exercise training attenuates age-dependent elevation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and Nox2 signaling in the rat heart.

Exp Gerontol 2015 Oct 31;70:163-73. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

Redox Biology and Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, United States. Electronic address:

Fibrosis of the aging heart impedes cardiac function and increases the risk of arrhythmias and heart disease. Previously, we demonstrated that exercise-induced reduction of collagen I in the aging heart was linked to a suppression of oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). The renin-angiotensin II system (RAS) increases oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2) and thus elevates TGF-ß and collagen accumulation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that exercise training would alleviate age-related upregulation of the angiotensin II receptor I (AT1R) and NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2), concomitant with suppression of TGF-β and fibrosis. Young (3 months, n=20) and old (31 months, n=20) Fischer 344 ×B rown Norway F1 (FBNF1) hybrid rats were assigned into sedentary and exercise groups, with exercise training rats training on a treadmill 45 min/day, 5 days/week for the next 12 weeks. Exercise training mitigated age-related upregulation of AT1R, Nox2 activity, and Nox2 subunits gp91phox and p47phox. Exercise training also attenuated TGF-ß positive staining and downstream effectors of fibrosis in the aging heart: connective tissue growth factor, phosphorylation of Smad2 at Ser423, myofibroblast proliferation, and collagen I-positive staining. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exercise training protects against age-dependent cardiac fibrosis by suppressing AT1R and Nox2 as part of a RAS-Nox2-TGF-β pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2015.07.016DOI Listing
October 2015

Lifelong wheel running exercise and mild caloric restriction attenuate nuclear EndoG in the aging plantaris muscle.

Exp Gerontol 2015 Sep 6;69:122-8. Epub 2015 Jun 6.

Redox Biology & Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, United States. Electronic address:

Apoptosis plays an important role in atrophy and sarcopenia in skeletal muscle. Recent evidence suggests that insufficient heat shock proteins (HSPs) may contribute to apoptosis and muscle wasting. In addition, long-term caloric restriction (CR) and lifelong wheel running exercise (WR) with CR provide significant protection against caspase-dependent apoptosis and sarcopenia. Caspase-independent mediators (endonuclease G: EndoG; apoptosis-inducing factor: AIF) of apoptosis are also linked to muscles wasting with disuse and aging. However, the efficacy of CR and WR with CR to attenuate caspase-independent apoptosis and preserve HSPs in aging skeletal muscle are unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CR and WR with CR would ameliorate age-induced elevation of EndoG and AIF while protecting HSP27 and HSP70 levels in the plantaris. Male Fischer-344 rats were divided into 4 groups at 11weeks: ad libitum feeding until 6months (YAL); fed ad libitum until 24months old (OAL); 8%CR to 24months (OCR); WR+8%CR to 24months (OExCR). Nuclear EndoG levels were significantly higher in OAL (+153%) than in YAL, while CR (-38%) and WR with CR (-46%) significantly attenuated age-induced increment in nuclear EndoG. HSP27 (-63%) protein content and phosphorylation at Ser82 (-49%) were significantly lower in OAL than in YAL, while HSP27 protein content was significantly higher in OCR (+136%) and OExCR (+155%) and p-HSP27 (+254%) was significantly higher in OExCR compared with OAL, respectively. In contrast, AIF and HSP70 were unaltered by CR or WR with CR in aging muscle. These data indicate that CR and WR with CR attenuate age-associated upregulation of EndoG translocation in the nucleus, potentially involved with HSP27 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2015.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5026643PMC
September 2015

Properties of magnetic nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2014 Nov;14(11):8739-44

Magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by the addition of ammonium hydroxide to an iron chloride solution by chemical co-precipitation. In order to examine systematically the crystal phase, average size, and magnetic properties of the magnetic nanoparticles, the following were used as experimental parameters: molar ratio of Fe2+/Fe3+, composition of the iron chloride solution, amount of ammonium hydroxide, reaction temperature, and oxidation time of reaction precipitate. In the processing conditions of Fe2+/Fe3+ ratios of 0.5 and 1.0, iron chloride solutions of 0.1-0.8 m, NH4OH molar ratios of 6-14R, reaction temperatures of 25-80 degrees C, and oxidation times of 5-90 min, the co-precipitated nanoparticles were observed to exist as a single phase of Fe3O4. The average size of the particles was approximately 20 nm, and their magnetization was saturated at about 60 emu/g with superparamagnetism. When the iron chloride solution comprised only Fe2+ ions, the oxidation of the reaction precipitates also developed a Fe3O4 phase. However, the particle size reached 78 nm with increasing oxidation times, and the saturation magnetization increased significantly to 82 emu/g while its coercive force was 150 Oe, which indicated that the nanoparticles were paramagnetic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2014.9993DOI Listing
November 2014

C57BL/6 life span study: age-related declines in muscle power production and contractile velocity.

Age (Dordr) 2015 Jun 17;37(3):9773. Epub 2015 Apr 17.

Program in Physical Therapy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Minnesota Medical School, Rm 366A Children's Rehab Center, 426 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA,

Quantification of key outcome measures in animal models of aging is an important step preceding intervention testing. One such measurement, skeletal muscle power generation (force * velocity), is critical for dynamic movement. Prior research focused on maximum power (P max), which occurs around 30-40 % of maximum load. However, movement occurs over the entire load range. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age on power generation during concentric contractions in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles over the load range from 10 to 90 % of peak isometric tetanic force (P 0). Adult, old, and elderly male C57BL/6 mice were examined for contractile function (6-7 months old, 100 % survival; ~24 months, 75 %; and ~28 months, <50 %, respectively). Mice at other ages (5-32 months) were also tested for regression modeling. We hypothesized and found that power decreased with age not only at P max but also over the load range. Importantly, we found greater age-associated deficits in both power and velocity when the muscles were contracting concentrically against heavy loads (>50 % P 0). The shape of the force-velocity curve also changed with age (a/P 0 increased). In addition, there were prolonged contraction times to maximum force and shifts in the distribution of the myosin light and heavy chain isoforms in the EDL. The results demonstrate that age-associated difficulty in movement during challenging tasks is likely due, in addition to overall reduced force output, to an accelerated deterioration of power production and contractile velocity under heavily loaded conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-015-9773-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401475PMC
June 2015

Cost comparison between surgical treatments and endoscopic submucosal dissection in patients with early gastric cancer in Korea.

Gut Liver 2015 Mar;9(2):174-80

Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, Korea.

Background/aims: This study was conducted to evaluate whether medical costs can be reduced using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) instead of conventional surger-ies in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC).

Methods: Pa-tients who underwent open gastrectomy (OG), laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG), and ESD for EGC were recruited from three medical institutions in 2009. For macro-costing, the medical costs for each patient were derived from the ex-penses incurred during the patient's hospital stay and 1-year follow-up. The overall costs in micro-costing were determined by multiplying the unit cost with the resources used during the patients' hospitalization.

Results: A total of 194 patients were included in this study. The hospital stay for ESD was 5 to 8 days and was significantly shorter than the 12-day hospital stay for OG or the 11- to 17-day stay for LAG. Using macro-costing, the average medical costs for ESD during the hospital stay ranged from 2.1 to 3.4 million Korean Won (KRW) per patient, and the medical costs for conventional surgeries were estimated to be between 5.1 million and 8.2 million KRW. There were no significant differences in the 1-year follow-up costs between ESD and conventional surger-ies.

Conclusions: ESD patients had lower medical costs than those patients who had conventional surgeries for EGC with conservative indications. (Gut Liver, 2015;9174-180).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl13299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351023PMC
March 2015

MnSOD overexpression reduces fibrosis and pro-apoptotic signaling in the aging mouse heart.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2015 May 11;70(5):533-44. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

Department of Health and Kinesiology, Redox Biology and Cell Signaling Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Contractility of the heart is impaired with advancing age via mechanical remodeling, as myocytes are lost through apoptosis and collagenous fibers accumulate. Exercise training confers protection against fibrosis and apoptosis in the aging heart, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We recently reported that exercise training elevates Mn isoform of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the aging heart, concomitant with reduction in oxidative stress and fibrosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that overexpression of MnSOD would be causal in protection against fibrosis and apoptosis in the aging heart. Hearts were extracted from young (8 months) wild-type, young mice overexpressing the Sod2 (MnSOD) gene, old (28 months) wild-type, and old transgenic mice. Left ventricle MnSOD protein levels were elevated in young mice overexpressing the Sod2 (MnSOD) gene and old transgenic mice. MnSODTg mice exhibited lower oxidative stress (total hydroperoxides, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 8-isoprostane) in the old group. Age-related cardiac remodeling and fibrosis was mitigated in MnSOD Tg mice with reductions in extramyocyte space (-65%), collagen-I, and transforming growth factor-β. Pro-apoptotic markers Bax (-38%) and caspase-3 cleavage (-41%) were reduced and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive nuclei, DNA laddering) was mitigated in MnSOD Tg hearts compared with old wild-type. We conclude that MnSOD elevation is indeed protective against oxidative stress, fibrosis, and apoptosis in the aging heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glu090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4462657PMC
May 2015
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