Publications by authors named "Jonato Prestes"

141 Publications

Impact of Low Hemoglobin on Body Composition, Strength, and Redox Status of Older Hemodialysis Patients Following Resistance Training.

Front Physiol 2021 10;12:619054. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Graduate Program of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasília, Brazil.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to: (i) investigate the effect of six months of resistance training (RT) on body composition, muscle strength, hematological patterns, and redox profile in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients, and; (ii) evaluate the effects of baseline concentrations of hemoglobin on the RT response.

Methods: One hundred fifty-seven subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were randomly allocated into two groups: Control [CTL, ( = 76)] and RT ( = 81). A first visit was required for anamnesis and anthropometric measurements. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and after twenty-four weeks of training in all patients for the analysis of clinical and redox balance markers. The RT program spanned six months and consisted of three sets of 8-12 repetitions with a rating of perceived exertion between 5 and 8 for three weekly sessions. Each exercise session was performed in twelve resistance exercises and it least for approximately 40 min.

Results: The main results demonstrated that RT decreased waist circumference by 3%, and decreased thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS) by 28%. Moreover, RT increased handgrip strength by 28.4%, fat-free mass by 4.1%, hemoglobin by 5%, iron by 33.4%, glutathione by 121%, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity by 14.2% ( < 0.05). Low hemoglobin concentrations impaired the effect of RT on fat-free mass gain.

Conclusion: Six months of RT in HD patients improved clinical parameters, such as hemoglobin, iron, body composition, and redox balance, while low hemoglobin concentration impaired exercise-benefits on fat-free mass in patients with CKD. These findings can contribute to a better clinical application of RT in the maintenance of hemodialysis patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.619054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987944PMC
March 2021

Effects of dynamic and isometric resistance training protocols on metabolic profile in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, 28106, Physical Education, Taguatinga, DF, Brazil.

To compare the effect of dynamic (DRT) and isometric (IRT) resistance training on glycemic homeostasis, lipid profile, and nitric oxide (NO) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients were randomly distributed into three groups: control (CTL; n=65), DRT (n=65), and IRT (n=67). Patients were tested for fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin resistance, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and NO were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Patients underwent to strength and body composition assessments. Subjects allocated in both DRT and IRT groups took part in a 24-week resistance training program, three times per week. Each training session was approximately one hour before dialysis and consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions at low intensity. Total workload was higher in the DRT as compared with the IRT. This heightened workload related to better glycemic homeostasis in HD patients as measured by regulation of insulin, adiponectin, and leptin, while improvement of triglycerides, free-fat mass, and muscle strength. Additionally, NO levels were increased on DRT group. NO was significantly correlated with glucose intolerance (r=-0.42, p=0.0155) and workload (r=0.46, p=0.0022). The IRT group only improved strength (p<0.05). 24-week of DRT improved glycemic homeostasis, lipid profile, and NO in HD patients. Although IRT seems to play an important role in increasing strength, DRT might be a better choice to promote metabolic adjustments in HD patients. Clinical Trial http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-3gpg5w/; nº RBR-3gpg5w Novelty Bullets: -DRT might be a better choice for metabolic improvements in CKD patients. -Exercise-training might treat metabolic imbalance in CKD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0900DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of pre-dialysis resistance training on sarcopenia, inflammatory profile, and anemia biomarkers in older community-dwelling patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled trial.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Sarcopenia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been associated with negative outcomes in older people, including inflammatory profile and anemia biomarkers.

Aims: To investigate the effects of pre-dialysis resistance training (RT) on sarcopenia, inflammatory profile, and anemia biomarkers in older patients with CKD.

Methods: A total of 107 patients with CKD (65.4 ± 3.7 years) were randomly allocated into four groups: sarcopenic RT (n = 37), non-sarcopenic RT (n = 20), sarcopenic control (n = 28), and non-sarcopenic control (n = 22). DXA and handgrip strength were used to classify sarcopenia according to EWGSOP-2. Treatment groups underwent a 24-week intervention with RT before each dialysis session, three times per week. Blood sample analysis for ferritin, hepcidin, iron availability, and inflammatory profile (TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10) was conducted. All-cause mortality was recorded over 5 years.

Results: Sarcopenic RT group increased iron availability after the intervention, while their counterparts decreased. Ferritin and hepcidin significantly decreased in sarcopenic RT group. RT elicited a reduction in both TNFα and IL-6, while increasing IL-10 in both intervention groups. The rate of sarcopenic subjects substantially decreased after the intervention period (from 37 to 17 in the RT group; p = 0.01). The proportion of deaths was higher (P = 0.033) for sarcopenic subjects (Controls 35.7% vs RT 29.7%) when compared to non-sarcopenic subjects (Controls 18% vs RT 10%). The proportion of deaths decreased according to the randomization group (X2 = 8.704; P < 0.1).

Conclusions: The 24-week RT intervention elicited a better sarcopenia status, better inflammatory profile, and improved anemia biomarkers. Sarcopenia was associated with higher mortality rate in older patients with CKD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02799-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of paternal exercise on physiological systems in the offspring.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 Apr 19;231(4):e13620. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Molecular Analysis, Graduate Program of Sciences and Technology of Health, Faculdade de Ceilândia - Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

A significant number of studies have demonstrated that paternal exercise modulates future generations via effects on the sperm epigenome. However, comprehensive information regarding the effects of exercise performed by the father on different tissues and their clinical relevance has not yet been explored in detail. This narrative review is focused on the effects of paternal exercise training on various physiological systems of offspring. A detailed mechanistic understanding of these effects could provide crucial clues for the exercise physiology field and aid the development of therapeutic approaches to mitigate disorders in future generations. Non-coding RNA and DNA methylation are major routes for transmitting epigenetic information from parents to offspring. Resistance and treadmill exercise are the most frequently used modalities of planned and structured exercise in controlled experiments. Paternal exercise orchestrated protective effects over changes in fetus development and placenta inflammatory status. Moreover paternal exercise promoted modifications in the ncRNA profiles, gene and protein expression in the hippocampus, left ventricle, skeletal muscle, tendon, liver and pancreas in the offspring, while the transgenerational effects are unknown. Paternal exercise demonstrates clinical benefits to the offspring and provides a warning on the harmful effects of a paternal unhealthy lifestyle. Exercise in fathers is presented as one of the most logical and cost-effective ways of restoring health in the offspring and, consequently, modifying the phenotype. It is important to consider that paternal programming might have unique significance in the developmental origins of offspring diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apha.13620DOI Listing
April 2021

Improving the prognosis of renal patients: The effects of blood flow-restricted resistance training on redox balance and cardiac autonomic function.

Exp Physiol 2021 Apr 3;106(4):1099-1109. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Can resistance training with and without blood flow restriction improve redox balance and positively impact the autonomic cardiac modulation in chronic kidney disease patients? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance training with and without blood flow restriction improved antioxidant defence (paraoxonase 1), decreased the pro-oxidative myeloperoxidase, improved cardiac autonomic function and slowed the decrease in renal function. We draw attention to the important clinical implications for the management of redox balance and autonomic cardiac function in chronic kidney disease patients.

Abstract: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are prone to cardiovascular diseases secondary to abnormalities in both autonomic cardiac function and redox balance [myeloperoxidase (MPO) to paraoxonase 1 (PON1) ratio]. Although aerobic training improves both autonomic balance and redox balance in patients with CKD, the cardioprotective effects of resistance training (RT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), remain unknown. We aimed to compare the effects of RT and RT+BFR on antioxidant defence (PON1), pro-oxidative status (MPO), cardiac autonomic function (quantified by heart rate variability analysis) and renal function. Conservative CKD (stages 1 to 5 who do not need hemodialysis) patients (n = 105, 33 female) of both sexes were randomized into three groups: control (CTL; 57.6 ± 5.2 years; body mass index, 33.23 ± 1.62 kg/m ), RT (58.09 ± 6.26 years; body mass index 33.63 ± 2.05 kg/m ) and RT+BFR (58.06 ± 6.47 years; body mass index, 33.32 ± 1.87 kg/m ). Patients completed 6 months of RT or RT+BFR on three non-consecutive days per week under the supervision of strength and conditioning professionals. Training loads were adjusted every 2 months. Heart rate variability was recorded with a Polar-RS800 and data were analysed for time and frequency domains using Kubios software. The redox balance markers were PON1 and MPO, which were analysed in plasma samples. Renal function was estimated as estimated glomerular filtration rate. The RT and RT+BFR decreased pro-oxidative MPO (RT, ∼34 ng/ml and RT+BFR, ∼27 ng/ml), improved both antioxidant defence (PON1: RT, ∼23 U/L and RT+BFR, ∼31 U/L) and cardiac autonomic function (R-R interval: RT, ∼120.4 ms and RT+BFR, ∼117.7 ms), and slowed the deterioration of renal function (P < 0.0001). Redox balance markers were inversely correlated with heart rate variability time-domain indices. Our data indicated that both training models were effective as non-pharmacological tools to increase the antioxidant defences, decrease oxidative stress and improve the cardiac autonomic function of CKD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP089341DOI Listing
April 2021

Advancements and critical steps for statistical analyses in blood pressure response to resistance training in hypertensive older women: a methodological approach.

Blood Press Monit 2021 Apr;26(2):135-145

Department of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB).

Background: Repeated measures analysis of covariance and three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures are common statistical methods. For a valid interpretation of blood pressure (BP) response to exercise, a variety of additional statistical methods must be implemented. Four additional statistical methods are presented: technical error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), magnitude-based inference and mixed effect modeling technique (MEM). The aim of this perspective article is to demonstrate how to apply already known statistical analyses regarding BP responsiveness in order to improve interpretation and achieve higher reliability for future studies in exercise science.

Methods: A total of 27 hypertensive older women (aged 68.37 ± 5.55 years) participated in the present study. A whole-body resistance training (RT) program was performed on two nonconsecutive days per week for 10 weeks. BP was monitored during the 10-week RT intervention and after 15 weeks of detraining. First, individuals were classified as high and low responders, then statistical methods to analyze data included the use of SEM, SRD, magnitude-based inference and MEM.

Results: When magnitude-based inference was used to classify responsiveness, most participants displayed a trivial response. Decrements in SBP between 1 and 10 mmHg were not clinically meaningful but fell within the measurement error of the SBP measurements. Baseline SBP and time of training predicted post-SBP response.

Conclusion: Changes over time and declines in SBP might not be a SRD and fell in the SEM. Moreover, SBP responsiveness was the result of inappropriate control of covariates such as period of training.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBP.0000000000000505DOI Listing
April 2021

Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction prevent renal function decline: The role of the redox balance, angiotensin 1-7 and vasopressin.

Physiol Behav 2021 Mar 16;230:113295. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Post-Graduate Program of Physical Education of Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil-71966-700. Electronic address:

Aims: We sought to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) and low-load RT with moderate blood flow restriction (RT+BFR) on blood pressure, exercise pressor response, redox balance and vasoactive peptides, body composition and muscle strength in patients with stage two of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: We conducted a 6-month randomized controlled exercise intervention in 90 male and female hypertensive CKD patients (58±9 years with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; of 66.1 ± 1.2 mL/kg/1.73m). Participants were randomized to one of three groups (n = 30/group); control group (CTL), RT, and RT+BFR. RT and RT+BFR performed three weekly training sessions using similar periodization for six months (two-month mesocycles), but of different intensities.

Results: There was similarly effects between RT and RT+BFR in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure during daytime and 24hour period (RT: 10.4%; RT+BFR: 10.3% of decrease), fat mass, F-isoprostanes, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and vasopressin (p<0.05 pre-vs post). Also promoted the increase of angiotensin 1-7, nitric oxide (NO), catalase, Trolox equivalent and muscle strength (p<0.05). Both training models attenuated the decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (p<0.0001 vs CTL). However, only RT+BFR was associated with lower discomfort during exercise (p<0.0001 pre-vs post). Statistical significance was considered with p < 0.05.

Conclusion: These findings suggest low-load RT+BFR as a promising non-pharmacological strategy to control blood pressure, oxidative stress, vasoactive peptides, and consequently, attenuate the decrease of the eGFR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113295DOI Listing
March 2021

Dynamic not isometric training blunts osteo-renal disease and improves the sclerostin/FGF23/Klotho axis in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized clinical trial.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Feb 26;130(2):508-516. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

This study compared the effectiveness of dynamic resistance training (DRT) versus isometric RT (IRT) on osteogenesis and hormonal mechanisms involved in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. One hundred and ninety-three MHD patients were randomized into three groups: control (CTL) ( = 60), DRT ( = 66), and IRT ( = 67). A first visit was required for an anamnesis to evaluate the number of medications, biochemical, and anthropometric measurements (dialysis adequacy, creatinine, urea, body mass, height, and body mass index). Grip strength, bone mineral density (BMD), and renal-bone markers were assessed pre- and postprotocol. The DRT and IRT training was 6 mo with a frequency of three times per week, on alternate days. Each training session consisted of three sets of 8 to 12 repetitions at lower and moderate intensities. Both training sessions were prescribed approximately 1 h prior to dialysis. Statistical significances were adopted with < 0.05. There was a greater dropout in the IRT group (24%) as compared with the DRT group (14%), which in turn had less adverse clinical effects (67%, 24%, and 61% for CTL, DRT, and IRT, respectively). DRT promoted gains in BMD in different body locations, in addition to increasing pro-osteogenic factors (Klotho and calcitriol) and reducing those related to bone loss, such as sclerostin, FGF23, and PTH. There was an improvement in Ca × PO for DRT, whereas these benefits did not occur in the IRT group ( < 0.05). These novel findings suggest that the DRT generates biopositive adaptations in bone tissue in MHD and can be used as a nonpharmacological strategy to improve BMD. This study shows, for the first time, the effect of dynamic and isometric resistance training on bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients, providing a new understanding of the possible participation of the sclerostin/FGF23/Klotho axis, vitD, PTH, and calcium × phosphate product in this process. However, isometric resistance training may not be sufficient to induce these benefits. Therefore, this study supports the potential therapeutic role of dynamic resistance training counteracting chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00416.2020DOI Listing
February 2021

Training Programs Designed for Muscle Hypertrophy in Bodybuilders: A Narrative Review.

Sports (Basel) 2020 Nov 18;8(11). Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Metabolism, Nutrition and Resistance Training Research Group, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 81531-980, Brazil.

Bodybuilding is a sport that requires adequate training strategies in order to maximize skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of the present review was to perform a narrative assessment of the training routines designed for muscle hypertrophy used by bodybuilders. A search was carried out in the databases Pubmed/MEDLINE, Scielo, EBSCO, LILACS, SportDiscus, Web of Science, and CINAHL with the words "Resistance training" and "hypertrophy" in bodybuilders and their variations that involve the respective outcomes. Fourteen studies were identified that investigated the long-term training routines of bodybuilders. These studies demonstrate a pattern in the training organization, whereby there is a separation of training into four distinct periods: off-season, pre-contest, peak week, and post-contest. Each period has a specific spectrum of intensity load, total training volume, and exercise type (multi- or single-joint). We conclude that bodybuilding competitors employed a higher intensity load, lower number of repetitions, and longer rest intervals in the off-season than pre-contest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports8110149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698840PMC
November 2020

Comparison of field- and laboratory-based estimates of muscle quality index between octogenarians and young older adults: an observational study.

J Exerc Rehabil 2020 Oct 27;16(5):458-466. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Gerontology, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB), Brasilia, Brazil.

Muscle quality (the ratio of strength to lean muscle mass) might be a better indicator of muscle function than strength alone. Differences in muscle quality index (MQI) between octogenarians and young older adults remain unclear. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to compare (1) MQI between octogenarians and young older adults, (2) lab versus field-based MQI tools, and (3) determine possible confounding factors affecting MQI in older adults. Compiled data from two cross-sectional studies included 175 younger and older adults (31 men and 144 women) with a mean age of 75.93±9.49 years. Participants with age ≥80 years old were defined as octogenarians (n=79) and <80 years was defined as young older adults (n=96). Laboratory MQI was derived from the ratio of grip strength to arm muscle mass (in kg) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Field-based MQI was quantified from the ratio of grip strength to body mass index (BMI). Octogenarians displayed lower field (=0.003) and laboratory MQI (<0.001) as compared with young older adults. There was a strong correlation effect between field MQI and laboratory MQI (=0.001, =0.85). BMI (=0.001), and diabetes mellitus (=0.001) negatively affected MQI. Women presented lower MQI (=0.001) values than men. In light of this information, rehabilitation specialists should consider the use of field-based MQI as a tool for evaluation and follow-up of older population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.2040668.334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609849PMC
October 2020

Could sestrins 2 be the secret of resistance exercise benefiting dialytic patients?

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 12;35(12):2198-2199

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa212DOI Listing
December 2020

Biomarkers and Redox Balance in Aging Rats after Dynamic and Isometric Resistance Training.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Mar 18;42(3):283-290. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Aging muscle is prone to sarcopenia and its associated telomere shortening and increased oxidative stress. Telomeres are protected by a shelterin protein complex, proteins expressed in response to DNA damage. Aerobic exercise training has shown to positively modulate these proteins while aging, but the effects of resistance training are less clear. This investigation was to examine the role of dynamic and isometric RT on markers of senescence and muscle apoptosis: checkpoint kinase 2, 53 kDa protein, shelterin telomere repeat binding 1 and 2, DNA repair, telomere length and redox state in the quadriceps muscle. Fifteen 49-week-old male rats were divided into three groups: control, dynamic resistance training, and isometric resistance training. Dynamic and isometric groups completed five sessions per week during 16 weeks at low to moderate intensity (20-70% maximal load). Only dynamic group decreased expression of 53 kDa protein, proteins from shelterin complex, oxidative stress, and improved antioxidant defense. There was no difference among groups regarding telomere length. In conclusion, dynamic resistance training was more effective than isometric in reducing markers of aging and muscle apoptosis in elderly rats. This modality should be considered as valuable tool do counteract the deleterious effects of aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1231-5410DOI Listing
March 2021

Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Is a Superior Method to Monitor Internal Training Loads of Functional Fitness Training Sessions Performed at Different Intensities When Compared to Training Impulse.

Front Physiol 2020 12;11:919. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Athlete Health Lab, Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Despite its increase in popularity, little is known about how to best quantify internal training loads from functional fitness training (FFT) sessions. The purpose of this study was to assess which method [training impulse (TRIMP) or session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE)] is more accurate to monitor training loads in FFT. Eight trained males (age 28.1 ± 6.0 years) performed an ALL-OUT FFT session and an intensity-controlled session (RPE of six out of 10). Internal load was determined Edward's TRIMP (eTRIMP), Bannister's TRIMP (bTRIMP), and sRPE. Heart rate was measured continuously during the session, while blood lactate and rate of perceived exertion were measured at baseline, and immediately and 30 min after the sessions. ALL-OUT blood lactate and RPE were significantly higher immediately and 30 min after the session compared to the RPE6 condition. ALL-OUT training load was significantly different between conditions using bTRIMP (61.1 ± 10.6 vs. 55.7 ± 12.4 AU) and sRPE (91.7 ± 30.4 vs. 42.6 ± 14.9 AU), with sRPE being more sensitive to such differences [ = 0.045, effect size (ES) = 0.76 and = 0.002, ES = 1.82, respectively]. No differences in the training loads of the different sessions were found using eTRIMP (93.1 ± 9.5 vs. 84.9 ± 13.7 AU, = 0.085). Only sRPE showed a significant correlation with lactate 30 min post session ( = 0.015; = 0.596, large). sRPE was more accurate than both TRIMP methods to represent the overall training load of the FFT sessions. While the use of sRPE is advised, further research is necessary to establish its ability to reflect changes in fitness, fatigue, and performance during a period of training.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7435063PMC
August 2020

Obese elderly with diabetes experience more pain and reduced quality of life compared to obese elderly with hypertension.

J Clin Transl Res 2020 Jun 12;5(5):253-259. Epub 2020 May 12.

Graduation Program in Gerontology and Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.

Background And Aim: Growth of elderly population is a worldwide phenomenon that impacts public health. The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels, strength, and quality of life among elderly obese with diabetes or hypertension.

Materials And Methods: The study cohort comprised 52 obese elderly subjects with hypertension (n = 35) and diabetes (n = 17). The parameters measured were anthropometric features, handgrip strength, visual analog scale for pain, and quality of life using the World Health Organization questionnaire.

Results: The level of pain reported by obese hypertensive elderly subjects (5.3 ± 3.4) was lower than reported by obese diabetic elderly subjects (7.4 ± 2.4). Obese hypertensive elderly scored higher on quality of life (sensory functioning and past, present, and future [PPF] activities) than obese diabetic elderly. No differences were observed for the other parameters. Strength, pain, anthropometrics, and hemodynamics were not correlated to quality of life.

Conclusions: Obese elderly diabetics exhibit worse pain scores, sensorial abilities, and PPF activities than obese hypertensive elderly individuals.

Relevance For Patients: The difference in pain and quality of life aspects between obese elderly individuals with hypertension and diabetes should be accounted for in health-care programs designed for these individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453806PMC
June 2020

Blood Flow Restriction Training Blunts Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Humans.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 02;53(2):249-257

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, BRAZIL.

Purpose: This study aimed to verify the effect of 6 months of periodized resistance training (RT) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) in patients with stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), uremic parameters, cytokines, and klotho-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) axis.

Methods: A total of 105 subjects were randomized in three groups of 35 each: control (CTL), RT, and RT + BFR. A first visit was required for an anamnesis to evaluate the number of medications and anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, and body mass index). Muscle strength (one-repetition maximum) was assessed. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and after 6 months of training in all patients for the analysis of markers of renal function and integrity, as well as for the determination of the inflammatory profile. Statistical significances were adopted with P < 0.05.

Results: Both training therapies attenuated the decline of GFR (P < 0.05). The majority of CTL patients declined to stage 3 CKD (88.5%), whereas fewer incidents were noted with RT (25.7%) and RT + BFR (17.1%). Improved uremic parameters as well as inflammation (IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17a, IL-18, and TNF-α) and klotho-FGF23 axis in RT and RT + BFR (P < 0.05) were observed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 was not changed (P > 0.05) but presented a large effect size (Cohen's d), demonstrating a propensity for improvement.

Conclusion: Six months of periodized RT with and without BFR in patients with stage 2 CKD attenuated the progression of the disease by maintaining GFR, improving uremic parameters, cytokine profile regulation, and klotho-FGF23 axis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002465DOI Listing
February 2021

Pre-stretching of the Hamstrings Before Squatting Acutely Increases Biceps Femoris Thickness Without Impairing Exercise Performance.

Front Physiol 2020 7;11:769. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.

Bilateral squat exercise is widely used in resistance training (RT) programs to increase lower limb strength and muscle mass, but this exercise does not result in significant hypertrophy of the hamstrings. It has been speculated that stretching between sets with a certain degree of tension results in muscle hypertrophy, while acute stretching could decrease performance during maximal contractions. This study investigated the acute effects of hamstring stretching before bilateral squatting on muscle thickness (MT), electromyography (EMG), and total training volume (TTV) on exercise performance. Fourteen resistance-trained young men, with ∼7.5 years of RT experience, performed the 10 repetition maximum (RM) for the barbell squat in two sessions (test-retest) separated by period after 48 h. Participants engaged in two resistance exercise conditions separated by a 1 week recovery interval: one session employed hamstrings stretching and the other did not include hamstrings stretching. Before and after each resistance exercise session, the thickness of the quadriceps muscles and biceps femoris long head were obtained by ultrasound imaging. Moreover, the EMG amplitudes for the quadriceps muscles, biceps femoris, and iliocostalis muscles were recorded during back squat performance. The TTV was also evaluated for each exercise session. A significant increase in MT was observed after every set in both conditions for the evaluated quadriceps muscles (all < 0.05), while for the biceps femoris, this effect was found only in the stretching condition ( < 0.05). EMG activity increased in the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis for the stretching condition. For the non-stretching condition, activity only increased in the vastus lateralis and medialis. There was no difference in EMG activity for the biceps femoris and iliocostalis in both conditions. Stretching the hamstrings immediately before each set of the back squat can be used to acutely increase biceps femoris thickness without impairing squat performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358463PMC
July 2020

Effect of high-velocity and traditional resistance exercise on serum antioxidants and inflammation biomarkers in older women: A randomized crossover trial.

Exp Gerontol 2020 10 24;139:111026. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB), Brasilia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Contrary to the production of oxidant and inflammation biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes decrease with age and the adaptive response to oxidative stress is reduced. The effects of the different resistance exercise protocols to attenuate these conditions are largely unexplored.

Objective: We compared the acute effects of traditional resistance exercise (TRE) and high velocity RE (HVRE) on inflammatory biomarkers and antioxidant activity in elderly women.

Methods: Fourteen elderly women (67 ± 7 years) were randomly assigned to TRE or HVRE. Blood samples were collected to measure inflammatory markers and antioxidant enzymes at three time-points (pre-exercise, post-exercise, 30 min post-exercise).

Results: TRE and HVRE induced acute reductions over time on tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble receptor of IL-6 (sIL-6R), as well in catalase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase antioxidant levels without differences between groups. In addition, TRE and HVRE groups displayed acute increments in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-10/IL-6 ratio over time, while the HVRE protocol displayed higher IL-10 values post-exercise and 30 min post-exercise time points as compared with TRE. Based on magnitude based inference, subjects from the HVRE group demonstrated superior responsiveness for IL-6 and IL-10 as compared with the TRE group. All participants from the HVRE group displayed a minimal clinical important difference on IL-10 levels as compared to only two persons from the TRE group.

Conclusion: Both RE protocols were capable of positive changes in inflammatory and antioxidant status in elderly subjects, but HVRE demonstrated a superior response on IL-10. The HVRE may be incorporated to exercise recommendation in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111026DOI Listing
October 2020

Resistance training improves sleep quality, redox balance and inflammatory profile in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 07 16;10(1):11708. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Graduate Program of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (USB), EPTC, QS07, LT1 s/n. Bloco G Sala 117, Águas Claras, Taguatinga, Brasília, DF, 71966-700, Brazil.

Patients in maintenance hemodialisys (HD) present sleep disorders, increased inflammation, unbalanced redox profiles, and elevated biomarkers representing endothelial dysfunction. Resistance training (RT) has shown to mitigate the loss of muscle mass, strength, improve inflammatory profiles, and endothelial function while decreasing oxidative stress for those in HD. However, the relation between those factors and sleep quality are inadequately described. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of 3 months of RT on sleep quality, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, inflammation profile, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients undergoing HD. Our primary goal was to describe the role of RT on sleep quality. Our secondary goal was to evaluate the effect of RT on NO, metabolism markers, and inflammatory and redox profiles as potential mechanisms to explain RT-induced sleep quality changes. Fifty-five men undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were randomized into either a control (CTL, n = 25) and RT group (RTG; n = 30). Participants in the RT group demonstrated an improvement in sleep pattern, redox, inflammatory profiles, and biomarkers of endothelial function (NO and ADMA). This group also increased muscle strength (total workload in RT exercises of upper and lower limbs). These findings support that RT may improve the clinical status of HD patients by improving their sleep quality, oxidative and inflammatory parameters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68602-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367305PMC
July 2020

Paternal Resistance Training Modulates Calcaneal Tendon Proteome in the Offspring Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 16;8:380. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Laboratory of Molecular Analysis, Graduate Program of Sciences and Technology of Health, Universidade de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

The increase in high-energy dietary intakes is a well-known risk factor for many diseases, and can also negatively impact the tendon. Ancestral lifestyle can mitigate the metabolic harmful effects of offspring exposed to high-fat diet (HF). However, the influence of paternal exercise on molecular pathways associated to offspring tendon remodeling remains to be determined. We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of paternal resistance training (RT) on offspring tendon proteome exposed to standard diet or HF diet. Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: sedentary fathers and trained fathers (8 weeks, three times per week, with 8-12 dynamic movements per climb in a stair climbing apparatus). The offspring were obtained by mating with sedentary females. Upon weaning, male offspring were divided into four groups (five animals per group): offspring from sedentary fathers were exposed either to control diet (SFO-C), or to high-fat diet (SFO-HF); offspring from trained fathers were exposed to control diet (TFO-C) or to a high-fat diet (TFO-HF). The Nano-LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 383 regulated proteins among offspring groups. HF diet induced a decrease of abundance in tendon proteins related to extracellular matrix organization, transport, immune response and translation. On the other hand, the changes in the offspring tendon proteome in response to paternal RT were more pronounced when the offspring were exposed to HF diet, resulting in positive regulation of proteins essential for the maintenance of tendon integrity. Most of the modulated proteins are associated to biological pathways related to tendon protection and damage recovery, such as extracellular matrix organization and transport. The present study demonstrated that the father's lifestyle could be crucial for tendon homeostasis in the first generation. Our results provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in paternal intergenerational effects and potential protective outcomes of paternal RT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325979PMC
June 2020

Effects of resistance training on hepcidin levels and iron bioavailability in older individuals with end-stage renal disease: A randomized controlled trial.

Exp Gerontol 2020 10 4;139:111017. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil.

Anemia is an inherent complication of older individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that is associated with inflammation which in turn is an important factor in the activation of hepcidin that contributes to the decrease in serum iron. Athough resistance training (RT) seems to reduce inflammation in ESRD, its influence on hepcidin and iron availability in hemodialysis patients is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to exemine the effects of RT in on inflammatory profile, hepcidin, and iron status in older individuals with ESRD. End-stage renal disease patients (N: 157, age: 66.8 ± 3.6; body mass: 73 ± 15 body mass index:27 ± 3), were assigned to control (CTL n: 76) and exercise groups (RT n: 81). RT consisted of 24 weeks/3 days per week of a moderate intensity. There was an increase in the bioavailability of iron (ΔRT: 22.2; ΔCTL: -1 μg/dL, p < 0.0001), a decrease in hepcidin levels (ΔRT: -7.9; ΔCTL: 0.2 ng/mL, p < 0.0001),and an improvement of the inflammatory profile. These novel findings show that RT is a potential coadjuvant to reduce iron deficiency by decreasing the levels of hepcidin and pro-inflammatory markers in older patients undergoing hemodialysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111017DOI Listing
October 2020

High Supervised Resistance Training in Elderly Women: The Role of Supervision Ratio.

Int J Exerc Sci 2020 1;13(3):597-606. Epub 2020 May 1.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Distrito Federal, BRAZIL.

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of very high supervision (VHS-RT) versus high supervision (HS-RT) ratio resistance training (RT) on irisin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF), muscle strength, functional capacity, and body composition in elderly women. Participants performed daily undulating periodized RT over 16 weeks with two different supervision ratios: VHS-RT at 1:2 (supervisor/subject) or HS-RT at 1:5. Serum was used to analyze brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and irisin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while functional capacity was evaluated using the Six-minute walk test, and Timed Up and Go (TUG). One- repetition maximum (1RM) was determined for bench press and 45° leg press exercises. For both groups, no differences between baseline and post-training were identified for irisin and lean mass ( > 0.05). Both groups improved bench press 1-RM, 45° leg press 1-RM, and TUG ( < 0.05). The VHS-RT group displayed higher effect sizes for 1-RM tests. Moreover, only VHS-RT group reduced body fat and body fat percentage ( < 0.05). In contrast, the HS-RT increased BDNF ( < 0.01). In this sense, RT enhances muscle strength and functional capacity in elderly women independent of supervision ratio. A greater supervision ratio during RT may induce more improvements in muscle strength, and body composition than lower supervision ratio during RT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241618PMC
May 2020

Paternal Resistance Training Induced Modifications in the Left Ventricle Proteome Independent of Offspring Diet.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 4;2020:5603580. Epub 2020 May 4.

Laboratory of Molecular Analysis, Graduate Program of Sciences and Technology of Health, Universidade de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

Ancestral obesogenic exposure is able to trigger harmful effects in the offspring left ventricle (LV) which could lead to cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of the father's lifestyle on the offspring LV is largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of paternal resistance training (RT) on the offspring left ventricle (LV) proteome exposed to control or high-fat (HF) diet. Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: sedentary fathers and trained fathers (8 weeks, 3 times per week with weights secured to the animals' tails). The offspring were obtained by mating with sedentary females. Upon weaning, male offspring were divided into 4 groups (5 animals per group): offspring from sedentary fathers, exposed to control diet (SFO-C); offspring from trained fathers, exposed to control diet (TFO-C); offspring from sedentary fathers, exposed to high-fat diet (SFO-HF); and offspring from trained fathers, exposed to high-fat diet (TFO-HF). The LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 537 regulated proteins among groups. Offspring exposure to HF diet caused reduction in the abundance levels of proteins related to cell component organization, metabolic processes, and transport. Proteins related to antioxidant activity, transport, and transcription regulation were increased in TFO-C and TFO-HF as compared with the SFO-C and SFO-HF groups. Paternal RT demonstrated to be an important intervention capable of inducing significant effects on the LV proteome regardless of offspring diet due to the increase of proteins involved into LV homeostasis maintenance. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular aspects involved in transgenerational inheritance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5603580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218999PMC
January 2021

Carbohydrate Loading Practice in Bodybuilders: Effects on Muscle Thickness, Photo Silhouette Scores, Mood States and Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

J Sports Sci Med 2019 12 19;18(4):772-779. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Post graduation Program on Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB), Brasília, Federal District, Brazil.

A common practice among bodybuilders is the use of carbohydrate loading to improve physical appearance during competition, while limited documented data is available about this issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate muscle thickness, mood states, gastrointestinal symptoms and subjective silhouette assessment following carbohydrate loading in bodybuilders. Twenty-four male bodybuilders were evaluated at the weighing period following three days of carbohydrate depletion (M1), and 24h of carbohydrate loading leading up to the competition (M2), stratified into: no carbohydrate load (NC, n = 9) and carbohydrate loading (CL, n =1 5). The silhouette scale, Brunel mood scale (BRUMS), muscle thickness (ultrasound), circumferences, and gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) were evaluated at M1 and M2. The NC displayed no differences in muscle thickness and circumferences between M1 and M2. Body mass, muscle thickness (elbow flexors, a combination of biceps brachii/ brachialis muscle, and triceps brachii) and circumferences (chest, hip, thigh, arm, calves, and forearm) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the CL at M2. There was a significant increase in photo silhouette scores (p < 0.05) in the CL at M2. There was no significant difference in mood states between groups or time. The most reported GIS was constipation: 7/9 (NC) and 9/15 (CL) during M1 and 6/9 (NC), and 5/15 (CL) at M2 with symptoms described as 'moderate' or 'severe'. Diarrhea was reported by 7/15 CL (4/15 as severe). These data suggest that carbohydrate loading may contribute to an acute increase in muscle volume and physical appearance, however, it needs to be better planned to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms in bodybuilders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6873117PMC
December 2019

Effects of Pre-exhaustion Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Training Volume, Maximal Strength, and Quadriceps Hypertrophy.

Front Physiol 2019 19;10:1424. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Graduation Program in Physical Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

Background: The pre-exhaustion (PreEx) method is used as a resistance training (RT) method to increase muscle mass, yet the chronic effects of this method are poorly understood.

Objective: Although readily prescribed as a RT method for promotion of muscle hypertrophy, few researches give light to gains made after chronic PreEx RT. Therefore, we compared the effects of traditional versus PreEx RT programs on muscle strength, body composition, and muscular hypertrophy in adult males.

Methods: Untrained subjects (age: 31.37 ± 6.83 years; height: 175.29 ± 5.52 cm; body mass: 82.04 ± 13.61 kg; 1RM leg press: 339.86 ± 61.17 kg; 1RM leg extension: 121.71 ± 11.93 kg) were submitted to 9 weeks of RT with weekly sessions. Traditional (TRT) group ( = 12) performed three sets at 45° of leg press exercise at 75% of 1RM, PreEx group ( = 12) completed a set to failure on a leg extension machine prior to the leg press, and the control (CON) group ( = 7) did not train. Maximum strength, muscle thickness, and body composition were analyzed.

Results: PreEx group increased in maximal strength on leg press (16 ± 8%) and leg extension (17 ± 11%), while the TRT group improved by 15 ± 9 and 11 ± 4%, respectively. The thickness of the quadriceps muscles increased for both intervention groups. Specifically, the post-training thickness of the vastus lateralis was significantly higher for PreEx (55%) compared to the CON group. The TRT group presented a greater loss of total and thigh fat mass when compared with the PreEx method. These results were found in the presence of a lower training load for the PreEx group.

Conclusion: The PreEx training can decrease the total training volume while maintaining results in strength and hypertrophy when comparing to TRT. However, TRT may be optimal if the goal is to decrease fat mass.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882301PMC
November 2019

Relation Between Relative Handgrip Strength, Chronological Age and Physiological Age with Lower Functional Capacity in Older Women.

Open Access J Sports Med 2019 20;10:185-190. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB), Brasilia, Brazil.

Purpose: Relative handgrip strength (RHGS), Aged Based on Exercise Stress Testing (A-BEST), and chronological age were evaluated as predictors of impaired mobility in older women.

Methods: Participants included 88 older women (mean age 68.13±6.02 years) referred for exercise stress testing. Estimated physiological age was computed based on exercise capacity, chronotropic reserve index, heart rate recovery, and medication that could affect heart rate. RHGS was measured using a validated handgrip hydraulic dynamometer and mobility was evaluated by timed up and go test (TUG-test). A hierarchical multiple regression predicted TUG-test performance from A-BEST, chronological age and RHGS.

Results: After adjustment for diabetes, RHGS was the only variable to add significantly to the prediction model (p=0.001). An increase in RHGS of 1 kg/body mass index was associated with a decrease in TUG-test of 0.7 seconds.

Conclusion: Relative handgrip strength test was a better predictor of impaired mobility when compared with chronological and physiological age in older women. Moreover, RHGS represents an inexpensive, simple, portable, noninvasive measurement for a clinician when compared with an exercise stress testing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S227720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6875501PMC
November 2019

Effects of Combined Resistance Plus Aerobic Training on Body Composition, Muscle Strength, Aerobic Capacity, and Renal Function in Kidney Transplantation Subjects.

J Strength Cond Res 2019 Nov 7. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Maranhao (UFMA), São Luis, Brazil.

Lima, PS, de Campos, AS, de Faria Neto, O, Ferreira, TCA, Amorim, CEN, Stone, WJ, Prestes, J, Garcia, AMC, and Urtado, CB. Effects of combined resistance plus aerobic training on body composition, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and renal function in kidney transplantation subjects. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Immunosuppression and a sedentary lifestyle may exacerbate complications such as early graft dysfunction and muscle loss, and reduce patient survival after kidney transplantation (KT). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in body composition (BC), muscular strength, aerobic, and renal function in KT subjects submitted to combined resistance plus aerobic training. Twelve KT subjects were randomly assigned into groups: (G1) 12 weeks of combined training (3 males and 4 females, 54 ± 3 years); or (G2) nonexercise control (5 females, 43 ± 18 years). The subjects were evaluated for BC (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, right-hand maximal grip strength (RHMGS) and left-hand maximal grip strength (LHMGS), and renal function. Post-training revealed that G1 reduced body fat percentage (p = 0.046), uric acid (Δ = -0.87; p = 0.023), urea (Δ = -9.43; p = 0.032), and creatinine (Δ = -0.15; p = 0.045), increased fat-free mass, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, RHMGS, LHMGS (p < 0.05), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (Δ = 11.64; p = 0.017). G2 increased urea (Δ = 8.20; p = 0.017), creatinine (Δ = 0.37; p = 0.028), and decreased eGFR (Δ = -16.10; p = 0.038). After 12 weeks, urea (Δ = 24.94; p = 0.013), uric acid (Δ = 1.64; p = 0.044), and creatinine (Δ = 0.9; p = 0.011) were lower, whereas eGFR (Δ = 36.51; p = 0.009) was higher in G1. These data indicate that combined training instigates positive changes in BC, muscular strength, aerobic capacity, and renal function after KT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003274DOI Listing
November 2019

Potential Implications of Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Vascular Health: A Brief Review.

Sports Med 2020 Jan;50(1):73-81

Department of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB), Q.S. 07, Lote 01, EPTC-Bloco G. Código Postal, Distrito Federal, Brasilia, 71966-700, Brazil.

Blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise (a.k.a. occlusion training) has emerged as a viable surrogate to traditional heavy-load strength rehabilitation training for a broad range of clinical populations including elderly subjects and rehabilitating athletes. A particular benefit of BFR exercise is the lower stress upon the joints as compared to traditional heavy resistance training, with similar gains in muscle strength and size. The application of an inflatable cuff to the proximal portion of the limbs increases the pressure required for venous return, leading to changes in venous compliance and wall tension. However, it is not known if long-term benefits of BFR exercise on muscle strength and size outweigh potential short and long-term complications on vascular health. BFR exercise could lead to clinical deterioration of the vasculature along with sympathetic overactivity and decreased vascular function associated with retrograde shear stress. This raises a fundamental question: Given the concern that excessive restriction could cause injury to endothelial cells and might cause detrimental effects on endothelial function, even in healthy individuals, should we critically re-evaluate the safety of this method for the general population? From this perspective, the purpose of this manuscript is to review the effects of BFR exercise on vascular function, and to provide relevant insights for training practice as well as future directions for research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01196-5DOI Listing
January 2020

Time-Course of Changes in Physiological, Psychological, and Performance Markers following a Functional-Fitness Competition.

Int J Exerc Sci 2019 1;12(3):904-918. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFTM), Cuiabá, MT, BR.

Functional Fitness Training (FFT) programs are characterized by utilizing a high volume of training and using a variety of high intensity exercises. While FFT are growing in the number of practitioners and popularity, the relationship between physiological biomarkers and subjective scales in the specific context of FFT has not yet been evaluated in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to monitor the time-course response of cytokines (IL-10 and 1L-1β), immune variables (C-reactive protein -CRP and immunoglobulin A-IgA), hormonal milieu (cortisol-C, total testosterone-TT, free testosterone-FT and testosterone/cortisol-T/C ratio), creatine kinase-CK, muscle performance (countermovement jump height) and perceived well-being (WB) following a functional fitness competition. Nine amateur male athletes (age 27.1 ± 4.1 years; training experience 2.2 ± 1.3 years) completed five workouts over three consecutive days of FFT-competition. All variables were measured before, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h following the last day of competition. The FFT-competition induced a decrease in IL10/IL1β ratio approximately 5% after 24h, 21% after 48h and 31% after 72h. Delta T/C ratio remained unchanged during the post-competition period. IgA displayed a significant increase 24h and 72h post FFT-competition. The WB status score was higher 72h after the FFT-competition as compared with pre-competition. The present findings suggest that FFT-competition induces transient changes in some inflammatory and hormonal biomarkers, and perceived well-being seems to be efficient to detect changes in muscle performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719819PMC
August 2019

Intradialytic Resistance Training Improves Functional Capacity and Lean Mass Gain in Individuals on Hemodialysis: A Randomized Pilot Trial.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2019 11 3;100(11):2151-2158. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Clinic Nutrition and Sports Research Laboratory, Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Goias, Goias, Brazil.

Objective: To compare the effects of high vs moderate loads of intradialytic resistance training (RT) on body composition, sarcopenia prevalence, functional capacity, inflammatory markers, and quality of life (QoL) in individuals on hemodialysis.

Design: A pilot randomized clinical trial.

Setting: Two hemodialysis centers.

Participants: Individuals on hemodialysis (N=80; 51% men, aged 30-75y) in treatment for at least 3 months, adequately dialyzed (Kt/V≥1.2, where K is dialyzer clearance in mL/min, t is time, and V is volume of water) with vascular access via arteriovenous fistula.

Interventions: The 12 weeks of intradialytic RT was performed 3 times per week. The training groups were: high-load intradialytic group (HLG, 8-10 repetitions), moderate-load intradialytic group (MLG, 16-18 repetitions), and control group (CG, stretching exercise). The total training volume was equalized among training groups.

Main Outcome Measures: Lean leg mass was assessed by a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; functional capacity was assessed by Short Physical Performance Battery and Timed Up and Go test; and QoL was assessed by Kidney Disease QoL Instrument, inflammatory markers, and sarcopenia.

Results: After the training period, the HLG increased lean leg mass compared with the CG. The HLG also displayed improvements in the pain and physical function domains. The skeletal muscle index and functional capacity increased in both RT protocols. The prevalence of sarcopenia was reduced 14.3% and 25% in the MLG and HLG, respectively, while there was an increase of 10% in the CG. No differences were observed in cytokines after intervention.

Conclusions: High-load intradialytic RT was associated with gains in lean leg mass and QoL while functional capacity, appendicular muscle mass, and sarcopenia status were improved regardless of the RT load.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2019.06.006DOI Listing
November 2019

Is Perceived Exertion a Useful Indicator of the Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses to a Metabolic Conditioning Session of Functional Fitness?

Sports (Basel) 2019 Jul 4;7(7). Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFTM), Cuiabá 78000, MT, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to assess whether the self-regulation of training intensity based on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a reliable method to control the intensity during metabolic conditioning sessions of functional fitness. In addition, the relationship between RPE and the changes in heart rate, number of repetitions, and lactate responses was also analyzed. Eight male participants (age 28.1 ± 5.4 years; body mass 77.2 ± 4.4 kg; VO max: 52.6 ± 4.6 mL·(kg·min) completed two sessions (five to seven days apart), in a randomized order, under different conditions, as follows: (1) all-out (ALL), or (2) self-regulation of intensity based on an RPE of six (hard) on the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE6). The rating of perceived exertion, lactate (LAC), and heart rate (HR) response were measured before, during, and immediately after the sessions. The RPE and LAC during the all-out sessions were higher ( < 0.0005) than the RPE6 session for all of the analyzed time points during the session. There was no difference in the HR area under the curve for the all-out and RPE6 sessions. The average number of repetitions performed was lower ( ≤ 0.009) for the RPE6 session (190.5 ± 12.5 repetitions) when compared to the all-out session (214.4 ± 18.6 repetitions). There was a significant correlation between the RPE and LAC ( = 0.005; r = 0.66; large) and number of repetitions during the session ( = 0.026; r = 0.55; large). No correlation was observed between the RPE and HR ( = 0.147; r = 0.380). These results indicate that the self-regulation of intensity of effort based on the RPE may be a useful tool to control the exercise intensity during a metabolic conditioning session of functional fitness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports7070161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681255PMC
July 2019