Publications by authors named "Jong Kwang Hong"

9 Publications

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In silico model-based characterization of metabolic response to harsh sparging stress in fed-batch CHO cell cultures.

J Biotechnol 2020 Jan 19;308:10-20. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Bioprocessing Technology Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 20 Biopolis Way, #06-01, 138668, Singapore; School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, 16419, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Mammalian cell culture platform has been successfully implemented for industrial biopharmaceutical production through the advancements in early stage process development including cell-line engineering, media design and process optimization. However, late stage developments such as scale-up, scale-down and large-scale cell cultivation still face many industrial challenges to acquire comparable process performance between different culture scales. One of them is the sparging strategy which significantly affects productivity, quality and comparability. Currently, it is mainly relying on the empirical records due to the lack of theoretical framework and scarcity of available literatures to elucidate intracellular metabolic features. Therefore, it is highly required to characterize the underlying mechanism of physiological changes and metabolic states upon the aeration stress. To this end, initially we cultivated antibody producing CHO cells under mild and harsh sparging conditions and observed that sparging stress leads to the decreased cell growth rate, viability and productivity. Subsequent in silicomodel-driven flux analysis suggested that sparging stress rewires amino acid metabolism towards the enriched HO turnover rate by up-regulated fluxes of amino acid oxidases. Interestingly, many of these HO-generating reactions were closely connected with the production of NADH, NADPH and GSH which are typical reducing equivalents. Thus, we can hypothesize that increased amino acid uptake caused by sparging stress contributes to restore redox homeostasis against oxidative stress. The current model-driven systematic data analysis allows us to quickly define distinct metabolic feature under stress condition by using basic cell cultivation datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2019.11.011DOI Listing
January 2020

N-glycan Remodeling Using Mannosidase Inhibitors to Increase High-mannose Glycans on Acid α-Glucosidase in Transgenic Rice Cell Cultures.

Sci Rep 2018 10 31;8(1):16130. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon, 22212, Republic of Korea.

Glycoengineering of plant expression systems is a prerequisite for the production of biopharmaceuticals that are compatible with animal-derived glycoproteins. Large amounts of high-mannose glycans such as ManGlcNAc, ManGlcNAc, and ManGlcNAc (Man7/8/9), which can be favorably modified by chemical conjugation of mannose-6-phosphate, are desirable for lysosomal enzyme targeting. This study proposed a rice cell-based glycoengineering strategy using two different mannosidase inhibitors, kifunensine (KIF) and swainsonine (SWA), to increase Man7/8/9 glycoforms of recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA), which is a therapeutic enzyme for Pompe disease. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of the mannosidase inhibitors and to evaluate the synergistic effect of glycoengineering on rhGAA. Both inhibitors suppressed formation of plant-specific complex and paucimannose type N-glycans. SWA increased hybrid type glycans while KIF significantly increased Man7/8/9. Interestingly, the combination of KIF and SWA more effectively enhanced synthesis of Man7/8/9, especially Man9, than KIF alone. These changes show that SWA in combination with KIF more efficiently inhibited ER α-mannosidase II, resulting in a synergistic effect on synthesis of Man7/8/9. In conclusion, combined KIF and SWA treatment in rice cell culture media can be an effective method for the production of rhGAA displaying dominantly Man7/8/9 glycoforms without genetic manipulation of glycosylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34438-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208381PMC
October 2018

Comparative phenotypic analysis of CHO clones and culture media for lactate shift.

J Biotechnol 2018 Oct 1;283:97-104. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Bioprocessing Technology Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A⁎STAR), 20 Biopolis Way, #06-01 Centros, Singapore 138668, Singapore; School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We explored the effects of media and clonal variation on the lactate shift which can be considered as one of the desirable features in CHO cell culture. Various culture profiles with the specific growth and antibody production rates under three different media conditions in two CHO producing clones were evaluated by resorting to multivariate statistical analysis. In most cases, glutamine depletion coincided with lactate consumption, suggesting that glutaminolysis rather than glycolysis was the preferred pathway for the pyruvate supply toward lactate production. With respect to the lactate shift, high performing medium showed higher glutamate uptake, higher aspartate secretion and lower serine uptake compared to other media conditions. In addition, clone itself exhibited the desired lactate consumption more consistently accompanying with distinguishing phenotype. The clone exhibiting lactate shift produced lesser lactate in exponential phase but two-fold higher non-toxic alanine, thus leading to better culture environment. Thus, we understand the balanced selection of clone and media composition enables cells to utilize the metabolic pathways for the desired lactate shift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2018.07.042DOI Listing
October 2018

Effect of sodium butyrate on the assembly, charge variants, and galactosylation of antibody produced in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2014 Jun 21;98(12):5417-25. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, KAIST, 335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701, South Korea,

Sodium butyrate (NaBu) is known to increase the specific productivity of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells. To understand the effects of NaBu on the product quality, rCHO cells producing monoclonal antibody (Mab) were cultivated at various concentrations of NaBu (0 to 4 mM). NaBu increased correctly assembled Mab. In the absence of NaBu, the proportions of intact Mab (2H2L) and heavy chain dimer (2H) were 81 and 15 %. At 1 mM NaBu, the proportion of 2H2L increased to 93 %, whereas the proportion of 2H decreased to 2 %. No further increase in the proportion of 2H2L was obtained at a higher NaBu concentration. NaBu also affected the charge heterogeneity of Mab, which may affect the efficacy of Mab. The basic charge variants of Mabs increased with an increase in the NaBu concentration. In addition, NaBu affected the galactosylation of Mab negatively. Overall, the data obtained here show that NaBu used in rCHO cell cultures for improved Mab production affects certain quality aspects of Mab, in this case, the charge heterogeneity and galactosylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-014-5596-8DOI Listing
June 2014

Growth factor withdrawal in combination with sodium butyrate addition extends culture longevity and enhances antibody production in CHO cells.

J Biotechnol 2011 Sep 23;155(2):225-31. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

The effect of growth factor (GF) and sodium butyrate (NaBu) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth, cell viability and antibody production was investigated using shaking flasks in GF-containing and GF-deficient medium containing 0, 1 and 3mM NaBu. The withdrawal of GF and the addition of NaBu suppressed cell growth, but they significantly increased specific antibody productivity, q(Ab). Interestingly, the withdrawal of GF in combination with the addition of NaBu markedly retarded cell death, leading to extended culture longevity. For instance, at 3mM NaBu, cell viability fell below 80% after day 4 in GF-containing medium, but it remained over 80% until day 18 in GF-deficient medium. Due to the enhanced q(Ab) and the extended culture longevity, approximately 2-fold increase in total antibody production was achieved in pseudo-perfusion culture with 1mM NaBu in GF-deficient medium, compared to the culture in GF-containing medium. The effect of GF and NaBu on the change in the expression and activity of cellular proteins, c-Myc, Bcl-2 and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), was also investigated. Both the withdrawal of GF and the addition of NaBu decreased the expression of c-Myc. The expression of Bcl-2 was enhanced by the addition of NaBu in a dose-dependent manner while it was not affected by the withdrawal of GF. In addition, both the withdrawal of GF and the addition of NaBu reduced metabolic rates, q(Glc), q(Lac) and Y(Lac/Glc), and increased PDH activity while not affecting PDH expression, suggesting that they may reduce the glycolytic rates, but enhance the conversion rates of pyruvate to TCA intermediates. Taken together, the withdrawal of GF in combination with the addition of NaBu can be considered as a relevant strategy for alleviating NaBu-induced cell apoptosis and enhancing antibody production since it can be easily implemented as well as enhance q(Ab) and extend culture longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2011.06.020DOI Listing
September 2011

Substitution of glutamine by glutamate enhances production and galactosylation of recombinant IgG in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2010 Oct 3;88(4):869-76. Epub 2010 Aug 3.

Bio R&D Center, Aprogen, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

The effect of ammonia on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth and galactosylation of recombinant immunoglobulin (rIgG) was investigated using shaking flasks with serum free media containing 0-15 mM NH(4)Cl. The elevated ammonia inhibited cell growth and negatively affected the galactosylation of rIgG. At 15 mM NH(4)Cl, the proportions of monogalactosylated glycan with fucosex (monogalactosylated glycan with fucose) and digalactosylated glycan with fucose (G2F) were 23.9% and 6.3% lower than those at 0 mM NH(4)Cl, respectively. To reduce ammonia formation by cells, glutamate was examined as a substitute for glutamine. The use of glutamate reduced the accumulation of ammonia and enhanced the production of rIgG while depressing cell growth. At 6 mM glutamate, ammonia level did not exceed 2 mM, which is only one third of that at 6 mM glutamine. Also, a 1.7-fold increase in the titer of rIgG and specific rIgG productivity, q (rIgG), was achieved at 6 mM glutamate. The galactosylation of rIgG was favorable at 6 mM glutamate. The proportion of galactosylated glycans, G1F and G2F, at 6 mM glutamate was 59.8%, but it was 50.4% at 6 mM glutamine. The use of glutamate also increased complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity, one of the effector functions of rIgG. Taken together, substitution of glutamine by glutamate can be considered relevant for the production of rIgG in CHO cells since glutamate not only enhances q (rIgG) but also generates a higher galactosylation essential for the effector function of rIgG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-010-2790-1DOI Listing
October 2010

Down-regulation of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein does not improve hypothermic growth of Chinese hamster ovary cells producing erythropoietin.

Metab Eng 2007 Mar 15;9(2):208-16. Epub 2006 Dec 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Korea.

Discovery of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) in mouse fibroblasts suggests that growth suppression at hypothermic conditions is due to an active response by the cell rather than due to passive thermal effects. To determine the effect of down-regulated CIRP expression on cell growth and erythropoietin (EPO) production in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells at low culture temperature, stable CHO cell clones with reduced CIRP expression level were established by transfecting (rCHO) cells with the CIRP siRNA vector with a target sequence of TCGTCCTTCCATGGCTGTA. For comparison of the degree of specific growth rate (micro) reduction at low culture temperature, three CIRP-reduced clones with different mu and three control clones transfected with null vector were cultivated at two different temperatures, 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Unlike mouse fibroblasts, alleviation of hypothermic growth arrest of rCHO cells by CIRP down-regulation was insignificant, as shown by statistical analysis using the t-test (P<0.18, n=3). The ratios of mu at 32 degrees C to micro at 37 degrees C of CIRP-reduced clones and control clones were 0.29+/-0.03 and 0.25+/-0.03 on an average, respectively. Furthermore, it was also found that overexpression of CIRP did not inhibit rCHO cell growth significantly at 37 degrees C. Taken together, the data obtained show that down-regulation of only CIRP in rCHO cells, unlike mouse fibroblasts, is not sufficient to recover growth arrest at low-temperature culture (32 degrees C).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2006.11.003DOI Listing
March 2007

Adaptation of Chinese hamster ovary cells to low culture temperature: cell growth and recombinant protein production.

J Biotechnol 2006 Apr 25;122(4):463-72. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 371-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Republic of Korea.

Recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells producing erythropoietin (EPO) and rCHO cells producing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) showed a significant increase in specific productivity (q) when grown at 32 degrees C compared to 37 degrees C. However, low culture temperature suppressed cell growth, and therefore, did not increase volumetric productivity as much as q. In an attempt to increase the volumetric productivity through improvement of hypothermic growth, EPO producing rCHO (CHO-EPO) cells and FSH producing rCHO (CHO-FSH) cells were adapted at 32 degrees C in a repeated batch mode using spinner flasks. Cell growth of both CHO-EPO and CHO-FSH gradually improved during adaptation at 32 degrees C. Specific growth rates of CHO-EPO and CHO-FSH cells at 32 degrees C, through adaptation, were increased by 73% and 20%, respectively. During adaptation at 32 degrees C, mRNA levels of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) of both rCHO cell lines did not change significantly, suggesting that CIRP expression may not be the only cause for growth suppression at low culture temperature. Unlike cell growth, the recombinant protein production of both rCHO cell lines was not increased during adaptation due to decreased specific productivities. The specific EPO productivity and specific FSH productivity were decreased by 49% and 22%, respectively. Southern blot analyses showed that the decreased specific productivities were not due to the loss of foreign gene copies. Taken together, improvement of hypothermic cell growth by adaptation does not appear to be applicable for enhanced recombinant protein production, since specific productivity decreases during adaptation to the low culture temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2005.09.010DOI Listing
April 2006

Effect of simultaneous application of stressful culture conditions on specific productivity and heterogeneity of erythropoietin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Biotechnol Prog 2004 Jul-Aug;20(4):1293-6

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 371-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Korea.

A single stressful culture condition induced by hypoosmotic stress (210 mOsm kg(-1)), low culture temperature (32 degrees C), or NaBu addition (1 mM) resulted in a 1.8- to 2.2-fold enhancement of specific erythropoietin (EPO) productivity (qEPO) of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells compared to normal culture condition (37 degrees C and 310 mOsm kg(-1)). Simultaneous application of these stressful conditions further enhanced qEPO up to approximately 5-fold. However, the quality of EPO was affected by stressful culture conditions. The proportion of acidic isoforms of EPO under a single stressful condition was 2.8-13.8% lower than that under normal culture condition. Simultaneous application of the stressful conditions further decreased the portion of acidic isoforms but not significantly. Despite 5-fold enhancement of q(EPO), the portion of acidic isoforms under the simultaneous application of stressful culture conditions was 12.9-21.6% lower than that under normal culture condition. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of simultaneous application of different stressful culture conditions to the production phase of two-stage culture, where cell growth and production phases are separated, for improved EPO production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bp034382zDOI Listing
February 2005