Publications by authors named "Jonathan S Jolin"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Factors contributing to suboptimal rates of childhood vaccinations in Vermont.

J Child Health Care 2015 Dec 12;19(4):558-68. Epub 2014 May 12.

University of Vermont College of Medicine, USA

Childhood immunizations are invaluable in preventing contagious diseases. Nonetheless, vaccines have become increasingly controversial with growing numbers of caregivers refusing to vaccinate their children. The percentage of fully vaccinated children in Vermont is one of the lowest nationally. This study set out to determine Vermont caregivers' attitudes toward immunizations to better explain why the percentage of fully vaccinated children has fallen in Vermont. A survey regarding caregivers' health care knowledge about children, their vaccination concerns, and their children's vaccination status was sent to participants in the Vermont Women, Infants and Children's Program from two districts. In total, 83% (n = 379) of respondents reported their children received all recommended vaccinations for their age. Respondents who considered themselves highly knowledgeable regarding their children's health care and confident about the safety of vaccinations were significantly associated with reporting their children as being current on vaccinations and with their intent to continue vaccinations. Respondents indicated highest concern regarding the safety and number of vaccinations administered during one visit. Primary care providers were indicated as important resources for addressing concerns about vaccinations and health care knowledge of children. The results help to understand low vaccination rates in Vermont and can be used for targeting health campaigns to improve vaccination rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367493514530955DOI Listing
December 2015

Epithelial adhesion molecules can inhibit HIV-1-specific CD8⁺ T-cell functions.

Blood 2011 May 14;117(19):5112-22. Epub 2011 Mar 14.

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Under persistent antigenic stimulation, virus-specific CD8⁺ T cells become increasingly dysfunctional and up-regulate several inhibitory molecules such as killer lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1). Here, we demonstrate that HIV-1 antigen-specific T cells from subjects with chronic-progressive HIV-1 infection have significantly elevated KLRG1 expression (P < .001); show abnormal distribution of E-cadherin, the natural ligand of KLRG1, in the intestinal mucosa; and have elevated levels of systemic soluble E-cadherin (sE-cadherin) that significantly correlate with HIV-1 viral load (R = 0.7, P = .004). We furthermore demonstrate that in the presence of sE-cadherin, KLRG1(hi) HIV-1-specific CD8⁺ T cells are impaired in their ability to respond by cytokine secretion on antigenic stimulation (P = .002) and to inhibit viral replication (P = .03) in vitro. Thus, these data suggest a critical mechanism by which the disruption of the intestinal epithelium associated with HIV-1 leads to increased systemic levels of sE-cadherin, which inhibits the effector functions of KLRG1(hi)-expressing HIV-1-specific CD8⁺ T cells systemically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-12-321588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109536PMC
May 2011

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8+ T-cell responses during primary infection are major determinants of the viral set point and loss of CD4+ T cells.

J Virol 2009 Aug 20;83(15):7641-8. Epub 2009 May 20.

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA.

Primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) is marked by a flu-like syndrome and high levels of viremia that decrease to a viral set point with the first emergence of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Here, we investigated in a large cohort of 527 subjects the immunodominance pattern of the first virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses developed during PHI in comparison to CTL responses in chronic infection and demonstrated a distinct relationship between the early virus-specific CTL responses and the viral set point, as well as the slope of CD4+ T-cell decline. CTL responses during PHI followed clear hierarchical immunodominance patterns that were lost during the transition to chronic infection. Importantly, the immunodominance patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CTL responses detected in primary, but not in chronic, HIV-1 infection were significantly associated with the subsequent set point of viral replication. Moreover, the preservation of the initial CD8+ T-cell immunodominance patterns from the acute into the chronic phase of infection was significantly associated with slower CD4+ T-cell decline. Taken together, these data show that the specificity of the initial CTL response to HIV is critical for the subsequent control of viremia and have important implications for the rational selection of antigens for future HIV-1 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00182-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2708622PMC
August 2009

Antigen load and viral sequence diversification determine the functional profile of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells.

PLoS Med 2008 May;5(5):e100

Partners AIDS Research Center, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Virus-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes play a key role in the initial reduction of peak viremia during acute viral infections, but display signs of increasing dysfunction and exhaustion under conditions of chronic antigen persistence. It has been suggested that virus-specific CD8(+) T cells with a "polyfunctional" profile, defined by the capacity to secrete multiple cytokines or chemokines, are most competent in controlling viral replication in chronic HIV-1 infection. We used HIV-1 infection as a model of chronic persistent viral infection to investigate the process of exhaustion and dysfunction of virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses on the single-epitope level over time, starting in primary HIV-1 infection.

Methods And Findings: We longitudinally analyzed the polyfunctional epitope-specific CD8(+) T cell responses of 18 patients during primary HIV-1 infection before and after therapy initiation or sequence variation in the targeted epitope. Epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells responded with multiple effector functions to antigenic stimulation during primary HIV-1 infection, but lost their polyfunctional capacity in response to antigen and up-regulated programmed death 1 (PD-1) expression with persistent viremic infection. This exhausted phenotype significantly decreased upon removal of stimulation by antigen, either in response to antiretroviral therapy or by reduction of epitope-specific antigen load in the presence of ongoing viral replication, as a consequence of in vivo selection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape mutations in the respective epitopes. Monofunctionality increased in CD8(+) T cell responses directed against conserved epitopes from 49% (95% confidence interval 27%-72%) to 76% (56%-95%) (standard deviation [SD] of the effect size 0.71), while monofunctionality remained stable or slightly decreased for responses directed against escaped epitopes from 61% (47%-75%) to 56% (42%-70%) (SD of the effect size 0.18) (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: These data suggest that persistence of antigen can be the cause, rather than the consequence, of the functional impairment of virus-specific T cell responses observed during chronic HIV-1 infection, and underscore the importance of evaluating autologous viral sequences in studies aimed at investigating the relationship between virus-specific immunity and associated pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2365971PMC
May 2008

Rapid ex vivo isolation and long-term culture of human Th17 cells.

J Immunol Methods 2008 Apr 15;333(1-2):115-25. Epub 2008 Feb 15.

Partners AIDS Research Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, United States.

T helper (Th) 17 cells are a distinct lineage of CD4+ T cells mediating tissue inflammation through the secretion of IL-17. In addition, it has been shown that the expression of the transcriptional factor RORgammat is responsible for the induction and maintenance of this cell line. Th17 cells are believed to be involved in a variety of autoimmune disorders, but may also play an important role in host defense. Here we describe a novel technique to reproducibly isolate viable Th17 cells based on their IL-17 secreting ability. We confirmed Th17 cell enrichment by quantitative PCR analysis and demonstrate that positively selected cells using this technique express significantly increased mRNA levels of RORgammat, IL-23 receptor and CCR4 when compared to negatively selected cells. Furthermore, we show that purified Th17 cells can be maintained in long-term culture and expand in vitro. In conclusion, this technique will allow for the first time the direct, ex vivo analysis of phenotypic and functional properties of Th17 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2008.01.018DOI Listing
April 2008
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