Publications by authors named "Jong Hyeok Park"

149 Publications

Unnatural Hygroscopic Property of Nicotinic Acid by Restructuring Molecular Density: Self-Healing Halide Perovskites.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Sep 10:8932-8938. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

An unnatural hygroscopic property of nonhygroscopic nicotinic acid (NA) is demonstrated by tuning the intermolecular distance. After addition of NA into methylammonium lead iodide, (MAPbI) NA molecules are preferentially aligned on the interface of the three-dimensional (3D) MAPbI crystal structure by a hydrogen bond. This unique behavior allows NA to be used as a versatile additive to improve the water durability of MAPbI. After exposure under a high humidity atmosphere (RH 100%, 35 °C), MAPbI films with NA exhibited self-healing phenomena against moisture while bare MAPbI rapidly lost its own intrinsic property. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted to reveal how HO molecules can effectively be absorbed by NA according to its planar molecular density. Also, further optimization of photovoltaic device performances was carried out by investigating the relationship between NA concentration and additive alignment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c02318DOI Listing
September 2021

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived mitochondria (PN-101) attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory responses by inhibiting NFκB signaling pathway.

BMB Rep 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Paean Biotechnology Inc., Seoul 04552, Korea.

Inflammation is one of the body's natural responses to injury and illness as part of the healing process. However, persistent inflammation can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases and multi-organ failure. Altered mitochondrial function has been implicated in several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases by inducing an abnormal inflammatory response. Therefore, treating inflammatory diseases by recovering mitochondrial function may be a potential therapeutic approach. Recently, mitochondrial transplantation has been proven to be beneficial in hyperinflammatory animal models. However, it is unclear how mitochondrial transplantation attenuates inflammatory responses induced by external stimuli. Here, we isolated mitochondria from umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells, referred as to PN-101. We found that PN-101 could significantly reduce LPS-induced mortality in mice. In addition, in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 macrophages, PN-101 attenuated LPS-induced increase production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of PN-101 was mediated by blockade of phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and trans-activity of NFκB. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PN-101 has therapeutic potential to attenuate pathological inflammatory responses.
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September 2021

Disordered-Layer-Mediated Reverse Metal-Oxide Interactions for Enhanced Photocatalytic Water Splitting.

Nano Lett 2021 06 8;21(12):5247-5253. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

In heterogeneous catalysts, metal-oxide interactions occur spontaneously but often in an undesired way leading to the oxidation of metal nanoparticles. Manipulating such interactions to produce highly active surface of metal nanoparticles can warrant the optimal catalytic activity but has not been established to date. Here we report that a prior reduced TiO support can reverse the interaction with Pt nanoparticles and augment the metallic state of Pt, exhibiting a 3-fold increase in hydrogen production rate compared to that of conventional Pt/TiO. Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy of the Ti valence state and the electron density distribution within Pt nanoparticles provide direct evidence supporting that the Pt/TiO/HO triple junctions are the most active catalytic sites for water reduction. Our reverse metal-oxide interaction scheme provides a breakthrough in the stagnated hydrogen production efficiency and can be applied to other heterogeneous catalyst systems composed of metal nanoparticles with reducible oxide supports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01368DOI Listing
June 2021

Preparation of multilayer periodic nanopatterned WO-based photoanode by reverse nanoimprinting for water splitting.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 6;32(39). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea.

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has been studied extensively as an environmentally friendly technology for hydrogen production using solar energy. WOis considered a promising semiconducting material for photoanodes due to its high electron mobility, good hole diffusion length, and chemical stability. Periodic nanostructures of WOhave been investigated for enhancing the PEC performance of WO-based photoanodes. In this study, facile fabrication of periodic nanostructures of WOwas achieved using reverse nanoimprint lithography, and the multilayer stacking of nanopatterned WOfilm was also confirmed. The multilayer nanopatterned WOfilms were used as photoanodes for PEC water splitting. The performance of the fabricated photoanode in PEC was 2 times higher than that of planar WOfilm due to its higher light absorbance and lower charge transfer resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac07ceDOI Listing
July 2021

Influence of dynamic neck motion on the clinical usefulness of multi-positional MRI in cervical degenerative spondylosis.

Eur Spine J 2021 06 16;30(6):1542-1550. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Eunpyung St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Tongil-ro, Eunpyeng-Gu, Seoul, 102103312, Korea.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out additional indications for multi-positional MRI in cervical degenerative spondylosis (CDS) patients.

Material And Methods: A total of 63 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy that underwent multi-positional MRI and X-ray were included. Muhle's grade, C2-7 angle, and C7 slope were measured. Patients were assigned to the stenosis group (Group S) when Muhle's grades were increased by more than two or maximum grade was reached. Other patients were assigned to the maintenance group (Group M). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Statistical significance was accepted for p values of < 0.05.

Results: A total of 24 patients were assigned to the S group and 39 patients to the M group. Mean C2-7 angle difference in extension (eC27A) between S and M groups was 10.97° (p = 0.002). The mean inter-group difference between C2-7 angle in extension and neutral positions (e-nC27A) was 14.39° (p = 0.000). Mean C7 slope difference in neutral position was  - 6.53° (p = 0.002). Based on areas under ROC curves (AUCs), e-nC27A, eC27A, and negative C7 slope had AUCs of 0.934 (95% CI 0.876-0.992), 0.752 (95% CI 0.624-0.880), and 0.720 (95% CI 0.588-0.851), respectively. The optimal cutoff value of e-nC27A was 15.4 degrees, which had a diagnostic accuracy of 88.9%.

Conclusion: Multi-positional MRI helps to find dynamic cord compressive lesion in CDS patients. The higher eC27A, e-nC27A values and smaller C7 slope were found to increase the likelihood of cervical dynamic stenosis. Among other factors, we recommend multi-positional MRI before surgery especially when a patient's e-nC27A is > 15.4 degrees.

Level Of Evidence I: Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06760-0DOI Listing
June 2021

High-Valent Iodoplumbate-Rich Perovskite Precursor Solution Solar Illumination for Reproducible Power Conversion Efficiency.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Feb 9;12(6):1676-1682. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells has been drastically improved. Despite this considerable progress, systematic research on precursor solution chemistry and its effects on photovoltaic parameters has been limited thus far. Herein, we report on the tracking of changes in chemical species in a precursor solution under solar illumination and investigate the correlation between the equilibrium change and the corresponding perovskite film formation. The illuminated perovskite precursors display a higher density of high-valent iodoplumbate, where the resulting perovskite film exhibits reduced defect density with uniform film formation. Conclusively, the perovskite solar cells prepared by the photoaged precursor solution demonstrate not only improved average PCE but also enhanced reproducibility with a narrow PCE distribution. This discovery shows robust control of perovskite precursor solutions from a simple treatment and suggests that the resulting uniform film may be applicable to various halide perovskite-based devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c03849DOI Listing
February 2021

A new nomenclature system for the surgical treatment of cervical spine deformity, developing, and validation of SOF system.

Eur Spine J 2021 06 6;30(6):1670-1680. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.

Purpose: To develop and assess the reliability of new nomenclature system that systematically organizes osteotomy techniques and briefly describes the surgical approach, the surgical sequence, and the fixation technique for cervical spine deformity (CSD).

Methods: We developed a new classification system (SOF system) for CSD surgery that describes the sequence of surgical approach (S), the grade of osteotomy (O), and the information of fixation (F) using alphanumeric codes. Twenty CSD osteotomies (8 anterior osteotomies, 12 posterior osteotomies) were included in this study to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer agreement based on operation records. Six observers performed independent evaluations of the operation records in random order. Each observer described 20 CSD surgeries using the SOF system twice (> 30 days between assessments) based on operation records to validate SOF system.

Results: Overall agreement (among all six observers at the initial assessment) on the anterior and posterior osteotomy was ICC = 0.96 and ICC = 0.91, respectively. Overall agreement (repeat observations after at least 30 days) on the anterior and posterior osteotomy was ICC = 0.96 and ICC = 0.91, respectively. This data showed that both inter- and intra-observer agreement revealed 'excellent'.

Conclusion: This study introduces the SOF system of the CSD surgery to understand the surgical sequence, the type of osteotomy and the fixation techniques. The investigation of the inter- and intra-observer agreement revealed 'excellent agreement' for both anterior and posterior osteotomies. Thus, SOF system can provide a consistent description of the various CSD surgeries and its use will provide a common frame for CSD surgery and help communicate between surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06751-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Intraoperative surveillance of the vertebral artery using indocyanine green angiography and Doppler sonography in craniovertebral junction surgeries.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 01;50(1):E5

5Department of Neurosurgery, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: The authors sought to evaluate the usefulness of indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and Doppler sonography for monitoring the vertebral artery (VA) during craniovertebral junction (CVJ) surgery and compare the incidence of VA injury (VAI) between the groups with and without the monitoring of VA using ICG angiography and Doppler sonography.

Methods: In total, 344 consecutive patients enrolled who underwent CVJ surgery. Surgery was performed without intraoperative VA monitoring tools in 262 cases (control group) and with VA monitoring tools in 82 cases (monitoring group). The authors compared the incidence of VAI between groups. The procedure times of ICG angiography, change of VA flow velocity measured by Doppler sonography, and complication were investigated.

Results: There were 4 VAI cases in the control group, and the incidence of VAI was 1.5%. Meanwhile, there were no VAI cases in the monitoring group. The procedure time of ICG angiography was less than 5 minutes (mean [± SD] 4.6 ± 2.1 minutes) and VA flow velocity was 11.2 ± 4.5 cm/sec. There were several cases in which the surgical method had to be changed depending on the VA monitoring. The combined use of ICG angiography and Doppler sonography was useful not only to monitor VA patency but also to assess the quality of blood flow during CVJ surgery, especially in the high-risk group of patients.

Conclusions: The combined use of ICG angiography and Doppler sonography enables real-time intraoperative monitoring of the VA by detecting blood flow and flow velocity. As the arteries get closer, they provide auditory and visual feedback to the surgeon. This real-time image guidance could be a useful tool, especially for high-risk patients and inexperienced surgeons, to avoid iatrogenic VAI during any CVJ surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.10.FOCUS20770DOI Listing
January 2021

A highly activated iron phosphate over-layer for enhancing photoelectrochemical ammonia decomposition.

J Hazard Mater 2021 04 18;408:124900. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Environmentally friendly ammonia (NH) decomposition has attracted a lot of interests in recent years to resolve the issue of water eutrophication from a wastewater and achieve a clean H storage. Here, we report a novel strategy for solar-driven ammonia decomposition by introducing a highly-activated iron phosphate (FePi) over-layer on the surface of α-FeO nanorods photoanode (FePi/FeO), and innovatively propose a photoelectrochemical (PEC) ammonia degradation system with enhanced performance. After a facile electrochemical (EC) activation, the FePi over-layer is converted into FeOOH. The EC-activated over-layer provides the efficient active sites for the ammonia adsorption process, which promotes the high catalytic kinetics for ammonia oxidation reaction (AOR). Due to the synergistic effect of the electrocatalytic and the photocatalytic process, the FePi/FeO exhibits the enhanced PEC AOR performance, which competes with water oxidation reaction (WOR). Comparing to the initial concentration of ammonia, the FePi/FeO achieves a 54.4% ammonia degradation rate within 3 h at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under 1 sun illumination, which demonstrates the reliable ammonia decomposition performance. This study confirms that it is feasible to achieve PEC ammonia decomposition in an aqueous solution without chloride mediators and provides a promising strategy for the harmless treatment of ammonia wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124900DOI Listing
April 2021

Catalytic Oxidation of Methane to Oxygenated Products: Recent Advancements and Prospects for Electrocatalytic and Photocatalytic Conversion at Low Temperatures.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Dec 27;7(23):2001946. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Yonsei University 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu Seoul 03722 Republic of Korea.

Methane is an important fossil fuel and widely available on the earth's crust. It is a greenhouse gas that has more severe warming effect than CO. Unfortunately, the emission of methane into the atmosphere has long been ignored and considered as a trivial matter. Therefore, emphatic effort must be put into decreasing the concentration of methane in the atmosphere of the earth. At the same time, the conversion of less valuable methane into value-added chemicals is of significant importance in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Although, the transformation of methane to valuable chemicals and fuels is considered the "holy grail," the low intrinsic reactivity of its C-H bonds is still a major challenge. This review discusses the advancements in the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic oxidation of methane at low temperatures with products containing oxygen atom(s). Additionally, the future research direction is noted that may be adopted for methane oxidation via electrocatalysis and photocatalysis at low temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202001946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709990PMC
December 2020

Effect of cysteine-free human fibroblast growth factor-5s mutant (FGF5sC93S) on hair growth.

Dermatol Ther 2020 11 18;33(6):e14530. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Paean Biotechnology, Inc., Daejeon, South Korea.

Treatment for hair loss is largely limited, and any beneficial effects are often transient. Based on the critical role of the FGF5 isoform, FGF5s, in the hair growth cycle, it may be a good therapeutic candidate for the prevention of hair loss, as well as the promotion of hair growth. To investigate its potential use for hair growth, a mutant form of the FGF5s protein (FGF5sC93S) was generated, expressed, and purified. The FGF5sC93S mutant was able to antagonize FGF5-induced mitogenic activity, which normally triggers the conversion of hair follicles from the anagen phase to the catagen phase. In addition, the FGF5sC93S mutant efficiently suppressed gene expression induced by FGF5 both human outer root sheath (hORS) and human dermal papilla (hDP) cells. Administration of FGF5sC93S proteins onto the scalps of human subjects significantly increased the total number of hairs at 24 weeks. Together, our data demonstrate that a mutant form of the FGF5s protein could be used as a potential hair promoting agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14530DOI Listing
November 2020

Analysis of postoperative dysphagia after anterior cervical decompression and fusion.

Br J Neurosurg 2020 Aug 29;34(4):457-462. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon, South Korea.

To investigate the incidence and risk factors of postoperative dysphagia after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) in terms of demographic, procedural and anaesthetic perspectives. Medical records and radiologic data of patients who underwent anterior cervical surgery performed by two surgeons in a single centre between January 2012 and December 2015 were retrospectively analysed. Patients with spinal tumours, infective spondylitis and traumatic cervical pathologies were excluded. Patients with preoperative dysphagia and previous history of anterior cervical surgery were also excluded. Finally, 127 patients were enrolled. Bazaz dysphagia score was used for the diagnosis of postoperative dysphagia. The incidence of postoperative dysphagia was 10.2% at six weeks after ACDF. Nine patients showed mild dysphagia that fully recovered at three months after ACDF. Four patients showed moderate dysphagia that also recovered fully at six months after surgery. The incidence of postoperative dysphagia increased significantly in cases of C4 or C5 level involvements. Age, sex, hypertension, body mass index, postoperative soft tissue swelling, intubation difficulty and intubation tools were not significant risk factors of ACDF. Diabetes mellitus, two surgical levels, the use of plate, long anaesthetic and operative time and large intubation tube size were causative factors of postoperative dysphagia in multivariable analysis ( < 0.05). The incidence of postoperative dysphagia after ACDF was relatively low, and the prognosis was good.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2020.1757037DOI Listing
August 2020

Near-Complete Suppression of Oxygen Evolution for Photoelectrochemical HO Oxidative HO Synthesis.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 May 19;142(19):8641-8648. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea.

Solar energy-assisted water oxidative hydrogen peroxide (HO) production on an anode combined with H production on a cathode increases the value of solar water splitting, but the challenge of the dominant oxidative product, O, needs to be overcome. Here, we report a SnO overlayer coated BiVO photoanode, which demonstrates the great ability to near-completely suppress O evolution for photoelectrochemical (PEC) HO oxidative HO evolution. Based on the surface hole accumulation measured by surface photovoltage, downward quasi-hole Fermi energy at the photoanode/electrolyte interface and thermodynamic Gibbs free energy between 2-electron and 4-electron competitive reactions, we are able to consider the photoinduced holes of BiVO that migrate to the SnO overlayer kinetically favor HO evolution with great selectivity by reduced band bending. The formation of HO may be mediated by the formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH·), from 1-electron water oxidation reactions, as evidenced by spin-trapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies conducted herein. In addition to the HO oxidative HO evolution from PEC water splitting, the SnO/BiVO photoanode can also inhibit HO decomposition into O under either electrocatalysis or photocatalysis conditions for continuous HO accumulation. Overall, the SnO/BiVO photoanode achieves a Faraday efficiency (FE) of over 86% for HO generation in a wide potential region (0.6-2.1 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) and an HO evolution rate averaging 0.825 μmol/min/cm at 1.23 V vs RHE under AM 1.5 illumination, corresponding to a solar to HO efficiency of ∼5.6%; this performance surpasses almost all previous solar energy-assisted HO evolution performances. Because of the simultaneous production of HO and H by solar water splitting in the PEC cells, our results highlight a potentially greener and more cost-effective approach for "solar-to-fuel" conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b13410DOI Listing
May 2020

Edge functionalized graphene nanoribbons with tunable band edges for carrier transport interlayers in organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Feb 20;22(5):2955-2962. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Chemistry, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919, Korea.

Organic based graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) can be good candidates as carrier extraction interlayers for organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, owing to the possibility of tuning the band edge energy levels through varying the width and the type of edge functionalization. By using the density functional theory (DFT) method, the electronic structures of H or F edge functionalized armchair type GNRs on MAPbI(001) are calculated. It is shown that the electronic structure of H- or F-passivated GNRs is almost undisrupted by the non-covalent interaction with the PbI surface layer of MAPbI(001), thereby one can tune the width and edge chemistry of GNRs to enhance the carrier extraction or blocking. Especially all H-GNRs five to ten carbon atoms wide exhibit good matching for hole extraction, while F-GNRs require a specific width for electron extraction. Exploiting the unzipping synthesis of carbon nanotubes in the solution phase, our result provides a facile strategy for efficient carrier extraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cp06430cDOI Listing
February 2020

Accuracy evaluation of placements of three different alternative C2 screws using the freehand technique in patients with high riding vertebral artery.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Nov;98(46):e17891

Department of Neurosurgery, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

An observational study.To evaluate the safeties of placing three different alternative C2 screws using the freehand technique under high riding vertebral artery (HRVA) and to analyze the C2 morphometry in patients with HRVA.A retrospective analysis of radiologic data was performed on patients that underwent C2 instrumentation from September 2004 to December 2017. Two hundred fifty-one patients were included, and 90 of these patients (35.9%) had a unilateral or bilateral HRVA. We placed three alternative C2 screws including superior pars, inferior pars, and translaminar screws. Computed tomography was used to assess cortical breeches of screw placement and obtain morphometric measurements of C2 pars and lamina, that is, superior pars height/length, inferior pars length, and laminar thickness/length. We used the modification of the all India Institute of Medical Sciences outcome to define cortical breach.In total, 117 alternative C2 screws were inserted in 90 patients; 7 superior pars screws (6%), 69 inferior pars screws (59.0%), and 41 translaminar (35%) screws. Although cortical breaches occurred during 31 screw placements (26.5%), these were unacceptable in only two cases (1.7%). No symptomatic neurovascular complication was observed after screw placement in any case. Mean height of C2 superior pars was 3.8 ± 1.8 mm and mean thickness of C2 lamina was 5.2 ± 1.1 mm. Mean lengths of superior pars, inferior pars, and lamina were 17.8 ± 3.0 mm, 13.6 ± 2.2 mm, and 26.7 ± 3.3 mm, respectively. Superior pars height and lamina thickness < 3.5 mm that was a minimal diameter of cervical screw were 49.6% and 6.8%, alternative C2 screw was not available in these cases.Placements of alternative C2 screws using the freehand technique were achieved accurately and safely in patients with HRVA. However, preoperative morphometric evaluation is essential to determine the best option for C2 instrumentation and C2 screw length to avoid neurovascular complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6867729PMC
November 2019

In Operando Stacking of Reduced Graphene Oxide for Active Hydrogen Evolution.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Nov 11;11(46):43460-43465. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Energy Science , Sungkyunkwan University , Suwon 16419 , Korea.

Despite the remarkable electronic and mechanical properties of graphene, improving the catalytic activity of the atomically flat, inert, and stable carbon network remains a challenging issue in both fundamental and application studies. In particular, the adsorption of most molecules and ions, including hydrogen (H or H), on graphene is not favorable, underlining the challenge for an efficient electrochemical catalytic reaction on graphene. Various defects, edges, and functionalization have been suggested to resolve the catalytic issue in graphene, but cost-effectiveness and active catalysis with graphene have not been achieved yet. Here, we introduce dynamic stacking of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with spontaneously generated hydrogen bubbles to form an efficient electrochemical catalyst with a graphene derivative; the in operando stacking of rGO, without using a high-temperature-based heteroatom doping process or plasma treatment, creates a large catalytic surface area with optimized edges and acidic groups in the rGO. Thus, the uniquely formed stable carbon network achieves active hydrogen evolution with a Tafel slope of 39 mV·dec and a double layer capacitance of 12.41 mF·cm, which breaks the conventional limit of graphene-based catalysis, suggesting a promising strategy for metal-free catalyst engineering and hydrogen production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b11619DOI Listing
November 2019

Band Alignment Engineering between Planar SnO and Halide Perovskites via Two-Step Annealing.

J Phys Chem Lett 2019 Nov 14;10(21):6545-6550. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering , Yonsei University , 50 Yonseiro , Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 , Republic of Korea.

Managing defects in SnO is critical for improving the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of halide perovskite-based solar cells. However, typically reported SnObased perovskite solar cells have inherent defects in the SnO layer, which lead to a lower PCE and hysteresis. Here, we report that a dual-coating approach for SnO with different annealing temperatures can simultaneously form a SnO layer with high crystallinity and uniform surface coverage. Along with these enhanced physical properties, the dual-coated SnO layer shows favorable band alignment with a mixed halide perovskite. After careful optimization of the dual-coating method, the average PCE of the perovskite solar cell based on the dual-coated SnO layer increases from 18.07 to 19.23% with a best-performing cell of 20.03%. Note that a facile two-step coating and annealing method can open new avenues to develop SnO-based perovskite solar cells with stabilized and improved photovoltaic performances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b02488DOI Listing
November 2019

Heterojunction Photoanode of Atomic-Layer-Deposited MoS on Single-Crystalline CdS Nanorod Arrays.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Oct 3;11(41):37586-37594. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Department of Energy Science , Sungkyunkwan University , Suwon 440-746 , South Korea.

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a semiconducting absorber for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production with suitable electronic band structures. However, it suffers from severe photocorrosion and rapid charge recombination during the desired PEC reactions. Herein, we describe the identification of the optimal junction thickness of CdS/MoS core/sheath heterojunction nanostructures by employing atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. ALD-grown MoS sheath layers with different thicknesses were realized on single-crystalline CdS nanorod (NR) arrays on transparent conducting oxide substrates. We further monitored the resulting solar H evolution performance with our heterojunction photoanodes. The results showed that the junction thickness of MoS plays a key role in the reduction of photocorrosion and the enhanced photocurrent density by optimizing the charge separation. A better saturation photocurrent (∼46%) was obtained with the 7 nm-thick [email protected] NRs than that with the bare CdS NRs. Moreover, the external quantum efficiency was increased twofold over that of the pristine CdS NRs. The ALD-grown [email protected] heterojunction structures provides an efficient and versatile platform for hydrogen production when combining ALD-grown MoS with ideal semiconducting absorbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b11178DOI Listing
October 2019

Grain Boundary Healing of Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Moisture Stability.

Nano Lett 2019 Sep 20;19(9):6498-6505. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering , Yonsei University , 50 Yonsei-ro , Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 , Republic of Korea.

Although organic-inorganic halide perovskite (OIHP)-based photovoltaics have high photoconversion efficiency (PCE), their poor humidity stability prevents commercialization. To overcome this critical hurdle, focusing on the grain boundary (GB) of OIHPs, which is the main humidity penetration channel, is crucial. Herein, pressure-induced crystallization of OIHP films prepared with controlled mold geometries is demonstrated as a GB-healing technique to obtain high moisture stability. When exposed to 85% RH at 30 °C, OIHP films fabricated by pressure-induced crystallization have enhanced moisture stability due to the enlarged OIHP grain size and low-angle GBs. The crystallographic and optical properties indicate the effect of applying pressure onto OIHP films in terms of moisture stability. The photovoltaic devices with pressure-induced crystallization exhibited dramatically stabilized performance and sustained over 0.95 normalized PCE after 200 h at 40% RH and 30 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b02721DOI Listing
September 2019

Synchronous Primary Leiomyosarcoma in the Thoracic Vertebra and the Liver.

Korean J Gastroenterol 2019 Jul;74(1):57-62

Piedmont Transplant Institute of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA.

This is a case report of simultaneous primary leiomyosarcomas in the spine and liver. A 64-year-old woman presented to the Seoul Paik Hospital with epigastric discomfort and constipation that she had experienced for two months. A physical examination revealed severe tenderness around the thoraco-lumbar junction. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed an ulceroinfiltrative lesion on the gastric angle. An abdominopelvic CT scan revealed two low attenuated lesions in the S4 and S8 regions of the liver, as well as a soft tissue mass at the T10 vertebra. Percutaneous ultrasonography-guided needle biopsy of the hepatic nodules revealed a leiomyosarcoma. The tumor at the T10 vertebra was removed to avoid spinal cord compression. The histology of this tumor was compatible with that of leiomyosarcoma. The potential primary sites for leiomyosarcoma, including the lung, thyroid, breast, kidney, genitourinary organs, and gastrointestinal tract, were subsequently investigated. No detectable abnormal findings that would suggest the origin of the tumor were found. Synchronous primary leiomyosarcomas in the spine and liver are quite rare and have a poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4166/kjg.2019.74.1.57DOI Listing
July 2019

Clinical Analysis of Radiologic Measurements in Patients with Basilar Invagination.

World Neurosurg 2019 Nov 16;131:e108-e115. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea.

Objective: To investigate correlations between radiologic measurements and clinical outcomes in patients with basilar invagination (BI).

Methods: The medical records and radiologic data of 46 patients (27 women) who had undergone posterior atlantoaxial fusion or occipitocervical fusion for BI from January 2010 to June 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients under 15 years old or with a polytraumatic, tumorous, or infectious pathology were excluded. The modified Ranawat method (MRM) and the Redlund-Johnell method (RJM) were used to obtain radiographic measurements of basilar invagination preoperatively, subacute postoperatively, and at 3-month and last follow-up. Visual analogue scale, Neck Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores were also assessed. Correlations between MRM and RJM measurements and clinical outcomes were evaluated.

Results: Mean age of patients was 59.9 ± 16.5 years, mean body mass index was 23.5 ± 4.6 kg/m, and mean follow-up was 37.9 ± 23.8 months. Postoperative radiologic measurements increased about 36% of preoperative radiologic measurements. Subsidence at the C1-2 joint occurred in most patients at 3 months postoperatively, but clinical outcomes did not deteriorate. JOA scores were linearly correlated with percentage increases in both radiologic measurements subacute postoperatively (P < 0.05), but this significance was not maintained until the last follow-up. Occipital numbness and neuralgia were most common postoperative complications. One case of neurovascular injury and 3 cases of postoperative dysphagia occurred postoperatively.

Conclusions: The subacute postoperative neurological outcomes of BI patients are significantly related to the amount of vertical reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.07.080DOI Listing
November 2019

Transdiscal C7 Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy With a Strut Graft and the Correction of Sagittal and Coronal Imbalance of the Cervical Spine.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 03;18(3):271-277

Department of Neurosurgery, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Cervical spine deformity negatively affects patients' quality of life. Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) has reported to correct cervical deformity but it is challenging and carries a significant risk of morbidity.

Objective: To report transdiscal C7 PSO with a strut graft for the correction of sagittal and coronal imbalance in patients with fixed cervical deformity.

Methods: After standard exposure, the spine was instrumented from C2 to T3. T1 subtotal laminectomy, and C6 to C7 total laminectomies were necessary for C7 PSO. Osteotomy was initiated with removal of C6-7 and C7-T1 facet joints to isolate C7 pedicles and identify bilateral C7/C8 roots. Bilateral C7 pediculectomies and transdiscal PSO were performed. A rectangular strut allograft was then inserted into the PSO site. The location of the strut graft was used as a fulcrum of sagittal and coronal correction. The head fixator was released and the head was extended under intraoperative neuromonitoring, and then detailed sagittal and coronal balances were controlled by compressing or distracting between the pedicle screws above and below the osteotomy.

Results: This technique was applied in 2 patients with fixed subaxial cervical deformities. Transdiscal PSO could add more amount of correction and provide the additional fusion surface. The strut graft prevented sagittal translation, foraminal narrowing, and excessive focal cord kinking during PSO. Both patients showed radiologic and clinical improvements after surgery, and no neurovascular complication occurred after the surgery.

Conclusion: Transdiscal C7 PSO with a strut graft placement provided a safe way of correcting sagittal and coronal imbalance simultaneously and reduced neurological complication by preventing sagittal translation, foraminal narrowing and spinal cord kinking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opz142DOI Listing
March 2020

Analysis of Risk Factors for Posterior C1 Screw-Related Complication: A Retrospective Study of 358 Posterior C1 Screws.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2019 11;17(5):509-517

Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although C1 screw fixation is becoming popular, only a few studies have discussed about the risk factors and the patterns of C1 screw complications.

Objective: To investigate the incidence of C1 screw complications and analyze the risk factors of the C1 screw complications.

Methods: A total of 358 C1 screws in 180 consecutive patients were analyzed for C1 screw complications. Screw malposition, occipital neuralgia, major complications, and total C1 screw complications were analyzed.

Results: The distribution of C1 screw entry point is as follows: inferior lateral mass, 317 screws (88.5 %); posterior arch (PA), 38 screws (10.7 %); and superior lateral mass, 3 screws (0.8 %). We sacrificed the C2 root for 127 screws (35.5 %). C1 instrumentation induced 3.1 % screw malposition, 6.4 % occipital neuralgia, 0.6 % vascular injury, and 3.4 % major complications. In multivariate analysis, deformity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.10, P = .003), traumatic pathology (OR: 4.97, P = .001), and PA entry point (OR: 3.38, P = .001) are independent factors of C1 screw malposition. C2 root resection can decrease the incidence of C1 screw malposition (OR: 0.38, P = .012), but it is a risk factor of occipital neuralgia (OR: 2.62, P = .034). Advanced surgical experience (OR: 0.09, P = .020) correlated with less major complication.

Conclusion: The incidence of C1 screw complications might not be uncommon, and deformity or traumatic pathology and PA entry point could be the risk factors to total C1 screw complications. The PA screw induces more malposition, but less occipital neuralgia. C2 root resection can reduce screw malposition, but increases occipital neuralgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opz068DOI Listing
November 2019

Black phosphorene as a hole extraction layer boosting solar water splitting of oxygen evolution catalysts.

Nat Commun 2019 05 1;10(1):2001. Epub 2019 May 1.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749, Republic of Korea.

As the development of oxygen evolution co-catalysts (OECs) is being actively undertaken, the tailored integration of those OECs with photoanodes is expected to be a plausible avenue for achieving highly efficient solar-assisted water splitting. Here, we demonstrate that a black phosphorene (BP) layer, inserted between the OEC and BiVO can improve the photoelectrochemical performance of pre-optimized OEC/BiVO (OEC: NiOOH, MnO and CoOOH) systems by 1.2∼1.6-fold, while the OEC overlayer, in turn, can suppress BP self-oxidation to achieve a high durability. A photocurrent density of 4.48 mA·cm at 1.23 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) is achieved by the NiOOH/BP/BiVO photoanode. It is found that the intrinsic p-type BP can boost hole extraction from BiVO and prolong holes trapping lifetime on BiVO surface. This work sheds light on the design of BP-based devices for application in solar to fuel conversion, and also suggests a promising nexus between semiconductor and electrocatalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10034-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6494903PMC
May 2019

Risk factor analysis of postoperative kyphotic change in subaxial cervical alignment after upper cervical fixation.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Apr 26:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

2Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon.

OBJECTIVELittle is known about the risk factors for postoperative subaxial cervical kyphosis following craniovertebral junction (CVJ) fixation. The object of this study was to evaluate postoperative changes in cervical alignment and to identify the risk factors for postoperative kyphotic change in the subaxial cervical spine after CVJ fixation.METHODSOne hundred fifteen patients were retrospectively analyzed for postoperative subaxial kyphosis after CVJ fixation. Relations between subaxial kyphosis and radiological risk factors, including segmental angles and ranges of motion (ROMs) at C0-1, C1-2, and C2-7, and clinical factors, such as age, sex, etiology, occipital fixation, extensor muscle resection at C2, additional C1-2 posterior wiring, and subaxial laminoplasty, were investigated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the risk factors for postoperative kyphotic changes in the subaxial cervical spine.RESULTSThe C2-7 angle change was more than -10° in 30 (26.1%) of the 115 patients. Risk factor analysis showed CVJ fixation combined with subaxial laminoplasty (OR 9.336, 95% CI 1.484-58.734, p = 0.017) and a small ROM at the C0-1 segment (OR 0.836, 95% CI 0.757-0.923, p < 0.01) were related to postoperative subaxial kyphotic change. On the other hand, age, sex, resection of the C2 extensor muscle, rheumatoid arthritis, additional C1-2 posterior wiring, and postoperative segmental angles were not risk factors for postoperative subaxial kyphosisCONCLUSIONSSubaxial alignment change is not uncommon after CVJ fixation. Muscle detachment at the C2 spinous process was not a risk factor of kyphotic change. The study findings suggest that a small ROM at the C0-1 segment with or without occipital fixation and combined subaxial laminoplasty are risk factors for subaxial kyphotic change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.2.SPINE18982DOI Listing
April 2019

Dopamine receptor antagonists induce differentiation of PC-3 human prostate cancer cell-derived cancer stem cell-like cells.

Prostate 2019 05 28;79(7):720-731. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.

Background: The objective of this study was to determine whether PC-3 human prostate cancer cell-derived cancer stem cells (CSC)-like cells grown in a regular cell culture plate not coated with a matrix molecule might be useful for finding differentiation-inducing agents that could alter properties of prostate CSC.

Methods: Monolayer cells prepared from sphere culture of PC-3 cells were characterized for the presence of pluripotency and tumorigenicity. They were then applied to screen a compound library to find compounds that could induce morphology changes of cells. Mechanisms of action of compounds selected from the chemical library that induced the loss of pluripotency of cells were also investigated.

Results: C5A cells prepared from PC-3 cell-derived sphere culture expressed pluripotency markers such as Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4. C5A cells were highly proliferative. They were invasive in vitro and tumorigenic in vivo. Some dopamine receptor antagonists such as thioridazine caused reduction of pluripotency markers and tumorigenicity. Thioridazine, unlike promazine, inhibited phosphorylation of AMPK in a dose dependent manner. BML-275, an AMPK inhibitor, also induced differentiation of C5A cells as seen with thioridazine whereas A769663, an AMPK activator, blocked its differentiation-inducing ability. Transfection of C5A cells with siRNAs of dopamine receptor subtypes revealed that knockdown of DRD2 or DRD4 induced morphology changes of C5A cells.

Conclusions: Some dopamine receptor antagonists such as thioridazine can induce differentiation of CSC-like cells by inhibiting phosphorylation of AMPK. Binding to DRD2 or DRD4 might have mediated the action of thioridazine involved in the differentiation of CSC-like cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23779DOI Listing
May 2019

Aligned Heterointerface-Induced 1T-MoS Monolayer with Near-Ideal Gibbs Free for Stable Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

Small 2019 Feb 30;15(8):e1804903. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749, Republic of Korea.

1T-phase molybdenum disulfide (1T-MoS ) exhibits superior hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over 2H-phase MoS (2H-MoS ). However, its thermodynamic instability is the main drawback impeding its practical application. In this work, a stable 1T-MoS monolayer formed at edge-aligned 2H-MoS and a reduced graphene oxide heterointerface (EA-2H/1T/RGO) using a precursor-in-solvent synthesis strategy are reported. Theoretical prediction indicates that the edge-aligned layer stacking can induce heterointerfacial charge transfer, which results in a phase transition of the interfacial monolayer from 2H to 1T that realizes thermodynamic stability based on the adhesion energy between MoS and graphene. As an electrocatalyst for HER, EA-2H/1T/RGO displays an onset potential of -103 mV versus RHE, a Tafel slope of 46 mV dec and 10 h stability in acidic electrolyte. The unexpected activity of EA-2H/1T/RGO beyond 1T-MoS is due to an inherent defect caused by the gliding of S atoms during the phase transition from 2H to 1T, leading the Gibbs free energy of hydrogen adsorption (ΔG ) to decrease from 0.13 to 0.07 eV, which is closest to the ideal value (0.06 eV) of 2H-MoS . The presented work provides fundamental insights into the impressive electrochemical properties of HER and opens new avenues for phase transitions at 2D/2D hybrid interfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804903DOI Listing
February 2019

Validity of a Smartphone Application (Sagittalmeter Pro) for the Measurement of Sagittal Balance Parameters.

World Neurosurg 2019 Jun 14;126:e8-e15. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea.

Objective: The study was aimed to compare the validity, reproducibility, precision, and efficiency of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and a smartphone application, which is an educative app to easily measure sagittal balance parameters (SagittalMeter Pro), for measuring spinopelvic sagittal parameters.

Methods: Three spine surgeons measured lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), and pelvic tilt (PT) on standing posteroanterior radiographs of 30 patients using PACS and SagittalMeter Pro. Measurements were repeated a week after the original measurements. Intraobserver and interobserver variabilities and reliabilities of each parameter (LL, PI, SS, and PT) were calculated for both techniques. Comparisons were performed using the paired t-test. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and P values of < 0.05 were considered significant.

Results: PACS to SagittalMeter Pro differences between the mean absolute values of LL, PI, SS, PT were 0.50°, 0.82°, 0.81°, 0.34°, respectively, and intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were similar. Excellent intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities were obtained for PACS and SagittalMeter Pro as demonstrated by values >0.86 and >0.84, respectively. Measurement times for PACS and SagittalMeter Pro were 36.63 ± 7.55 and 14.57 ± 1.96 seconds, respectively, and this difference was significant (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: The study shows PACS and SagittalMeter Pro are equivalent in terms of their abilities to measure spinopelvic sagittal parameters, and that the time required to obtain measurements was significantly less for SagittalMeter Pro. We believe that SagittalMeter Pro may be helpful when planning spinal surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.11.242DOI Listing
June 2019

Difference of Dynamic Morphometric Changes Between in Patients with Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament and Patients with Cervical Spondylosis: Assessment by Cervical Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

World Neurosurg 2019 Mar 6;123:e566-e573. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate differences between thicknesses of the ligamentum flavum (LF) and diameter of the spinal canal in different neck positions in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and patients with cervical degenerative spondylosis (CDS) using cervical dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Eighty-eight patients (66 CDS and 22 OPLL) who underwent neutral and dynamic MRI at our institute from February 2014 to July 2017 were the subjects of this retrospective study. Canal diameters and LF thicknesses were measured and Muhle's grades were determined in neutral and dynamic MRI from C2-C3 to C7-T1. Patients with CDS and OPLL were compared with respect to changes in morphometric parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and statistical significance was accepted for P values < 0.05.

Results: Mean ages in the CDS and OPLL groups were 68.2 ± 12.27 and 63.1 ± 9.36 years, respectively. Mean canal diameters were smaller in extension than in neutral at all measured levels, especially between C3-C4 and C6-C7 in patients with CDS. LF thickness in extension was significantly greater than in neutral and flexion positions in the CDS group, but not in the OPLL group. In addition, positional changes in Muhle's grades in the CDS group were significantly greater than in the OPLL group (P = 0.042).

Conclusions: Dynamic morphometric changes were found to be significantly greater in the CDS group than in the OPLL group. The study shows dynamic MRI may provide additional information in CDS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.11.213DOI Listing
March 2019
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