Publications by authors named "Jonathan Shpigelman"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mitochondria-dependent synthetic small-molecule vaccine adjuvants for influenza virus infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(23)

Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0809;

Vaccine adjuvants enhance and prolong pathogen-specific protective immune responses. Recent reports indicate that host factors-such as aging, pregnancy, and genetic polymorphisms-influence efficacies of vaccines adjuvanted with Toll-like receptor (TLR) or known pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) agonists. Although PRR independent adjuvants (e.g., oil-in-water emulsion and saponin) are emerging, these adjuvants induce some local and systemic reactogenicity. Hence, new TLR and PRR-independent adjuvants that provide greater potency alone or in combination without compromising safety are highly desired. Previous cell-based high-throughput screenings yielded a small molecule 81 [-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-ethoxybenzenesulfonamide], which enhanced lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB and type I interferon signaling in reporter assays. Here compound 81 activated innate immunity in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The innate immune activation by 81 was independent of TLRs and other PRRs and was significantly reduced in mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS)-deficient BMDCs. Compound 81 activities were mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction as mitophagy inducers and a mitochondria specific antioxidant significantly inhibited cytokine induction by 81. Both compound 81 and a derivative obtained via structure-activity relationship studies, 2F52 [-benzyl--(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-ethoxybenzenesulfonamide] modestly increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and induced the aggregation of MAVS. Neither 81 nor 2F52 injected as adjuvants caused local or systemic toxicity in mice at effective concentrations for vaccination. Furthermore, vaccination with inactivated influenza virus adjuvanted with 2F52 demonstrated protective effects in a murine lethal virus challenge study. As an unconventional and safe adjuvant that does not require known PRRs, compound 2F52 could be a useful addition to vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025718118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201894PMC
June 2021

Generation and Application of a Reporter Cell Line for the Quantitative Screen of Extracellular Vesicle Release.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:668609. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are identified as mediators of intercellular communication and cellular regulation. In the immune system, EVs play a role in antigen presentation as a part of cellular communication. To enable drug discovery and characterization of compounds that affect EV biogenesis, function, and release in immune cells, we developed and characterized a reporter cell line that allows the quantitation of EVs shed into culture media in phenotypic high-throughput screen (HTS) format. Tetraspanins CD63 and CD9 were previously reported to be enriched in EVs; hence, a construct with dual reporters consisting of CD63-Turbo-luciferase (Tluc) and CD9-Emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) was engineered. This construct was transduced into the human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1. Cells expressing the highest EmGFP were sorted by flow cytometry as single cell, and clonal pools were expanded under antibiotic selection pressure. After four passages, the green fluorescence dimmed, and EV biogenesis was then tracked by luciferase activity in culture supernatants. The Tluc activities of EVs shed from CD63Tluc-CD9EmGFP reporter cells in the culture supernatant positively correlated with the concentrations of released EVs measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis. To examine the potential for use in HTS, we first miniaturized the assay into a robotic 384-well plate format. A 2210 commercial compound library (Maybridge) was then screened twice on separate days, for the induction of extracellular luciferase activity. The screening data showed high reproducibility on days 1 and 2 (78.6%), a wide signal window, and an excellent Z' factor (average of 2-day screen, 0.54). One hundred eighty-seven compounds showed a response ratio that was 3SD above the negative controls in both day 1 and 2 screens and were considered as hit candidates (approximately 10%). Twenty-two out of 40 re-tested compounds were validated. These results indicate that the performance of CD63Tluc-CD9EmGFP reporter cells is reliable, reproducible, robust, and feasible for HTS of compounds that regulate EV release by the immune cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.668609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085554PMC
April 2021

A Novel Synthetic Dual Agonistic Liposomal TLR4/7 Adjuvant Promotes Broad Immune Responses in an Influenza Vaccine With Minimal Reactogenicity.

Front Immunol 2020 19;11:1207. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.

The limited efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccines is usually attributed to ongoing variation in the major antigenic targets for protective antibody responses including hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Hence, vaccine development has largely focused on broadening antigenic epitopes to generate cross-reactive protection. However, the vaccine adjuvant components which can accelerate, enhance and prolong antigenic immune responses, can also increase the breadth of these responses. We previously demonstrated that the combination of synthetic small-molecule Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7 ligands is a potent adjuvant for recombinant influenza virus HA, inducing rapid, and sustained antibody responses that are protective against influenza viruses in homologous and heterologous murine challenge models. To further enhance adjuvant efficacy, we performed a structure-activity relationship study for the TLR4 ligand, -cyclohexyl-2-((5-methyl-4-oxo-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-3H-pyrimido[5,4-]indol-2-yl)thio)acetamide (CHNOS; ), and identified the 8-(furan-2-yl) substituted pyrimido[5,4-]indole analog (CHNOS; ) as a derivative with higher potency in activating both human and mouse TLR4-NF-κB reporter cells and primary cells. In a prime-boost immunization model using inactivated influenza A virus [IIAV; A/California/04/2009 (H1N1)pdm09], used as adjuvant induced higher serum anti-HA and anti-NA IgG1 levels compared to , and also increased the anti-NA IgG2a responses. In combination with a TLR7 ligand, , induced equivalent levels of anti-NA and anti-HA IgG1 to . However, the combination of induced 10-fold higher anti-HA and anti-NA IgG2a levels compared to . A stable liposomal formulation of was developed, which synergistically enhanced anti-HA and anti-NA IgG1 and IgG2a responses without demonstrable reactogenicity after intramuscular injection. Notably, vaccination with IIAV plus the liposomal formulation of protected mice against lethal homologous influenza virus (H1N1)pdm09 challenge and reduced lung viral titers and cytokine levels. The combination adjuvant induced a greater diversity in B cell clonotypes of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes in the draining lymph nodes and antibodies against a broad spectrum of HA epitopes encompassing HA head and stalk domains and with cross-reactivity against different subtypes of HA and NA. This novel combination liposomal adjuvant contributes to a more broadly protective vaccine while demonstrating an attractive safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318308PMC
April 2021

Structure-Activity Relationship Studies To Identify Affinity Probes in Bis-aryl Sulfonamides That Prolong Immune Stimuli.

J Med Chem 2019 11 25;62(21):9521-9540. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Moores Cancer Center , University of California, San Diego , La Jolla , California 92093-0695 , United States.

Agents that safely induce, enhance, or sustain multiple innate immune signaling pathways could be developed as potent vaccine adjuvants or coadjuvants. Using high-throughput screens with cell-based nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon stimulating response element (ISRE) reporter assays, we identified a bis-aryl sulfonamide bearing compound that demonstrated sustained NF-κB and ISRE activation after a primary stimulus with lipopolysaccharide or interferon-α, respectively. Here, we present systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on the two phenyl rings and amide nitrogen of the sulfonamide group of compound focused toward identification of affinity probes. The murine vaccination studies showed that compounds and when used as coadjuvants with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) showed significant enhancement in antigen ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin responses compared to MPLA alone. SAR studies pointed to the sites on the scaffold that can tolerate the introduction of aryl azide, biotin, and fluorescent rhodamine substituents to obtain several affinity and photoaffinity probes which will be utilized in concert for future target identification and mechanism of action studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00870DOI Listing
November 2019