Publications by authors named "Jonathon D Sedgwick"

31 Publications

The Initiation, but Not the Persistence, of Experimental Spondyloarthritis Is Dependent on Interleukin-23 Signaling.

Front Immunol 2018 9;9:1550. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, Academic Medical Center/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

IL-17A is a central driver of spondyloarthritis (SpA), its production was originally proposed to be IL-23 dependent. Emerging preclinical and clinical evidence suggests, however, that IL-17A and IL-23 have a partially overlapping but distinct biology. We aimed to assess the extent to which IL-17A-driven pathology is IL-23 dependent in experimental SpA. Experimental SpA was induced in HLA-B27/Huβ2m transgenic rats, followed by prophylactic or therapeutic treatment with an anti-IL23R antibody or vehicle control. Spondylitis and arthritis were scored clinically and hind limb swelling was measured. Draining lymph node cytokine expression levels were analyzed directly , and IL-17A protein was measured upon restimulation with PMA/ionomycin. Prophylactic treatment with anti-IL23R completely protected against the development of both spondylitis and arthritis, while vehicle-treated controls did develop spondylitis and arthritis. In a therapeutic study, anti-IL23R treatment failed to reduce the incidence or decrease the severity of experimental SpA. Mechanistically, expression of downstream effector cytokines, including IL-17A and IL-22, was significantly suppressed in anti-IL23R versus vehicle-treated rats in the prophylactic experiments. Accordingly, the production of IL-17A upon restimulation was reduced. In contrast, there was no difference in IL-17A and IL-22 expression after therapeutic anti-IL23R treatment. Targeting the IL-23 axis during the initiation phase of experimental SpA-but not in established disease-inhibits IL-17A expression and suppresses disease, suggesting the existence of IL-23-independent IL-17A production. Whether IL-17A can be produced independent of IL-23 in human SpA remains to be established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046377PMC
July 2018

Loss of TNF signaling facilitates the development of a novel Ly-6C(low) macrophage population permissive for Leishmania major infection.

J Immunol 2012 Jun 21;188(12):6258-66. Epub 2012 May 21.

ANZAC Research Institute, Concord Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2039, Australia.

In the absence of TNF, the normally resistant C57BL/6 (B6.WT) strain develops a fatal, progressive form of leishmaniasis after infection with Leishmania major. It is not yet understood which TNF activity or the lack thereof is responsible for the dramatic progression of leishmaniasis in TNF-negative (B6.TNF(-/-)) mice. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms resulting in the fatal outcome of L. major infection in this gene-deficient mouse strain, we analyzed the monocytic component of the inflammatory infiltrate in the draining popliteal lymph node and the site of the infection using multicolor flow cytometry. The leukocytic infiltrate within the draining lymph node and footpad of B6.TNF(-/-) mice resembled that of B6.WT mice over the first 2 wk of cutaneous L. major infection. Thereafter, the B6.TNF(-/-) mice showed an increase of CD11c(+)Ly-6C(+)CCR2(+) monocytic dendritic cells within the popliteal lymph node in comparison with B6.WT mice. This increase of inflammatory dendritic cells was paired with the accumulation of a novel CD11b(+)Ly-6C(low)CCR2(low) population that was not present in B6.WT mice. This B6.TNF(-/-)- and B6.TNFR1(-/-)-specific cell population was CD115(+)Ly-6G(-)iNOS(-), not apoptotic, and harbored large numbers of parasites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1100977DOI Listing
June 2012

A critical function for CD200 in lung immune homeostasis and the severity of influenza infection.

Nat Immunol 2008 Sep 27;9(9):1074-83. Epub 2008 Jul 27.

Imperial College London, Kennedy Institute, London, W6 8LH, UK.

The lung must maintain a high threshold of immune 'ignorance' to innocuous antigens to avoid inflammatory disease that depends on the balance of positive inflammatory signals and repressor pathways. We demonstrate here that airway macrophages had higher expression of the negative regulator CD200 receptor (CD200R) than did their systemic counterparts. Lung macrophages were restrained by CD200 expressed on airway epithelium. Mice lacking CD200 had more macrophage activity and enhanced sensitivity to influenza infection, which led to delayed resolution of inflammation and, ultimately, death. The administration of agonists that bind CD200R, however, prevented inflammatory lung disease. Thus, CD200R is critical for lung macrophage immune homeostasis in the resting state and limits inflammatory amplitude and duration during pulmonary influenza infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.1637DOI Listing
September 2008

STAT3 and STAT1 mediate IL-11-dependent and inflammation-associated gastric tumorigenesis in gp130 receptor mutant mice.

J Clin Invest 2008 May;118(5):1727-38

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Deregulated activation of STAT3 is frequently associated with many human hematological and epithelial malignancies, including gastric cancer. While exaggerated STAT3 signaling facilitates an antiapoptotic, proangiogenic, and proproliferative environment for neoplastic cells, the molecular mechanisms leading to STAT3 hyperactivation remain poorly understood. Using the gp130(Y757F/Y757F) mouse model of gastric cancer, which carries a mutated gp130 cytokine receptor signaling subunit that cannot bind the negative regulator of cytokine signaling SOCS3 and is characterized by hyperactivation of the signaling molecules STAT1 and STAT3, we have provided genetic evidence that IL-11 promotes chronic gastric inflammation and associated tumorigenesis. Expression of IL-11 was increased in gastric tumors in gp130(Y757F/Y757F) mice, when compared with unaffected gastric tissue in wild-type mice, while gp130(Y757F/Y757F) mice lacking the IL-11 ligand-binding receptor subunit (IL-11Ralpha) showed normal gastric STAT3 activation and IL-11 expression and failed to develop gastric tumors. Furthermore, reducing STAT3 activity in gp130(Y757F/Y757F) mice, either genetically or by therapeutic administration of STAT3 antisense oligonucleotides, normalized gastric IL-11 expression and alleviated gastric tumor burden. Surprisingly, the genetic reduction of STAT1 expression also reduced gastric tumorigenesis in gp130(Y757F/Y757F) mice and coincided with reduced gastric inflammation and IL-11 expression. Collectively, our data have identified IL-11 as a crucial cytokine promoting chronic gastric inflammation and associated tumorigenesis mediated by excessive activation of STAT3 and STAT1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI34944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2323192PMC
May 2008

Differential requirements by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for soluble and membrane TNF in control of Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain intramacrophage growth.

J Immunol 2007 Dec;179(11):7709-19

Laboratory of Mycobacterial Diseases and Cellular Immunology, Center for Biologics Research and Evaluation, US Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

During primary infection with intracellular bacteria, the membrane-associated form of TNF provides some TNF functions, but the relative contributions during memory responses are not well-characterized. In this study, we determined the role of T cell-derived secreted and membrane-bound TNF (memTNF) during adaptive immunity to Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS). Although transgenic mice expressing only the memTNF were more susceptible to primary LVS infection than wild-type (WT) mice, LVS-immune WT and memTNF mice both survived maximal lethal secondary Francisella challenge. Generation of CD44(high) memory T cells and clearance of bacteria were similar, although more IFN-gamma and IL-12(p40) were produced by memTNF mice. To examine T cell function, we used an in vitro tissue coculture system that measures control of LVS intramacrophage growth by LVS-immune WT and memTNF-T cells. LVS-immune CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells isolated from WT and memTNF mice exhibited comparable control of LVS growth in either normal or TNF-alpha knockout macrophages. Although the magnitude of CD4(+) T cell-induced macrophage NO production clearly depended on TNF, control of LVS growth by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells did not correlate with levels of nitrite. Importantly, intramacrophage LVS growth control by CD8(+) T cells, but not CD4(+) T cells, was almost entirely dependent on T cell-expressed TNF, and required stimulation through macrophage TNFRs. Collectively, these data demonstrate that T cell-expressed memTNF is necessary and sufficient for memory T cell responses to this intracellular pathogen, and is particularly important for intramacrophage control of bacterial growth by CD8(+) T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.179.11.7709DOI Listing
December 2007

CD200 and its receptor, CD200R, modulate bone mass via the differentiation of osteoclasts.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 Sep 28;104(36):14436-41. Epub 2007 Aug 28.

Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Yale School of Medicine, 310 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Fusion of macrophages is an essential step in the differentiation of osteoclasts, which play a central role in the development and remodeling of bone. Osteoclasts are important mediators of bone loss, which leads, for example, to osteoporosis. Macrophage fusion receptor/signal regulatory protein alpha (MFR/SIRPalpha) and its ligand CD47, which are members of the Ig superfamily (IgSF), have been implicated in the fusion of macrophages. We show that CD200, which is not expressed in cells that belong to the myeloid lineage, is strongly expressed in macrophages at the onset of fusion. By contrast, the CD200 receptor (CD200R), which, like CD200, belongs to the IgSF, is expressed only in cells that belong to the myeloid lineage, including osteoclasts, and in CD4+ T cells. Osteoclasts from CD200-/- mice differentiated at a reduced rate. Activation of the NF-kappaB and MAP kinase signaling pathways downstream of RANK, a receptor that plays a central role in the differentiation of osteoclasts, was depressed in these cells. A soluble recombinant protein that included the extracellular domain of CD200 rescued the fusion of CD200-/- macrophages and their activation downstream of RANK. Conversely, addition of a soluble recombinant protein that included the extracellular domain of CD200R or short-hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of the expression of CD200R prevented fusion. Thus CD200 engagement of the CD200R at the initiation of macrophage fusion regulated further differentiation to osteoclasts. Consistent with in vitro observations, CD200-/- mice contained fewer osteoclasts and accumulated more bone than CD200+/+ mice. The CD200-CD200R axis is therefore a putative regulator of bone mass, via the formation of osteoclasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0702811104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955461PMC
September 2007

Monoclonal antibody-mediated CD200 receptor signaling suppresses macrophage activation and tissue damage in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis.

Am J Pathol 2007 Aug 28;171(2):580-8. Epub 2007 Jun 28.

Division of Infection and Immunity, Department of Clinical Science at South Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Macrophage responses are regulated by multiple secreted factors as well as by cell surface receptors, including the inhibitory signals resulting from ligation of myeloid CD200 receptors (CD200R) by the widely distributed CD200. In the absence of CD200, animals display increased susceptibility to autoimmunity and earlier onset aggressive autoimmune disease. In these current experiments, an agonist monoclonal rat anti-mouse CD200R (DX109) antibody delivered a negative signal to bone marrow-derived macrophages, which suppressed interferon (IFN)gamma-mediated nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 production. Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) was used as a model of organ-specific autoimmunity in the eye, a tissue with extensive neuronal and endothelial CD200 expression. In mice lacking CD200 (CD200(-/-)), increased numbers of retina-infiltrating macrophages displaying heightened NO responses were observed during EAU. In addition, we aimed to suppress disease by maintaining tonic suppression of macrophage activation via CD200R. Systemically administered DX109 monoclonal antibody suppressed EAU despite maintained T-cell proliferation and IFNgamma production. Furthermore, locally administered DX109 monoclonal antibody resulted in an earlier resolution of disease. These experiments demonstrate that promoting CD200R-mediated signaling can successfully prevent full expression of IFNgamma-mediated macrophage activation and protect against tissue damage during autoimmune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2007.070272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1934542PMC
August 2007

The IL-23/Th(17) axis: therapeutic targets for autoimmune inflammation.

Curr Opin Immunol 2006 Dec 28;18(6):670-5. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

Autoimmune inflammatory responses and the diseases that develop as a consequence are now thought to be driven through a novel non-Th(1) pathway. IL-23, together with additional factors including TGF-beta1 and IL-6, collectively generate and sustain a distinct CD4(+) 'Th(17) inflammation effector' T-cell subset characterized by its production of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, including IL-17. With this paradigm shift in understanding of autoimmune inflammation pathogenesis comes exciting opportunities to identify and to target therapeutically molecules within the IL-23/Th(17) axis that are key to disease development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2006.09.008DOI Listing
December 2006

TNF is important for pathogen control and limits brain damage in murine cerebral listeriosis.

J Immunol 2006 Sep;177(6):3972-82

Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Fakultät für klinische Medizin Mannheim der Universität Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Cerebral listeriosis is a life-threatening disease. However, little is known about the bacterial virulence factors responsible for the severe course of disease and the factors of the immune system contributing to the control of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) or even to the damage of the brain. To analyze the importance of the actA gene of LM, which mediates cell-to-cell spread of intracellular LM, the function of TNF in murine cerebral listeriosis was studied. C57BL/6 mice survived an intracerebral (i.c.) infection with actA-deficient LM, but succumbed to infection with wild-type (WT) LM. Upon infection with actA-deficient LM, macrophages and microglial cells rapidly, and later LM-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells, produced TNF. In contrast to WT mice, TNF-deficient animals succumbed to the infection within 4 days due to failure of control of LM. Histology identified a more severe meningoencephalitis, brain edema, and neuronal damage, but a reduced inducible NO synthase expression in TNF-deficient mice. Reciprocal bone marrow chimeras between WT and TNF-deficient mice revealed that hematogenously derived TNF was essential for survival, whereas TNF produced by brain-resident cells was less important. Death of TNF-deficient mice could be prevented by LM-specific T cells induced by an active immunization before i.c. infection. However, brain pathology and inflammation of immunized TNF-deficient mice were still more severe. In conclusion, these findings identify a crucial role of TNF for the i.c. control of LM and survival of cerebral listeriosis, whereas TNF was not responsible for the destruction of brain tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.6.3972DOI Listing
September 2006

Regulation of microglial cell responses in murine Toxoplasma encephalitis by CD200/CD200 receptor interaction.

Acta Neuropathol 2006 Jun 28;111(6):548-58. Epub 2006 Apr 28.

Department of Neuropathology, University of Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany.

Under autoimmune inflammatory conditions within the brain, evidence suggests that neurons downregulate microglial activation through CD200/CD200R interaction, which reduces disease severity. To gain insight into the regulation of intracerebral immune reactions by resident brain cells in chronic cerebral infections, the expression of the CD200 antigen and the CD200R as well as the functional role of CD200/CD200R interactions were characterized in murine Toxoplasma encephalitis. In the normal brain of C57BL/6 wild type mice, CD200 was ubiquitously expressed on neurons, their axons, cerebral endothelial cells, and plexus macrophages. CD200R was expressed at very low levels on cerebral macrophages and microglia without differences between CD200-/- and wild type mice. Infection of C57BL/6 mice with Toxoplasma gondii induced an upregulation of CD200R on microglia and of CD200 on blood vessel endothelial cells. In Toxoplasma encephalitis of CD200-/- mice, microglial cell numbers strongly increased due to an enhanced proliferation indicated by increased Ki-67 immunoreactivity. In addition, microglial activation was increased in CD200-/- mice as evidenced by a further upregulation of already high MHC class II levels as well as an increased expression of the anti-parasitic effector molecules, TNF and iNOS. The increased microglial cell activation resulted in a reduced intracerebral parasite burden and an increased survival rate. Thus, in Toxoplasma encephalitis, microglial activity was regulated via CD200/CD200R-mediated interaction further pointing to an intrinsic regulation of brain resident cells under inflammatory CNS conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-006-0062-zDOI Listing
June 2006

Mast cell-associated TNF promotes dendritic cell migration.

J Immunol 2006 Apr;176(7):4102-12

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA.

Mast cells represent a potential source of TNF, a mediator which can enhance dendritic cell (DC) migration. Although the importance of mast cell-associated TNF in regulating DC migration in vivo is not clear, mast cells and mast cell-derived TNF can contribute to the expression of certain models of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). We found that CHS to FITC was significantly impaired in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) or TNF(-/)(-) mice. The reduced expression of CHS in Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice was fully repaired by local transfer of wild-type bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMCs), but was only partially repaired by transfer of TNF(-/)(-) BMCMCs. Thus, mast cells, and mast cell-derived TNF, were required for optimal expression of CHS to FITC. We found that the migration of FITC-bearing skin DCs into draining lymph nodes (LNs) 24 h after epicutaneous administration of FITC in naive mice was significantly reduced in mast cell-deficient or TNF(-/)(-) mice, but levels of DC migration in these mutant mice increased to greater than wild-type levels by 48 h after FITC sensitization. Mast cell-deficient or TNF(-/)(-) mice also exhibited significantly reduced migration of airway DCs to local LNs at 24 h after intranasal challenge with FITC-OVA. Migration of FITC-bearing DCs to LNs draining the skin or airways 24 h after sensitization was repaired in Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice which had been engrafted with wild-type but not TNF(-/)(-) BMCMCs. Our findings indicate that mast cell-associated TNF can contribute significantly to the initial stages of FITC-induced migration of cutaneous or airway DCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.176.7.4102DOI Listing
April 2006

Resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and impaired IL-17 production in protein kinase C theta-deficient mice.

J Immunol 2006 Mar;176(5):2872-9

Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

The protein kinase C theta (PKC theta) serine/threonine kinase has been implicated in signaling of T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. However, the in vivo consequences of ablation of PKC theta on T cell function in inflammatory autoimmune disease have not been thoroughly examined. In this study we used PKC theta-deficient mice to investigate the potential involvement of PKC theta in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a prototypic T cell-mediated autoimmune disease model of the CNS. We found that PKC theta-/- mice immunized with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide MOG(35-55) were completely resistant to the development of clinical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with wild-type control mice. Flow cytometric and histopathological analysis of the CNS revealed profound reduction of both T cell and macrophage infiltration and demyelination. Ex vivo MOG(35-55) stimulation of splenic T lymphocytes from immunized PKC theta-/- mice revealed significantly reduced production of the Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma as well as the T cell effector cytokine IL-17 despite comparable levels of IL-2 and IL-4 and similar cell proliferative responses. Furthermore, IL-17 expression was dramatically reduced in the CNS of PKC theta-/- mice compared with wild-type mice during the disease course. In addition, PKC theta-/- T cells failed to up-regulate LFA-1 expression in response to TCR activation, and LFA-1 expression was also significantly reduced in the spleens of MOG(35-55)-immunized PKC theta-/- mice as well as in in vitro-stimulated CD4+ T cells compared with wild-type mice. These results underscore the importance of PKC theta in the regulation of multiple T cell functions necessary for the development of autoimmune disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.176.5.2872DOI Listing
March 2006

Mast cells enhance T cell activation: importance of mast cell costimulatory molecules and secreted TNF.

J Immunol 2006 Feb;176(4):2238-48

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA.

We recently reported that mast cells stimulated via FcepsilonRI aggregation can enhance T cell activation by a TNF-dependent mechanism. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for such IgE-, Ag- (Ag-), and mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation remain unknown. In this study we showed that mouse bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells express various costimulatory molecules, including members of the B7 family (ICOS ligand (ICOSL), PD-L1, and PD-L2) and the TNF/TNFR families (OX40 ligand (OX40L), CD153, Fas, 4-1BB, and glucocorticoid-induced TNFR). ICOSL, PD-L1, PD-L2, and OX40L also are expressed on APCs such as dendritic cells and can modulate T cell function. We found that IgE- and Ag-dependent mast cell enhancement of T cell activation required secreted TNF; that TNF can increase the surface expression of OX40, ICOS, PD-1, and other costimulatory molecules on CD3(+) T cells; and that a neutralizing Ab to OX40L, but not neutralizing Abs to ICOSL or PD-L1, significantly reduced IgE/Ag-dependent mast cell-mediated enhancement of T cell activation. These results indicate that the secretion of soluble TNF and direct cell-cell interactions between mast cell OX40L and T cell OX40 contribute to the ability of IgE- and Ag-stimulated mouse mast cells to enhance T cell activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.176.4.2238DOI Listing
February 2006

Regulation of myeloid cell function through the CD200 receptor.

J Immunol 2006 Jan;176(1):191-9

SP Biopharma, Palo Alto CA 94022, USA.

Myeloid cells play pivotal roles in chronic inflammatory diseases through their broad proinflammatory, destructive, and remodeling capacities. CD200 is widely expressed on a variety of cell types, while the recently identified CD200R is expressed on myeloid cells and T cells. CD200 deletion in vivo results in myeloid cell dysregulation and enhanced susceptibility to autoimmune inflammation, suggesting that the CD200-CD200R interaction is involved in immune suppression. We demonstrate in this study that CD200R agonists suppress mouse and human myeloid cell function in vitro, and also define a dose relationship between receptor expression and cellular inhibition. IFN-gamma- and IL-17-stimulated cytokine secretion from mouse peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by CD200R engagement. Inhibitory effects were not universal, as LPS-stimulated responses were unaffected. Inhibition of U937 cell cytokine production correlated with CD200R expression levels, and inhibition was only observed in low CD200R expressing cells, if the CD200R agonists were further cross-linked. Tetanus toxoid-induced human PBMC IL-5 and IL-13 secretion was inhibited by CD200R agonists. This inhibition was dependent upon cross-linking the CD200R on monocytes, but not on cross-linking the CD200R on CD4+ T cells. In all, we provide direct evidence that the CD200-CD200R interaction controls monocyte/macrophage function in both murine and human systems, further supporting the potential clinical application of CD200R agonists for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.176.1.191DOI Listing
January 2006

Membrane tumor necrosis factor confers partial protection to Listeria infection.

Am J Pathol 2005 Dec;167(6):1677-87

Transgenose Institute, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Molecular Immunology and Embryology, Orléans, France.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a critical role in the host response to the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (LM). TNF exists in soluble and membrane-bound forms and exhibits both unique and overlapping activities. We examined the role of membrane TNF in the absence of secreted TNF for host resistance in knockin mice in which the endogenous TNF was replaced by a regulated, noncleavable allele (mem-TNF). Macrophages expressing mem-TNF produced nitric oxide and displayed normal bactericidal activity. Although mice completely deficient in TNF (TNF(-/-)) succumbed to LM infection within 4 days, mem-TNF mice controlled LM infection at a low dose (10(4) CFU) but succumbed at a higher dose of infection (10(5) CFU). In contrast to complete TNF deficiency, mem-TNF mice developed confined microabscesses that expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase. The transfer of lymphocytes from immunized mem-TNF, but not TNF(-/-), mice protected TNF(-/-) mice from fatal infection. Taken together the data suggest that in the absence of soluble TNF, the presence of membrane-expressed TNF on phagocytes and lymphocytes partially restores host defense to LM infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1613203PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)61250-3DOI Listing
December 2005

ELISPOT assay: a personal retrospective.

Methods Mol Biol 2005 ;302:3-14

Stress and Immune Responses, Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

In 1983, papers describing the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) technique were published by two groups, the first description from a team in Perth, Western Australia, and the second, soon thereafter, from a group in Gothenburg, Sweden. Described here is my recollection of the background and circumstances that lead to the assay's development within the Perth group. Included are the early studies in 1981 through early 1982 that were conducted to bring the assay to fruition both setbacks and solutions, and finally some generally unknown but amusing insights into the naming of the ELISPOT assay by the Gothenburg group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-903-6:003DOI Listing
July 2005

Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005 May 19;102(18):6467-72. Epub 2005 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5176, USA.

Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcepsilonRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0501912102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1088381PMC
May 2005

Transmembrane TNF is sufficient to initiate cell migration and granuloma formation and provide acute, but not long-term, control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

J Immunol 2005 Apr;174(8):4852-9

Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia.

TNF is critical for immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; however, the relative contributions of the soluble and transmembrane forms of TNF in this immunity are unknown. Using memTNF mice, which express only the transmembrane form of TNF, we have addressed this question. Wild-type (WT), TNF-/-, and transmembrane TNF (memTNF) mice were infected with M. tuberculosis by aerosol. TNF-/- mice developed overwhelming infection with extensive pulmonary necrosis and died after only 33 days. memTNF mice, like WT mice, contained bacterial growth for over 16 wk, developed an Ag-specific T cell response, and initially displayed compact granulomas, comprised of both lymphocytes and macrophages. Expression of mRNA for the chemokines CXCL10, CCL3, CCL5, and CCL7 was comparable in both WT and memTNF mice. As the infection progressed, however, the pulmonary lesions in memTNF mice became larger and more diffuse, with increased neutrophil accumulation and necrosis. This was accompanied by increased influx of activated memory T cells into the lungs of memTNF mice. Eventually, these mice succumbed to infection with a mean time to death of 170 days. The expression of memTNF on T cells is functionally important because the transfer of T cells from memTNF, but not TNF-/- mice, into either RAG-/- or TNF-/- mice conferred the same survival advantage on the M. tuberculosis-infected recipient mice, as the transfer of WT T cells. Therefore, memTNF, in the absence of soluble TNF, is sufficient to control acute, but not chronic, M. tuberculosis infection, in part through its expression on T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.174.8.4852DOI Listing
April 2005

An essential role for tumor necrosis factor in the formation of experimental murine Staphylococcus aureus-induced brain abscess and clearance.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2005 Jan;64(1):27-36

Abteilung für Neuropathologie, Universität zu Köln, Germany.

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a central mediator of the immune response to pathogens, but may also exert neurotoxic effects, thereby contributing to immunopathology. To define the role of TNF during the course of brain abscess, TNF-deficient (TNF(0/0) mice were stereotaxically infected with Staphylococcus (S.) aureus-laden agarose beads. In comparison to 100% survival of wild type (WT) mice, TNF(0/0) mice displayed high mortality rates (54%) in the initial phase of abscess development as well as significantly increased morbidity in the course of the disease. The worse clinical outcome was due to an increased intracerebral (i.c.) bacterial load in TNF(0/0) mice as compared to WT mice. The impaired control of S. aureus was associated with reduced inductible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression in TNF(0/0)mice. Similarly, numbers of inflammatory leukocytes, cytokine expression of IL-6, IL-12p40, IFNgamma IL-beta mRNA, and brain edema were significantly increased in TNF(0/0)mice as compared to WT animals. In addition, resolution of i.c. infiltrates was delayed in TNF(0/0)mice correlating with reduced apoptosis of inflammatory leukocytes and formation of a fibrous abscess capsule. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TNF is of key importance for the control of S. aureus-induced brain abscess and regulates the ensuing host immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/64.1.27DOI Listing
January 2005

Enhanced tolerance to autoimmune uveitis in CD200-deficient mice correlates with a pronounced Th2 switch in response to antigen challenge.

J Immunol 2005 Jan;174(1):143-54

College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland, United Kingdom.

A single exposure to inhaled Ag 10 days before immunization leads to long term, Ag-specific tolerance. Respiratory tract myeloid APCs are implicated, but how regulation is invoked, and how tolerance is sustained are unclear. This study examines the in vivo function of the myeloid regulatory molecule CD200 in the process of tolerance induction. Despite earlier onset of experimental autoimmune uveitis in sham-tolerized, CD200-deficient mice, disease incidence and subsequent severity were actually reduced compared with those in wild-type mice. Protection was more effective and long term, lasting at least 28 days. Halting disease progression and tolerance in CD200(-/-) mice correlated with a marked increase in Th2-associated cytokine production by Ag-challenged splenocytes. Reduced overall disease and enhanced tolerance in the CD200-deficient mice in this model system were unexpected and may be related to altered populations of MHC class II(low) APC in the respiratory tract compared with wild-type mice together with associated activation of STAT6 in draining lymph nodes of tolerized mice. These data indicate that in the absence of default inhibitory CD200 receptor signaling, alternative, powerful regulatory mechanisms are invoked. This may represent either permissive dominant Th2 activation or an altered hierarchy of negative signaling by other myeloid cell-expressed regulatory molecules.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2446433PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.174.1.143DOI Listing
January 2005

Molecular mechanisms of CD200 inhibition of mast cell activation.

J Immunol 2004 Dec;173(11):6786-93

DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.

CD200 and its receptor CD200R are both type I membrane glycoproteins that contain two Ig-like domains. Engagement of CD200R by CD200 inhibits activation of myeloid cells. Unlike the majority of immune inhibitory receptors, CD200R lacks an ITIM in the cytoplasmic domain. The molecular mechanism of CD200R inhibition of myeloid cell activation is unknown. In this study, we examined the CD200R signaling pathways that control degranulation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. We found that upon ligand binding, CD200R is phosphorylated on tyrosine and subsequently binds to adapter proteins Dok1 and Dok2. Upon phosphorylation, Dok1 binds to SHIP and both Dok1 and Dok2 recruit RasGAP, which mediates the inhibition of the Ras/MAPK pathways. Activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK are all inhibited by CD200R engagement. The reduced activation of these MAPKs is responsible for the observed inhibition of mast cell degranulation and cytokine production. Similar signaling events were also observed upon CD200R engagement in mouse peritoneal cells. These data define a novel inhibitory pathway used by CD200R in modulating mast cell function and help to explain how engagement of this receptor in vivo regulates myeloid cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.11.6786DOI Listing
December 2004

A novel model for lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid gland generated by transgenic expression of the CC chemokine CCL21.

J Immunol 2004 Oct;173(8):4791-8

Immunobiology Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Lymphocytic infiltrates and lymphoid follicles with germinal centers are often detected in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), but the mechanisms underlying lymphocyte entry and organization in the thyroid remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that CCL21, a chemokine that regulates homeostatic lymphocyte trafficking, and whose expression has been detected in AITD, is involved in the migration of lymphocytes to the thyroid. We show that transgenic mice expressing CCL21 from the thyroglobulin promoter (TGCCL21 mice) have significant lymphocytic infiltrates, which are topologically segregated into B and T cell areas. Although high endothelial venules expressing peripheral lymph node addressin were frequently observed in the thyroid tissue, lymphocyte recruitment was independent of L-selectin or lymphotoxin-alpha but required CCR7 expression. Taken together, these results indicate that CCL21 is sufficient to drive lymphocyte recruitment to the thyroid, suggest that CCL21 is involved in AITD pathogenesis, and establish TGCCL21 transgenic mice as a novel model to study the formation and function of lymphoid follicles in the thyroid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.8.4791DOI Listing
October 2004

Involvement of TNF in limiting liver pathology and promoting parasite survival during schistosome infection.

Int J Parasitol 2004 Jan;34(1):27-36

Tropical Disease Research Unit, Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

CD4(+) T cell responses and macrophage activation are essential components of schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation. Previous studies implicated tumour necrosis factor (TNF) as a potential mediator of macrophage recruitment and activation during schistosome infection. Here we demonstrate that signalling by TNF and its receptors can influence granuloma formation, but is ultimately dispensable for granuloma formation in this system. However, we identify a previously unrecognised role for TNF in limiting hepatocellular damage in response to schistosome eggs. Further, we show that this activity of TNF is independent of TNF receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2). Taken together, these data suggest that additional, as yet unrecognised receptors exist for TNF and that these receptors are capable of mediating important pathological effects in the liver. Finally, we provide evidence that TNF plays an unexpected role in maintaining adult schistosome viability in the portal system.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2859728PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2003.10.010DOI Listing
January 2004

Divergent pro- and antiinflammatory roles for IL-23 and IL-12 in joint autoimmune inflammation.

J Exp Med 2003 Dec 8;198(12):1951-7. Epub 2003 Dec 8.

Discovery Research, DNAX Research Inc, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.

Interleukin (IL) 23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a p19 subunit and the p40 subunit of IL-12. IL-23 affects memory T cell and inflammatory macrophage function through engagement of a novel receptor (IL-23R) on these cells. Recent analysis of the contribution of IL-12 and IL-23 to central nervous system autoimmune inflammation demonstrated that IL-23 rather than IL-12 was the essential cytokine. Using gene-targeted mice lacking only IL-12 (p35-/-) or IL-23 (p19-/-), we show that the specific absence of IL-23 is protective, whereas loss of IL-12 exacerbates collagen-induced arthritis. IL-23 gene-targeted mice did not develop clinical signs of disease and were completely resistant to the development of joint and bone pathology. Resistance correlated with an absence of IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells despite normal induction of collagen-specific, interferon-gamma-producing T helper 1 cells. In contrast, IL-12-deficient p35-/- mice developed more IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells, as well as elevated mRNA expression of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-17 in affected tissues of diseased mice. The data presented here indicate that IL-23 is an essential promoter of end-stage joint autoimmune inflammation, whereas IL-12 paradoxically mediates protection from autoimmune inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20030896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2194162PMC
December 2003

Characterization of the CD200 receptor family in mice and humans and their interactions with CD200.

J Immunol 2003 Sep;171(6):3034-46

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

CD200 (OX2) is a broadly distributed cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with a structurally related receptor (CD200R) expressed on rodent myeloid cells and is involved in regulation of macrophage function. We report the first characterization of human CD200R (hCD200R) and define its binding characteristics to hCD200. We also report the identification of a closely related gene to hCD200R, designated hCD200RLa, and four mouse CD200R-related genes (termed mCD200RLa-d). CD200, CD200R, and CD200R-related genes were closely linked in humans and mice, suggesting that these genes arose by gene duplication. The distributions of the receptor genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein expression was confirmed by a set of novel mAbs. The distribution of mouse and human CD200R was similar, with strongest labeling of macrophages and neutrophils, but also other leukocytes, including monocytes, mast cells, and T lymphocytes. Two mCD200 receptor-like family members, designated mCD200RLa and mCD200RLb, were shown to pair with the activatory adaptor protein, DAP12, suggesting that these receptors would transmit strong activating signals in contrast to the apparent inhibitory signal delivered by triggering the CD200R. Despite substantial sequence homology with mCD200R, mCD200RLa and mCD200RLb did not bind mCD200, and presently have unknown ligands. The CD200 receptor gene family resembles the signal regulatory proteins and killer Ig-related receptors in having receptor family members with potential activatory and inhibitory functions that may play important roles in immune regulation and balance. Because manipulation of the CD200-CD200R interaction affects the outcome of rodent disease models, targeting of this pathway may have therapeutic utility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.171.6.3034DOI Listing
September 2003

Intrinsic renal cells are the major source of tumor necrosis factor contributing to renal injury in murine crescentic glomerulonephritis.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2003 Jul;14(7):1785-93

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Monash Medical Centre, Monash University, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

Macrophages are prominent participants in crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) and have been suggested to be the major source of TNF in this cell-mediated form of glomerular inflammation. Intrinsic renal cells also have the capacity to produce TNF. For dissecting the contribution of local versus bone marrow (BM)-derived TNF in inflammatory renal injury, TNF chimeric mice were created by transplanting normal wild-type (WT) BM into irradiated TNF-deficient recipients (WT-->TNF-/- chimeras) and vice versa (TNF-/- -->WT chimeras). A model of crescentic GN induced by an intravenous injection of sheep anti-murine glomerular basement membrane antibody was studied in WT mice, mice with complete TNF deficiency (TNF-/-), and chimeric mice. Crescentic GN was attenuated in TNF-/- mice with fewer crescents (crescents, 13.7 +/- 1.7% of glomeruli) and reduced functional indices of renal injury (serum creatinine, 15.2 +/- 0.8 micromol/L). Similar protection (crescents, 14.3 +/- 1.9% of glomeruli; serum creatinine, 18.9 +/- 1.1 micromol/L) was observed in chimeric mice with intact BM but absent renal-derived TNF (WT-->TNF-/- chimeras), suggesting a minor contribution of infiltrating leukocytes to TNF-mediated renal injury. Chimeric mice with TNF-deficient leukocytes but intact intrinsic renal cell-derived TNF (crescents, 20.5 +/- 2.0% of glomeruli; serum creatinine, 21.6 +/- 1.4 micromol/L) developed similar crescentic GN to WT mice (crescents, 22.3 +/- 1.4% of glomeruli; serum creatinine, 24.8 +/- 1.9 micromol/L). Cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity after subdermal challenge with the nephritogenic antigen was attenuated in the absence of BM cell-derived TNF but unaffected in WT-->TNF-/- chimeric mice. These studies suggest that intrinsic renal cells are the major cellular source of TNF contributing to inflammatory injury in crescentic GN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.asn.0000073902.38428.33DOI Listing
July 2003

Interleukin-23 rather than interleukin-12 is the critical cytokine for autoimmune inflammation of the brain.

Nature 2003 Feb;421(6924):744-8

Department of Immunology, DNAX Research Inc., Palo Alto, California 94304-1104, USA.

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric molecule composed of p35 and p40 subunits. Analyses in vitro have defined IL-12 as an important factor for the differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper type 1 CD4+ lymphocytes secreting interferon-gamma (refs 1, 2). Similarly, numerous studies have concluded that IL-12 is essential for T-cell-dependent immune and inflammatory responses in vivo, primarily through the use of IL-12 p40 gene-targeted mice and neutralizing antibodies against p40. The cytokine IL-23, which comprises the p40 subunit of IL-12 but a different p19 subunit, is produced predominantly by macrophages and dendritic cells, and shows activity on memory T cells. Evidence from studies of IL-23 receptor expression and IL-23 overexpression in transgenic mice suggest, however, that IL-23 may also affect macrophage function directly. Here we show, by using gene-targeted mice lacking only IL-23 and cytokine replacement studies, that the perceived central role for IL-12 in autoimmune inflammation, specifically in the brain, has been misinterpreted and that IL-23, and not IL-12, is the critical factor in this response. In addition, we show that IL-23, unlike IL-12, acts more broadly as an end-stage effector cytokine through direct actions on macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01355DOI Listing
February 2003

Interactions between hemopoietically derived TNF and central nervous system-resident glial chemokines underlie initiation of autoimmune inflammation in the brain.

J Immunol 2002 Dec;169(12):7054-62

Department of Immunology, DNAX Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1104, USA.

Tumor necrosis factor is a proinflammatory cytokine that induces directly many of the components required for inflammation to proceed rapidly. We show in this study that the interplay between TNF and chemokines, now recognized to be essential for normal secondary lymphoid tissue development, is also a feature of CNS inflammation, and that the two apparently dissimilar biological processes share many properties. Thus, induction of seven chemokines, including T cell activation gene 3 (TCA3), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 within the CNS during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis fails to occur early in the inflammatory process in TNF-deficient mice, despite local expression of monokines and IFN-gamma. The critical source of TNF in CNS inflammation is the infiltrating hemopoietic cell, and, in its absence, chemokine expression by irradiation-resistant CNS-resident cells fails. The CCR8 ligand, TCA3, is shown to be produced predominantly by resident microglia of the CNS in response to TNF. Using CCR8(-/-) mice, evidence is provided that TCA3-CCR8 interactions contribute to rapid-onset CNS inflammation. Thus, through TNF production, the hemopoietic compartment initiates the signals for its own movement into tissues, although the tissue ultimately defines the nature of that movement. Chemokines are a major, although not exclusive, mechanism by which tissues regulate leukocyte movement in response to TNF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.169.12.7054DOI Listing
December 2002

Constitutive retinal CD200 expression regulates resident microglia and activation state of inflammatory cells during experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis.

Am J Pathol 2002 Nov;161(5):1669-77

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Recent evidence supports the notion that tissue OX2 (CD200) constitutively provides down-regulatory signals to myeloid-lineage cells via CD200-receptor (CD200R). Thus, mice lacking CD200 (CD200(-/-)) show increased susceptibility to and accelerated onset of tissue-specific autoimmunity. In the retina there is extensive expression of CD200 on neurons and retinal vascular endothelium. We show here that retinal microglia in CD200(-/-) mice display normal morphology, but unlike microglia from wild-type CD200(+/+) mice are present in increased numbers and most significantly, express inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), a macrophage activation marker. Onset and severity of uveitogenic peptide (1-20) of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis is accelerated in CD200(-/-) mice and although tissue destruction appears no greater than seen in CD200(+/+) mice, there is continued increased ganglion and photoreceptor cell apoptosis. Myeloid cell infiltrate was increased in CD200(-/-) mice during experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis, although NOS2 expression was not heightened. The results indicate that the CD200:CD200R axis regulates retinal microglial activation. In CD200(-/-) mice the release of suppression of tonic macrophage activation, supported by increased NOS2 expression in the CD200(-/-) steady state accelerates disease onset but without any demonstration of increased target organ/tissue destruction.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1850781PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64444-6DOI Listing
November 2002

Membrane lymphotoxin contributes to anti-leishmanial immunity by controlling structural integrity of lymphoid organs.

Eur J Immunol 2002 Jul;32(7):1993-2003

Institut für Klinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Lymphotoxin (LT)alpha in combination with LTbeta forms membrane-bound heterotrimeric complexes with a crucial function in lymph node (LN) organogenesis and correct morphogenesis of secondary lymphoid tissue. To study the role of membrane LT (mLT) in lymphoid tissue organogenesis we generated an LTbeta-deficient mouse strain on a pure genetic C57BL/6 background (B6.LTbeta-/-) and compared it to a unique series of LTalpha-, TNF- and TNF/LTalpha-gene-targeted mice on an identical genetic background (B6.LTalpha-/-, B6.TNF-/- and B6 TNF/LTalpha-/-). B6.LTbeta-/- mice lacked peripheral LN with the exception of mesenteric LN, and displayed a disturbed micro-architecture of the spleen, although less profoundly than LTalpha- or TNF/LTalpha-deficient mice. Radiation bone marrow chimeras (B6.WT-->B6.LTbeta-/- developed Peyer's patch (PP)-like lymphoid aggregates in the intestinal wall indicating a possible role for soluble LTalpha(3) in the formation of the PP anlage. After infection with Leishmania major, B6.LTbeta-/- mice developed a fatal disseminating leishmaniasis resulting in death after 8 to 14 weeks, despite the natural resistance of the C57BL/6 genetic background (B6.WT) mice to the parasite. Both, the cellular and the humoral anti-L. major immune responses were delayed and ineffective. However, the expression pattern of the key cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-12 were comparable in B6.WT and B6.LTbeta-/- mice. Infection of radiation bone marrow chimeras showed that it is the LTbeta-dependent presence of lymphoid tissue and not the expression of mLT itself that renders mice resistant to leishmaniasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-4141(200207)32:7<1993::AID-IMMU1993>3.0.CO;2-FDOI Listing
July 2002