Publications by authors named "Jonathan Rosand"

392 Publications

Preserving brain health after intracerebral haemorrhage.

Authors:
Jonathan Rosand

Lancet Neurol 2021 Nov;20(11):879-880

Henry and Allison Center for Brain Health, Center for Genomic Medicine, Division of Neurocritical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00339-2DOI Listing
November 2021

Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Depression Among Intracerebral Hemorrhage Survivors.

Stroke 2021 Sep 30:STROKEAHA121035488. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. (J.P.C., M.P., P.K., J.R.A., A.C., C.K., Z.D., K.S., C.D.A., M.E.G., S.M.G., J.R., A.V., A.B.).

Background And Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an acute manifestation of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), usually cerebral amyloid angiopathy or hypertensive arteriopathy. CSVD-related imaging findings are associated with increased depression incidence in the general population. Neuroimaging may, therefore, provide insight on depression risk among ICH survivors. We sought to determine whether CSVD CT and magnetic resonance imaging markers are associated with depression risk (before and after ICH), depression remission, and effectiveness of antidepressant treatment.

Methods: We analyzed data from the single-center longitudinal ICH study conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital. Participants underwent CT and magnetic resonance imaging imaging and were followed longitudinally. We extracted information for neuroimaging markers of CSVD subtype and severity. Outcomes of interest included pre-ICH depression, new-onset depression after ICH, resolution of depressive symptoms, and response to antidepressant treatment.

Results: We followed 612 ICH survivors for a median of 47.2 months. Multiple CSVD-related markers were associated with depression risk. Survivors of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related lobar ICH were more likely to be diagnosed with depression before ICH (odds ratio, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.14-2.48]) and after ICH (sub-hazard ratio, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.12-2.07]), less likely to achieve remission of depressive symptoms (sub-hazard ratio, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.51-0.94]), and to benefit from antidepressant therapy (=0.041). Cerebral amyloid angiopathy disease burden on magnetic resonance imaging was associated with depression incidence and treatment resistance (interaction =0.037), whereas hypertensive arteriopathy disease burden was only associated with depression incidence after ICH.

Conclusions: CSVD severity is associated with depression diagnosis, both before and after ICH. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related ICH survivors are more likely to experience depression (both before and after ICH) than patients diagnosed with hypertensive arteriopathy-related ICH, and more likely to report persistent depressive symptoms and display resistance to antidepressant treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.035488DOI Listing
September 2021

Excessive White Matter Hyperintensity Increases Susceptibility to Poor Functional Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Front Neurol 2021 10;12:700616. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Centogene AG, Rostock, Germany.

To personalize the prognostication of post-stroke outcome using MRI-detected cerebrovascular pathology, we sought to investigate the association between the excessive white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden unaccounted for by the traditional stroke risk profile of individual patients and their long-term functional outcomes after a stroke. We included 890 patients who survived after an acute ischemic stroke from the MRI-Genetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study, for whom data on vascular risk factors (VRFs), including age, sex, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, smoking, prior stroke history, as well as acute stroke severity, 3- to-6-month modified Rankin Scale score (mRS), WMH, and brain volumes, were available. We defined the unaccounted WMH (uWMH) burden modeling of expected WMH burden based on the VRF profile of each individual patient. The association of uWMH and mRS score was analyzed by linear regression analysis. The odds ratios of patients who achieved full functional independence (mRS < 2) in between trichotomized uWMH burden groups were calculated by pair-wise comparisons. The expected WMH volume was estimated with respect to known VRFs. The uWMH burden was associated with a long-term functional outcome (β = 0.104, < 0.01). Excessive uWMH burden significantly reduced the odds of achieving full functional independence after a stroke compared to the low and average uWMH burden [OR = 0.4, 95% CI: (0.25, 0.63), < 0.01 and OR = 0.61, 95% CI: (0.42, 0.87), < 0.01, respectively]. The excessive amount of uWMH burden unaccounted for by the traditional VRF profile was associated with worse post-stroke functional outcomes. Further studies are needed to evaluate a lifetime brain injury reflected in WMH unrelated to the VRF profile of a patient as an important factor for stroke recovery and a plausible indicator of brain health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.700616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8461233PMC
September 2021

Emotional distress in neuro-ICU survivor-caregiver dyads: The recovering together randomized clinical trial.

Health Psychol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Integrated Brain Health Clinical and Research Program.

Objective: Emotional distress is common in both survivors and their informal caregivers following admission to a neuroscience intensive care unit (Neuro-ICU) and can negatively affect their individual recovery and quality of life. Neuro-ICU survivor-caregiver dyads can influence each other's emotional distress over time, but whether such influence emerges during dyadic treatment remains unknown. The present study involved secondary data analysis of Neuro-ICU dyads enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a dyadic resiliency intervention, Recovering Together (RT), versus a health education attention placebo control to test dyadic similarities in emotional distress before and after treatment.

Method: Data were collected from 58 dyads following Neuro-ICU admission. Emotional distress (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress) was assessed at baseline, 6 weeks (postintervention), and 12 weeks later. Nonindependence within survivor-caregiver dyads was examined (i.e., correlations between cross-sectional symptoms and changes in symptoms over time); mutual influence of emotional functioning over time (i.e., "partner effects") was examined using cross-lagged path analyses.

Results: There were strong, positive cross-sectional correlations between survivor and caregiver distress at postintervention and follow-up and between changes in survivor and caregiver distress from baseline to postintervention and postintervention to follow-up. There were no partner effects.

Conclusions: Neuro-ICU survivors and their informal caregivers show similar changes in emotional distress after treatment. These findings highlight the potential benefits of intervening on both survivor and caregiver distress following Neuro-ICU admission. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0001102DOI Listing
September 2021

Idiopathic primary intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebral small vessel disease.

Int J Stroke 2021 Sep 10:17474930211043957. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Although primary intraventricular hemorrhage is frequently due to trauma or vascular lesions, the etiology of idiopathic primary intraventricular hemorrhage (IP-IVH) is not defined.

Aims: Herein, we test the hypothesis that cerebral small vessel diseases (cSVD) including hypertensive cSVD (HTN-cSVD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy are associated with IP-IVH.

Methods: Brain magnetic resonance imaging from consecutive patients (January 2011 to September 2019) with non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage from a single referral center were reviewed for the presence of HTN-cSVD (defined by strictly deep or mixed-location intracerebral hemorrhage/cerebral microbleeds) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (applying modified Boston criteria).

Results: Forty-six (4%) out of 1276 patients were identified as having IP-IVH. Among these, the mean age was 74.4 ± 12.2 years and 18 (39%) were females. Forty (87%) had hypertension, and the mean initial blood pressure was 169.2 ± 40.4/88.8 ± 22.2 mmHg. Of the 35 (76%) patients who received a brain magnetic resonance imaging, two (6%) fulfilled the modified Boston criteria for possible cerebral amyloid angiopathy and 10 (29%) for probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy was found at a similar frequency when comparing IP-IVH patients to the remaining patients with primary intraparenchymal hemorrhage (P-IPH) (27%,  = 0.85). Furthermore, imaging evidence for HTN-cSVD was found in 8 (24%) patients with IP-IVH compared to 209 (28%,  = 0.52) patients with P-IPH.

Conclusions: Among IP-IVH patients, cerebral amyloid angiopathy was found in approximately one-third of patients, whereas HTN-cSVD was detected in 23%-both similar rates to P-IPH patients. Our results suggest that both cSVD subtypes may be associated with IP-IVH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211043957DOI Listing
September 2021

Ethnic and Racial Variation in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Risk Factors and Risk Factor Burden.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2121921. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Henry and Allison McCance Center for Brain Health and Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Importance: Black and Hispanic individuals have an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) compared with their White counterparts, but no large studies of ICH have been conducted in these disproportionately affected populations.

Objective: To examine the prevalence, odds, and population attributable risk (PAR) percentage for established and novel risk factors for ICH, stratified by ICH location and racial/ethnic group.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Study was a case-control study of ICH among 3000 Black, Hispanic, and White individuals who experienced spontaneous ICH (1000 cases in each group). Recruitment was conducted between September 2009 and July 2016 at 19 US sites comprising 42 hospitals. Control participants were identified through random digit dialing and were matched to case participants by age (±5 years), sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic area. Data analyses were conducted from January 2019 to May 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Case and control participants underwent a standardized interview, physical measurement for body mass index, and genotyping for the ɛ2 and ɛ4 alleles of APOE, the gene encoding apolipoprotein E. Prevalence, multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR), and PAR percentage were calculated for each risk factor in the entire ICH population and stratified by racial/ethnic group and by lobar or nonlobar location.

Results: There were 1000 Black patients (median [interquartile range (IQR)] age, 57 [50-65] years, 425 [42.5%] women), 1000 Hispanic patients (median [IQR] age, 58 [49-69] years; 373 [37.3%] women), and 1000 White patients (median [IQR] age, 71 [59-80] years; 437 [43.7%] women). The mean (SD) age of patients with ICH was significantly lower among Black and Hispanic patients compared with White patients (eg, lobar ICH: Black, 62.2 [15.2] years; Hispanic, 62.5 [15.7] years; White, 71.0 [13.3] years). More than half of all ICH in Black and Hispanic patients was associated with treated or untreated hypertension (PAR for treated hypertension, Black patients: 53.6%; 95% CI, 46.4%-59.8%; Hispanic patients: 46.5%; 95% CI, 40.6%-51.8%; untreated hypertension, Black patients: 45.5%; 95% CI, 39.%-51.1%; Hispanic patients: 42.7%; 95% CI, 37.6%-47.3%). Lack of health insurance also had a disproportionate association with the PAR percentage for ICH in Black and Hispanic patients (Black patients: 21.7%; 95% CI, 17.5%-25.7%; Hispanic patients: 30.2%; 95% CI, 26.1%-34.1%; White patients: 5.8%; 95% CI, 3.3%-8.2%). A high sleep apnea risk score was associated with both lobar (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.36-2.06) and nonlobar (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.37-1.91) ICH, and high cholesterol was inversely associated only with nonlobar ICH (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.52-0.70); both had no interactions with race and ethnicity. In contrast to the association between the ɛ2 and ɛ4 alleles of APOE and ICH in White individuals (eg, presence of APOE ɛ2 allele: OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34-2.52), APOE alleles were not associated with lobar ICH among Black or Hispanic individuals.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found sleep apnea as a novel risk factor for ICH. The results suggest a strong contribution from inadequately treated hypertension and lack of health insurance to the disproportionate burden and earlier onset of ICH in Black and Hispanic populations. These findings emphasize the importance of addressing modifiable risk factors and the social determinants of health to reduce health disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.21921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383133PMC
August 2021

MRI Radiomic Signature of White Matter Hyperintensities Is Associated With Clinical Phenotypes.

Front Neurosci 2021 12;15:691244. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine and Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Objective: Neuroimaging measurements of brain structural integrity are thought to be surrogates for brain health, but precise assessments require dedicated advanced image acquisitions. By means of quantitatively describing conventional images, radiomic analyses hold potential for evaluating brain health. We sought to: (1) evaluate radiomics to assess brain structural integrity by predicting white matter hyperintensities burdens (WMH) and (2) uncover associations between predictive radiomic features and clinical phenotypes.

Methods: We analyzed a multi-site cohort of 4,163 acute ischemic strokes (AIS) patients with T2-FLAIR MR images with total brain and WMH segmentations. Radiomic features were extracted from normal-appearing brain tissue (brain mask-WMH mask). Radiomics-based prediction of personalized WMH burden was done using ElasticNet linear regression. We built a radiomic signature of WMH with stable selected features predictive of WMH burden and then related this signature to clinical variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA).

Results: Radiomic features were predictive of WMH burden ( = 0.855 ± 0.011). Seven pairs of canonical variates (CV) significantly correlated the radiomics signature of WMH and clinical traits with respective canonical correlations of 0.81, 0.65, 0.42, 0.24, 0.20, 0.15, and 0.15 (FDR-corrected -values < 0.001, -value = 0.012). The clinical CV1 was mainly influenced by age, CV2 by sex, CV3 by history of smoking and diabetes, CV4 by hypertension, CV5 by atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes, CV6 by coronary artery disease (CAD), and CV7 by CAD and diabetes.

Conclusion: Radiomics extracted from T2-FLAIR images of AIS patients capture microstructural damage of the cerebral parenchyma and correlate with clinical phenotypes, suggesting different radiographical textural abnormalities per cardiovascular risk profile. Further research could evaluate radiomics to predict the progression of WMH and for the follow-up of stroke patients' brain health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.691244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312571PMC
July 2021

Finding a Place for Candidate Gene Studies in a Genome-Wide Association Study World.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2118594. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Henry and Allison McCance Center for Brain Health, Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.18594DOI Listing
July 2021

Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering and DWI Lesions in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Exploratory Analysis of the ATACH-2 Randomized Trial.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology J. P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: With the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage, diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintense lesions have been recognized to occur at sites remote to the hematoma in up to 40% of patients. We investigated whether blood pressure reduction was associated with diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintense lesions in acute intracerebral hemorrhage and whether such lesions are associated with worse clinical outcomes by analyzing imaging data from a randomized trial.

Methods: We performed exploratory subgroup analyses in an open-label randomized trial that investigated acute blood pressure lowering in 1000 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage between May 2011 and September 2015. Eligible participants were assigned to an intensive systolic blood pressure target of 110-139 mm Hg versus 140-179 mm Hg with the use of intravenous nicardipine. Of these, 171 patients had requisite magnetic resonance imaging sequences for inclusion in these subgroup analyses. The primary outcome was the presence of diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintense lesions. Secondary outcomes included death or disability and serious adverse event at 90 days.

Results: Diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintense lesions were present in 25% of patients (mean age 62 years). Hematoma volume > 30 cm was an adjusted predictor (adjusted relative risk 2.41, 95% confidence interval 1.00-5.80) of lesion presence. Lesions occurred in 25% of intensively treated patients and 24% of standard treatment patients (relative risk 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.71-1.43, p = 0.97). Patients with diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintense lesions had similar frequencies of death or disability at 90 days, compared with patients without lesions.

Conclusions: Randomized assignment to intensive acute blood pressure lowering did not result in a greater frequency of diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintense lesion. Alternative mechanisms of diffusion-weighted imaging hyperintense lesion formation other than hemodynamic fluctuations need to be explored. Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (Ref. NCT01176565; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01176565 ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-021-01254-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Case-control study of neuropsychiatric symptoms following COVID-19 hospitalization in 2 academic health systems.

medRxiv 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Neuropsychiatric symptoms may persist following acute COVID-19 illness, but the extent to which these symptoms are specific to COVID-19 has not been established. We utilized electronic health records across 6 hospitals in Massachusetts to characterize cohorts of individuals discharged following admission for COVID-19 between March 2020 and May 2021, and compared them to individuals hospitalized for other indications during this period. Natural language processing was applied to narrative clinical notes to identify neuropsychiatric symptom domains up to 150 days following hospitalization. Among 6,619 individuals hospitalized for COVID-19 drawn from a total of 42,961 hospital discharges, the most commonly documented symptom domains between 31 and 90 days after initial positive test were fatigue (13.4%), mood and anxiety symptoms (11.2%), and impaired cognition (8.0%). In models adjusted for sociodemographic features and hospital course, none of these were significantly more common among COVID-19 patients; indeed, mood and anxiety symptoms were less frequent (adjusted OR 0.72 95% CI 0.64-0.92). Between 91 and 150 days after positivity, most commonly-detected symptoms were fatigue (10.9%), mood and anxiety symptoms (8.2%), and sleep disruption (6.8%), with impaired cognition in 5.8%. Frequency was again similar among non-COVID-19 post-hospital patients, with mood and anxiety symptoms less common (aOR 0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.75). Neuropsychiatric symptoms were common up to 150 days after initial hospitalization, but occurred at generally similar rates among individuals hospitalized for other indications during the same period. Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 thus may benefit from standard if less-specific treatments developed for rehabilitation after hospitalization.

Funding: R01MH120227, R01MH116270 (Perlis).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.07.09.21252353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288151PMC
July 2021

Pathological Computed Tomography Features Associated With Adverse Outcomes After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A TRACK-TBI Study With External Validation in CENTER-TBI.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Sep;78(9):1137-1148

University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: A head computed tomography (CT) with positive results for acute intracranial hemorrhage is the gold-standard diagnostic biomarker for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). In moderate to severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] scores 3-12), some CT features have been shown to be associated with outcomes. In mild TBI (mTBI; GCS scores 13-15), distribution and co-occurrence of pathological CT features and their prognostic importance are not well understood.

Objective: To identify pathological CT features associated with adverse outcomes after mTBI.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The longitudinal, observational Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) study enrolled patients with TBI, including those 17 years and older with GCS scores of 13 to 15 who presented to emergency departments at 18 US level 1 trauma centers between February 26, 2014, and August 8, 2018, and underwent head CT imaging within 24 hours of TBI. Evaluations of CT imaging used TBI Common Data Elements. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) scores were assessed at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. External validation of results was performed via the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. Data analyses were completed from February 2020 to February 2021.

Exposures: Acute nonpenetrating head trauma.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Frequency, co-occurrence, and clustering of CT features; incomplete recovery (GOSE scores <8 vs 8); and an unfavorable outcome (GOSE scores <5 vs ≥5) at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months.

Results: In 1935 patients with mTBI (mean [SD] age, 41.5 [17.6] years; 1286 men [66.5%]) in the TRACK-TBI cohort and 2594 patients with mTBI (mean [SD] age, 51.8 [20.3] years; 1658 men [63.9%]) in an external validation cohort, hierarchical cluster analysis identified 3 major clusters of CT features: contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and/or subdural hematoma; intraventricular and/or petechial hemorrhage; and epidural hematoma. Contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and/or subdural hematoma features were associated with incomplete recovery (odds ratios [ORs] for GOSE scores <8 at 1 year: TRACK-TBI, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.39-2.33]; CENTER-TBI, 2.73 [95% CI, 2.18-3.41]) and greater degrees of unfavorable outcomes (ORs for GOSE scores <5 at 1 year: TRACK-TBI, 3.23 [95% CI, 1.59-6.58]; CENTER-TBI, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.13-2.49]) out to 12 months after injury, but epidural hematoma was not. Intraventricular and/or petechial hemorrhage was associated with greater degrees of unfavorable outcomes up to 12 months after injury (eg, OR for GOSE scores <5 at 1 year in TRACK-TBI: 3.47 [95% CI, 1.66-7.26]). Some CT features were more strongly associated with outcomes than previously validated variables (eg, ORs for GOSE scores <5 at 1 year in TRACK-TBI: neuropsychiatric history, 1.43 [95% CI .98-2.10] vs contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and/or subdural hematoma, 3.23 [95% CI 1.59-6.58]). Findings were externally validated in 2594 patients with mTBI enrolled in the CENTER-TBI study.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, pathological CT features carried different prognostic implications after mTBI to 1 year postinjury. Some patterns of injury were associated with worse outcomes than others. These results support that patients with mTBI and these CT features need TBI-specific education and systematic follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290344PMC
September 2021

Functional Outcomes Over the First Year After Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in the Prospective, Longitudinal TRACK-TBI Study.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Aug;78(8):982-992

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Importance: Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI) is a major cause of death and disability in the US and worldwide. Few studies have enabled prospective, longitudinal outcome data collection from the acute to chronic phases of recovery after msTBI.

Objective: To prospectively assess outcomes in major areas of life function at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months after msTBI.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study, as part of the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI (TRACK-TBI) study, was conducted at 18 level 1 trauma centers in the US from February 2014 to August 2018 and prospectively assessed longitudinal outcomes, with follow-up to 12 months postinjury. Participants were patients with msTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale scores 3-12) extracted from a larger group of patients with mild, moderate, or severe TBI who were enrolled in TRACK-TBI. Data analysis took place from October 2019 to April 2021.

Exposures: Moderate or severe TBI.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) were used to assess global functional status 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Scores on the GOSE were dichotomized to determine favorable (scores 4-8) vs unfavorable (scores 1-3) outcomes. Neurocognitive testing and patient reported outcomes at 12 months postinjury were analyzed.

Results: A total of 484 eligible patients were included from the 2679 individuals in the TRACK-TBI study. Participants with severe TBI (n = 362; 283 men [78.2%]; median [interquartile range] age, 35.5 [25-53] years) and moderate TBI (n = 122; 98 men [80.3%]; median [interquartile range] age, 38 [25-53] years) were comparable on demographic and premorbid variables. At 2 weeks postinjury, 36 of 290 participants with severe TBI (12.4%) and 38 of 93 participants with moderate TBI (41%) had favorable outcomes (GOSE scores 4-8); 301 of 322 in the severe TBI group (93.5%) and 81 of 103 in the moderate TBI group (78.6%) had moderate disability or worse on the DRS (total score ≥4). By 12 months postinjury, 142 of 271 with severe TBI (52.4%) and 54 of 72 with moderate TBI (75%) achieved favorable outcomes. Nearly 1 in 5 participants with severe TBI (52 of 270 [19.3%]) and 1 in 3 with moderate TBI (23 of 71 [32%]) reported no disability (DRS score 0) at 12 months. Among participants in a vegetative state at 2 weeks, 62 of 79 (78%) regained consciousness and 14 of 56 with available data (25%) regained orientation by 12 months.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, patients with msTBI frequently demonstrated major functional gains, including recovery of independence, between 2 weeks and 12 months postinjury. Severe impairment in the short term did not portend poor outcomes in a substantial minority of patients with msTBI. When discussing prognosis during the first 2 weeks after injury, clinicians should be particularly cautious about making early, definitive prognostic statements suggesting poor outcomes and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in patients with msTBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261688PMC
August 2021

Decreased Basal Ganglia Volume in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

J Stroke 2021 May 31;23(2):223-233. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Neurology, J.P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background And Purpose: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common pathology of the leptomeningeal and cortical small vessels associated with hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic brain injury. Given previous evidence for CAA-related loss of cortical thickness and white matter volume, we hypothesized that CAA might also cause tissue loss in the basal ganglia.

Methods: We compared basal ganglia volumes expressed as a percentage of total intracranial volume (pBGV) of non-demented patients with sporadic and hereditary CAA to age-matched healthy control (HC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) cohorts.

Results: Patients with sporadic CAA had lower pBGV (n=80, 1.16%±0.14%) compared to HC (n=80, 1.30%±0.13%, P<0.0001) and AD patients (n=80, 1.23%±0.11%, P=0.001). Similarly, patients with hereditary CAA demonstrated lower pBGV (n=25, 1.26%±0.17%) compared to their matched HC (n=25, 1.36%±0.15%, P=0.036). Using a measurement of normalized basal ganglia width developed for analysis of clinical-grade magnetic resonance images, we found smaller basal ganglia width in patients with CAA-related lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; n=93, 12.35±1.47) compared to age-matched patients with hypertension-related deep ICH (n=93, 13.46±1.51, P<0.0001) or HC (n=93, 15.45±1.22, P<0.0001). Within the sporadic CAA research cohort, decreased basal ganglia volume was independently correlated with greater cortical gray matter atrophy (r=0.45, P<0.0001), increased basal ganglia fractional anisotropy (r=-0.36, P=0.001), and worse performance on language processing (r=0.35, P=0.003), but not with cognitive tests of executive function or processing speed.

Conclusions: These findings suggest an independent effect of CAA on basal ganglia tissue loss, indicating a novel mechanism for CAA-related brain injury and neurologic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5853/jos.2020.04280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189850PMC
May 2021

Outcome after acute ischemic stroke is linked to sex-specific lesion patterns.

Nat Commun 2021 06 2;12(1):3289. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine & Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO, USA.

Acute ischemic stroke affects men and women differently. In particular, women are often reported to experience higher acute stroke severity than men. We derived a low-dimensional representation of anatomical stroke lesions and designed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework tailored to estimate possible sex differences in lesion patterns linked to acute stroke severity (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale). This framework was developed in 555 patients (38% female). Findings were validated in an independent cohort (n = 503, 41% female). Here, we show brain lesions in regions subserving motor and language functions help explain stroke severity in both men and women, however more widespread lesion patterns are relevant in female patients. Higher stroke severity in women, but not men, is associated with left hemisphere lesions in the vicinity of the posterior circulation. Our results suggest there are sex-specific functional cerebral asymmetries that may be important for future investigations of sex-stratified approaches to management of acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23492-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172535PMC
June 2021

Rare Missense Functional Variants at and in Sporadic Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Neurology 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

ObjectiveTo test the genetic contribution of rare missense variants in and in which common variants are genetically associated with sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we performed rare variant analysis in multiple sequencing data for the risk for sporadic ICH.MethodsWe performed sequencing across 559Kbp at 13q34 including and among 2,133 individuals (1,055 ICH cases; 1,078 controls) in US-based and 1,492 individuals (192 ICH cases; 1,189 controls) from Scotland-based cohorts, followed by sequence annotation, functional impact prediction, genetic association testing, and thermodynamic modeling.ResultsWe identified 107 rare nonsynonymous variants in sporadic ICH, of which two missense variants, rs138269346 (COL4A1) and rs201716258 (COL4A2), were predicted to be highly functional and occurred in multiple ICH cases but not in controls from the US-based cohort. The minor allele of rs201716258 was also present in Scottish ICH patients, and rs138269346 was observed in two ICH-free controls with a history of hypertension and myocardial infarction. Rs138269346 was nominally associated with non-lobar ICH risk (P=0.05), but not with lobar ICH (P=0.08), while associations between rs201716258 and ICH subtypes were non-significant (P>0.12). Both variants were considered pathogenic based on minor allele frequency (<0.00035 in EUR), predicted functional impact ( or ), and modeling studies (substantially altered physical length and thermal stability of collagen).ConclusionsWe identified rare missense variants in / in association with sporadic ICH. Our annotation and simulation studies suggest that these variants are highly functional and may represent targets for translational follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302151PMC
May 2021

Impact of Uncontrolled Hypertension at 3 Months After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 06 15;10(11):e020392. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Neurology Massachusetts General Hospital Boston MA.

Background Survivors of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are at high risk for recurrent stroke, which is associated with blood pressure control. Because most recurrent stroke events occur within 12 to 18 months of the index ICH, rapid blood pressure control is likely to be crucial. We investigated the frequency and prognostic impact of uncontrolled short-term hypertension after ICH. Methods and Results We analyzed data from Massachusetts General Hospital (n=1305) and the University of Hong Kong (n=523). We classified hypertension as controlled, undertreated, or treatment resistant at 3 months after ICH and determined the following: (1) the risk factors for uncontrolled hypertension and (2) whether hypertension control at 3 months is associated with stroke recurrence and mortality. We followed 1828 survivors of ICH for a median of 46.2 months. Only 9 of 234 (4%) recurrent strokes occurred before 3 months after ICH. At 3 months, 713 participants (39%) had controlled hypertension, 755 (41%) had undertreated hypertension, and 360 (20%) had treatment-resistant hypertension. Black, Hispanic, and Asian race/ethnicity and higher blood pressure at time of ICH increased the risk of uncontrolled hypertension at 3 months (all <0.05). Uncontrolled hypertension at 3 months was associated with recurrent stroke and mortality during long-term follow-up (all <0.05). Conclusions Among survivors of ICH, >60% had uncontrolled hypertension at 3 months, with undertreatment accounting for the majority of cases. The 3-month blood pressure measurements were associated with higher recurrent stroke risk and mortality. Black, Hispanic, and Asian survivors of ICH and those presenting with severe acute hypertensive response were at highest risk for uncontrolled hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483505PMC
June 2021

Prolonged Intubation in Patients With Prior Cerebrovascular Disease and COVID-19.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:642912. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Patients with comorbidities are at increased risk for poor outcomes in COVID-19, yet data on patients with prior neurological disease remains limited. Our objective was to determine the odds of critical illness and duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with prior cerebrovascular disease and COVID-19. A observational study of 1,128 consecutive adult patients admitted to an academic center in Boston, Massachusetts, and diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We tested the association between prior cerebrovascular disease and critical illness, defined as mechanical ventilation (MV) or death by day 28, using logistic regression with inverse probability weighting of the propensity score. Among intubated patients, we estimated the cumulative incidence of successful extubation without death over 45 days using competing risk analysis. Of the 1,128 adults with COVID-19, 350 (36%) were critically ill by day 28. The median age of patients was 59 years (SD: 18 years) and 640 (57%) were men. As of June 2nd, 2020, 127 (11%) patients had died. A total of 177 patients (16%) had a prior cerebrovascular disease. Prior cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with critical illness (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.14-2.07), lower rate of successful extubation (cause-specific HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98), and increased duration of intubation (restricted mean time difference = 4.02 days, 95% CI = 0.34-10.92) compared to patients without cerebrovascular disease. Prior cerebrovascular disease adversely affects COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients. Further study is required to determine if this subpopulation requires closer monitoring for disease progression during COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.642912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062773PMC
April 2021

Contribution of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Subtype and Burden to Risk of Cerebral Hemorrhage Recurrence.

Neurology 2021 05 21;96(20):e2469-e2480. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

From the Department of Neurology (J.P.C., J.R.A., A.R.-T., S.M., P.K., A.C., C.K., Z.D., K.S., M.E.G., A.V., C.D.A., S.M.G., J.R., A.B.), Hemorrhagic Stroke Research Program (J.P.C., J.R.A., A.R.-T., S.M., P.K., A.C., C.K, Z.D., K.S., M.E.G., A.V., C.D.A., S.M.G., J.R., A.B.), Henry and Allison McCance Center for Brain Health (J.P.C., J.R.A., P.K., C.K., C.D.A., J.R., A.B.), and Center for Genomic Medicine (J.R.A., S.M., P.K., C.K., C.D.A., J.R., A.B.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; University of Lille (M.P.), Inserm, CHU Lille, U1172-LilNCog-Lille Neuroscience & Cognition, France; School of Medicine (A.R.-T.), University of California, Irvine; Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine (S.D., L.G., M.L.F., D.W.), University of Cincinnati, OH; Department of Biostatistics and Data Sciences (C.D.L.), Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; Department of Neurology (A.T.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California; and Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (A.T.), CA.

Objective: Black and Hispanic survivors of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are at higher risk of recurrent intracranial bleeding. MRI-based markers of chronic cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) are consistently associated with recurrent ICH. We therefore sought to investigate whether racial/ethnic differences in MRI-defined CSVD subtype and severity contribute to disparities in ICH recurrence risk.

Methods: We analyzed data from the Massachusetts General Hospital ICH study (n = 593) and the Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study (n = 329). Using CSVD markers derived from MRIs obtained within 90 days of index ICH, we classified ICH cases as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-related, hypertensive arteriopathy (HTNA)-related, and mixed etiology. We quantified CSVD burden using validated global, CAA-specific, and HTNA-specific scores. We compared CSVD subtype and severity among White, Black, and Hispanic ICH survivors and investigated its association with ICH recurrence risk.

Results: We analyzed data for 922 ICH survivors (655 White, 130 Black, 137 Hispanic). Minority ICH survivors had greater global CSVD ( = 0.011) and HTNA burden ( = 0.021) on MRI. Furthermore, minority survivors of HTNA-related and mixed-etiology ICH demonstrated higher HTNA burden, resulting in increased ICH recurrence risk (all < 0.05).

Conclusions: We uncovered significant differences in CSVD subtypes and severity among White and minority survivors of primary ICH, with direct implication for known disparities in ICH recurrence risk. Future studies of racial/ethnic disparities in ICH outcomes will benefit from including detailed MRI-based assessment of CSVD subtypes and severity and investigating social determinants of health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205476PMC
May 2021

Can a Dyadic Resiliency Program Improve Quality of Life in Cognitively Intact Dyads of Neuro-ICU Survivors and Informal Caregivers? Results from a Pilot RCT.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Integrated Brain Health Clinical and Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, One Bowdoin Square, 1st Floor, Suite 100, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Neuro-ICU hospitalization for an acute neurological illness is often traumatic and associated with heightened emotional distress and reduced quality of life (QoL) for both survivors and their informal caregivers (i.e., family and friends providing unpaid care). In a pilot study, we previously showed that a dyadic (survivor and caregiver together) resiliency intervention (Recovering Together [RT]) was feasible and associated with sustained improvement in emotional distress when compared with an attention placebo educational control. Here we report on changes in secondary outcomes assessing QoL.

Methods: Survivors (n = 58) and informal caregivers (n = 58) completed assessments at bedside and were randomly assigned to participate together as a dyad in the RT or control intervention (both 6 weeks, two in-person sessions at bedside and four sessions via live video post discharge). We measured QoL domain scores (physical health, psychological, social relations, and environmental), general QoL, and QoL satisfaction using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Abbreviated Instrument at baseline, post treatment, and 3 months' follow-up. We conducted mixed model analyses of variance with linear contrasts to estimate (1) within-group changes in QoL from baseline to post treatment and from post treatment to 3 months' follow-up and (2) between-group differences in changes in QoL from baseline to post treatment and from post treatment to 3 months' follow-up.

Results: We found significant within-group improvements from baseline to post treatment among RT survivors for physical health QoL (mean difference 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-3.06; p = 0.012), environmental QoL (mean difference 1.29; 95% CI 0.21-2.36; p = 0.020), general QoL (mean difference 0.55; 95% CI 0.13-0.973; p = 0.011), and QoL satisfaction (mean difference 0.87; 95% CI 0.36-1.37; p = 0.001), and those improvements sustained through the 3-month follow-up. We found no significant between-group improvements for survivors or caregivers from baseline to post treatment or from post treatment to 3 months' follow-up for any QoL variables (i.e., domains, general QoL, and QoL satisfaction together).

Conclusions: In this pilot study, we found improved QoL among survivors, but not in caregivers, who received RT and improvements sustained over time. These RT-related improvements were not significantly greater than those observed in the control. Results support a fully powered randomized controlled trial to allow for a definitive evaluation of RT-related effects among dyads of survivors of acute brain injury and their caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-021-01222-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of Sex and Age With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Symptoms: A TRACK-TBI Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 04 1;4(4):e213046. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Importance: Knowledge of differences in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recovery by sex and age may inform individualized treatment of these patients.

Objective: To identify sex-related differences in symptom recovery from mTBI; secondarily, to explore age differences within women, who demonstrate poorer outcomes after TBI.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The prospective cohort study Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) recruited 2000 patients with mTBI from February 26, 2014, to July 3, 2018, and 299 patients with orthopedic trauma (who served as controls) from January 26, 2016, to July 27, 2018. Patients were recruited from 18 level I trauma centers and followed up for 12 months. Data were analyzed from August 19, 2020, to March 3, 2021.

Exposures: Patients with mTBI (defined by a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15) triaged to head computed tomography in 24 hours or less; patients with orthopedic trauma served as controls.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Measured outcomes included (1) the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), a 16-item self-report scale that assesses postconcussion symptom severity over the past 7 days relative to preinjury; (2) the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (PCL-5), a 20-item test that measures the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms; (3) the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a 9-item scale that measures depression based on symptom frequency over the past 2 weeks; and (4) the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), an 18-item scale of psychological distress (split into Depression and Anxiety subscales).

Results: A total of 2000 patients with mTBI (1331 men [67%; mean (SD) age, 41.0 (17.3) years; 1026 White (78%)] and 669 women [33%; mean (SD) age, 43.0 (18.5) years; 505 (76%) White]). After adjustment of multiple comparisons, significant TBI × sex interactions were observed for cognitive symptoms (B = 0.76; 5% false discovery rate-corrected P = .02) and somatic RPQ symptoms (B = 0.80; 5% false discovery rate-corrected P = .02), with worse symptoms in women with mTBI than men, but no sex difference in symptoms in control patients with orthopedic trauma. Within the female patients evaluated, there was a significant TBI × age interaction for somatic RPQ symptoms, which were worse in female patients with mTBI aged 35 to 49 years compared with those aged 17 to 34 years (B = 1.65; P = .02) or older than 50 years (B = 1.66; P = .02).

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found that women were more vulnerable than men to persistent mTBI-related cognitive and somatic symptoms, whereas no sex difference in symptom burden was seen after orthopedic injury. Postconcussion symptoms were also worse in women aged 35 to 49 years than in younger and older women, but further investigation is needed to corroborate these findings and to identify the mechanisms involved. Results suggest that individualized clinical management of mTBI should consider sex and age, as some women are especially predisposed to chronic postconcussion symptoms even 12 months after injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.3046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025125PMC
April 2021

Predictors of Family Dissatisfaction with Support During Neurocritical Care Shared Decision-Making.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: There is a critical need to improve support for families making difficult shared decisions about patient care with clinicians in the neuroscience ICU (neuro-ICU). The aim of this study is to identify patient- and family-related factors associated with dissatisfaction with shared decision-making support among families of neuro-critically ill patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using survey data that had been collected from a consecutive sample of family members of patients in the neuro-ICU (one family member per patient) at two US academic centers. Satisfaction with shared decision-making support on ICU discharge had been measured among family members using one specific Likert scale item on the Family Satisfaction in the ICU 24 survey, a validated survey instrument for families of patients in the ICU. We dichotomized top-box responses for this particular item as an outcome variable and identified available patient- and family-related covariates associated with dissatisfaction (i.e., less than complete satisfaction) via univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: Among 355 surveys, 180 (49.5%) of the surveys indicated dissatisfaction with support during decision-making. In a multivariate model, no preexisting characteristics of families or patients ascertainable on ICU admission were predictive of dissatisfaction. However, among family factors determined during the ICU course, experiencing three or fewer formal family meetings (odds ratio 1.93 [confidence interval 1.13-3.31]; p = 0.01) was significantly predictive of dissatisfaction with decisional support in this cohort with an average patient length of stay of 8.6 days (SD 8.4). There was also a trend toward a family's decision to keep a patient as full code, without treatment limitations, being predictive of dissatisfaction (odds ratio 1.80 [confidence interval 0.93-3.51]; p = 0.08).

Conclusions: Family dissatisfaction with neuro-ICU shared decision-making support is not necessarily predicted by any preexisting family or patient variables but appears to correlate with participating in fewer formal family meetings during ICU admission. Future studies to improve family satisfaction with neurocritical care decision-making support should have broad inclusion criteria for participants and should consider promoting frequency of family meetings as a core strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-021-01211-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021441PMC
April 2021

Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage With Unclear Onset.

Neurology 2021 05 1;96(19):e2363-e2371. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

From UO Neurologia (A.M.), Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) Valcamonica, Esine, Italy; Neuroradiology Department (G. Boulouis), Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Paris, France; J.P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (A. Charidimou, Q.L., A.D.W., C.D.A., M.E.G., A.B., A.V., S.M.G., J.R., J.N.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital Stroke Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Sperimentali, Clinica Neurologica (L.P., A. Pezzini, A. Padovani), Università degli Studi di Brescia; UO di Neurologia (P.C.), Istituto Clinico Fondazione Poliambulanza, Brescia; UOC Neurologia (V.D.G.), ASST Cremona; UC Malattie Cerebrovascolari e Stroke Unit (E.L., F.M., A. Cavallini) and UC Neurologia d'Urgenza (E.L., F.M., G.M.), IRCCS Fondazione Mondino, Pavia; Dipartimento di Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sperimentali e Cliniche, Neuroradiologia, Università degliStudi di Firenze (G. Busto, E.F.), and Stroke Unit (F.A., A.Z.), Ospedale Universitario Careggi, Firenze; UOC Neurologia e Rete Stroke, Metropolitana (L.B., S.G.), and Unità di Neuroradiologia (L.S.), IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Ospedale Maggiore; Clinica Neurologica, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Chirurgico Specialistiche (M.L., I.C.), Università degli studi diFerrara, Ospedale Universitario S. Anna, Ferrara; Neurologia e Stroke Unit (E.C.), Ospedale di Circolo, ASST Settelaghi, Varese; Stroke Unit (M.G., M.M.), Neurologia Vascolare, ASST Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology, Department of Neurology (C.D.A., J.R., J.N.G.), Harvard Medical School, Henry and Allison McCance Center for Brain Health (C.D.A., J.R., J.N.G.), and Department of Emergency Medicine (J.N.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence, predictors, and prognostic effect of hematoma expansion (HE) in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with unclear symptom onset (USO).

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with primary spontaneous ICH admitted at 5 academic medical centers in the United States and Italy. HE (volume increase >6 mL or >33% from baseline to follow-up noncontrast CT [NCCT]) and mortality at 30 days were the outcomes of interest. Baseline NCCT was also analyzed for presence of hypodensities (any hypodense region within the hematoma margins). Predictors of HE and mortality were explored with multivariable logistic regression.

Results: We enrolled 2,165 participants, 1,022 in the development cohort and 1,143 in the replication cohort, of whom 352 (34.4%) and 407 (35.6%) had ICH with USO, respectively. When compared with participants having a clear symptom onset, patients with USO had a similar frequency of HE (25.0% vs 21.9%, = 0.269 and 29.9% vs 31.5%, = 0.423). Among patients with USO, HE was independently associated with mortality after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [OR] 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-4.89, = 0.002). This finding was similar in the replication cohort (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.86-6.44, < 0.001). The presence of NCCT hypodensities in patients with USO was an independent predictor of HE in the development (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.27-5.28, = 0.009) and replication (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.42-4.17, = 0.001) population.

Conclusion: HE is common in patients with USO and independently associated with worse outcome. These findings suggest that patients with USO may be enrolled in clinical trials of medical treatments targeting HE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166446PMC
May 2021

Latent Profile Analysis of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Cognitive Function of Adults 2 Weeks After Traumatic Brain Injury: Findings From the TRACK-TBI Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 03 1;4(3):e213467. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

TIRR Memorial Hermann, Houston, Texas.

Importance: Heterogeneity across patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) presents challenges for clinical care and intervention design. Identifying distinct clinical phenotypes of TBI soon after injury may inform patient selection for precision medicine clinical trials.

Objective: To investigate whether distinct neurobehavioral phenotypes can be identified 2 weeks after TBI and to characterize the degree to which early neurobehavioral phenotypes are associated with 6-month outcomes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study included patients presenting to 18 US level 1 trauma centers within 24 hours of TBI from 2014 to 2019 as part of the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI (TRACK-TBI) study. Data were analyzed from January 28, 2020, to January 11, 2021.

Exposures: TBI.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Latent profiles (LPs) were derived from common dimensions of neurobehavioral functioning at 2 weeks after injury, assessed through National Institutes of Health TBI Common Data Elements (ie, Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Depression checklist, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5, PROMIS Pain Intensity scale, Insomnia Severity Index, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Coding and Symbol Search subtests, Trail Making Test, and NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery Pattern Comparison Processing Speed, Dimensional Change Card Sort, Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention, and Picture Sequence Memory subtests). Six-month outcomes were the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Quality of Life after Brain Injury-Overall Scale (QOLIBRI-OS), Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE), and Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ).

Results: Among 1757 patients with TBI included, 1184 (67.4%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 39.9 (17.0) years. LP analysis revealed 4 distinct neurobehavioral phenotypes at 2 weeks after injury: emotionally resilient (419 individuals [23.8%]), cognitively impaired (368 individuals [20.9%]), cognitively resilient (620 individuals [35.3%]), and neuropsychiatrically distressed (with cognitive weaknesses; 350 individuals [19.9%]). Adding LP group to models including demographic characteristics, medical history, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and other injury characteristics was associated with significantly improved estimation of association with 6-month outcome (GOSE R2 increase = 0.09-0.19; SWLS R2 increase = 0.12-0.22; QOLIBRI-OS R2 increase = 0.14-0.32; RPQ R2 = 0.13-0.34).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with TBI presenting to US level-1 trauma centers, qualitatively distinct profiles of symptoms and cognitive functioning were identified at 2 weeks after TBI. These distinct phenotypes may help optimize clinical decision-making regarding prognosis, as well as selection and stratification for randomized clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.3467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010589PMC
March 2021

Genetic basis of lacunar stroke: a pooled analysis of individual patient data and genome-wide association studies.

Lancet Neurol 2021 05 25;20(5):351-361. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: The genetic basis of lacunar stroke is poorly understood, with a single locus on 16q24 identified to date. We sought to identify novel associations and provide mechanistic insights into the disease.

Methods: We did a pooled analysis of data from newly recruited patients with an MRI-confirmed diagnosis of lacunar stroke and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Patients were recruited from hospitals in the UK as part of the UK DNA Lacunar Stroke studies 1 and 2 and from collaborators within the International Stroke Genetics Consortium. Cases and controls were stratified by ancestry and two meta-analyses were done: a European ancestry analysis, and a transethnic analysis that included all ancestry groups. We also did a multi-trait analysis of GWAS, in a joint analysis with a study of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (an aetiologically related radiological trait), to find additional genetic associations. We did a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to detect genes for which expression is associated with lacunar stroke; identified significantly enriched pathways using multi-marker analysis of genomic annotation; and evaluated cardiovascular risk factors causally associated with the disease using mendelian randomisation.

Findings: Our meta-analysis comprised studies from Europe, the USA, and Australia, including 7338 cases and 254 798 controls, of which 2987 cases (matched with 29 540 controls) were confirmed using MRI. Five loci (ICA1L-WDR12-CARF-NBEAL1, ULK4, SPI1-SLC39A13-PSMC3-RAPSN, ZCCHC14, ZBTB14-EPB41L3) were found to be associated with lacunar stroke in the European or transethnic meta-analyses. A further seven loci (SLC25A44-PMF1-BGLAP, LOX-ZNF474-LOC100505841, FOXF2-FOXQ1, VTA1-GPR126, SH3PXD2A, HTRA1-ARMS2, COL4A2) were found to be associated in the multi-trait analysis with cerebral white matter hyperintensities (n=42 310). Two of the identified loci contain genes (COL4A2 and HTRA1) that are involved in monogenic lacunar stroke. The TWAS identified associations between the expression of six genes (SCL25A44, ULK4, CARF, FAM117B, ICA1L, NBEAL1) and lacunar stroke. Pathway analyses implicated disruption of the extracellular matrix, phosphatidylinositol 5 phosphate binding, and roundabout binding (false discovery rate <0·05). Mendelian randomisation analyses identified positive associations of elevated blood pressure, history of smoking, and type 2 diabetes with lacunar stroke.

Interpretation: Lacunar stroke has a substantial heritable component, with 12 loci now identified that could represent future treatment targets. These loci provide insights into lacunar stroke pathogenesis, highlighting disruption of the vascular extracellular matrix (COL4A2, LOX, SH3PXD2A, GPR126, HTRA1), pericyte differentiation (FOXF2, GPR126), TGF-β signalling (HTRA1), and myelination (ULK4, GPR126) in disease risk.

Funding: British Heart Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00031-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062914PMC
May 2021

International stroke genetics consortium recommendations for studies of genetics of stroke outcome and recovery.

Int J Stroke 2021 Apr 26:17474930211007288. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Stroke Pharmacogenomics and Genetics Group, Sant Pau Biomedical Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain.

Numerous biological mechanisms contribute to outcome after stroke, including brain injury, inflammation, and repair mechanisms. Clinical genetic studies have the potential to discover biological mechanisms affecting stroke recovery in humans and identify intervention targets. Large sample sizes are needed to detect commonly occurring genetic variations related to stroke brain injury and recovery. However, this usually requires combining data from multiple studies where consistent terminology, methodology, and data collection timelines are essential. Our group of expert stroke and rehabilitation clinicians and researchers with knowledge in genetics of stroke recovery here present recommendations for harmonizing phenotype data with focus on measures suitable for multicenter genetic studies of ischemic stroke brain injury and recovery. Our recommendations have been endorsed by the International Stroke Genetics Consortium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211007288DOI Listing
April 2021

Lacunes, Microinfarcts, and Vascular Dysfunction in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

Neurology 2021 03 3;96(12):e1646-e1654. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

From the J. Philip Kistler Hemorrhagic Stroke Research Program, Department of Neurology (E.G., M.J.H., S.J.v.V., M.P., P.F., A.D.W., K.S., J.R., A.V., S.M.G., M.E.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital Stroke Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging (A.F.-P., J.R.P.), Charlestown; Department of Neurology (A.S.D.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; and Department of Neurology, Stroke Unit (M.P.), Univ-Lille, Inserm U1171, CHU Lille, France.

Objective: To analyze the relationship of lacunes with cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs), to assess their association with vascular dysfunction, and to evaluate their effect on the risk of incident intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA).

Methods: The count and topography of lacunes (deep/lobar), CMIs, and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume were retrospectively analyzed in a prospectively enrolled CAA cohort that underwent high-resolution research MRIs. The relationship of lacunes with CMIs and other CAA-related markers including time to peak (TTP) of blood oxygen level-dependent signal, an established measure of vascular dysfunction, was evaluated in multivariate models. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to investigate the relationship between lacunes and incident ICH.

Results: The cohort consisted of 122 patients with probable CAA without dementia (mean age, 69.4 ± 7.6 years). Lacunes were present in 31 patients (25.4%); all but one were located in lobar regions. Cortical CMIs were more common in patients with lacunes compared to patients without lacunes (51.6% vs 20.9%, = 0.002). TTP was not associated with either lacunes or CMIs (both > 0.2) but longer TTP response independently correlated with higher WMH volume ( = 0.001). Lacunes were associated with increased ICH risk in univariate and multivariate Cox regression models ( = 0.048 and = 0.026, respectively).

Conclusions: Our findings show a high prevalence of lobar lacunes, frequently coexisting with CMIs in CAA, suggesting that these 2 lesion types may be part of a common spectrum of CAA-related infarcts. Lacunes were not related to vascular dysfunction but predicted incident ICH, favoring severe focal vessel involvement rather than global ischemia as their mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032369PMC
March 2021

Electroencephalography, Hospital Complications, and Longitudinal Outcomes After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Lunder 644, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: Following non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), in-hospital delayed cerebral ischemia is predicted by two chief events on continuous EEG (cEEG): new or worsening epileptiform abnormalities (EAs) and deterioration of cEEG background frequencies. We evaluated the association between longitudinal outcomes and these cEEG biomarkers. We additionally evaluated the association between longitudinal outcomes and other in-hospital complications.

Methods: Patients with nontraumatic SAH undergoing ≥ 3 days of cEEG monitoring were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating longitudinal outcomes. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed at discharge, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up time points. Adjusting for baseline severity in a cumulative proportional odds model, we modeled the mRS ordinally and measured the association between mRS and two forms of in-hospital cEEG deterioration: (1) cEEG evidence of new or worsening epileptiform abnormalities and (2) cEEG evidence of new background deterioration. We compared the magnitude of these associations at each time point with the association between mRS and other in-hospital complications: (1) delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), (2) hospital-acquired infections (HAI), and (3) hydrocephalus. In a secondary analysis, we employed a linear mixed effects model to examine the association of mRS over time (dichotomized as 0-3 vs. 4-6) with both biomarkers of cEEG deterioration and with other in-hospital complications.

Results: In total, 175 mRS assessments were performed in 59 patients. New or worsening EAs developed in 23 (39%) patients, and new background deterioration developed in 24 (41%). Among cEEG biomarkers, new or worsening EAs were independently associated with mRS at discharge, 3, and 6 months, respectively (adjusted cumulative proportional odds 4.99, 95% CI 1.60-15.6; 3.28, 95% CI 1.14-9.5; and 2.71, 95% CI 0.95-7.76), but cEEG background deterioration lacked an association. Among hospital complications, DCI was associated with discharge, 3-, and 6-month outcomes (adjusted cumulative proportional odds 4.75, 95% CI 1.64-13.8; 3.4; 95% CI 1.24-9.01; and 2.45, 95% CI 0.94-6.6), but HAI and hydrocephalus lacked an association. The mixed effects model demonstrated that these associations were sustained over longitudinal assessments without an interaction with time.

Conclusion: Although new or worsening EAs and cEEG background deterioration have both been shown to predict DCI, only new or worsening EAs are associated with a sustained impairment in functional outcome. This novel finding raises the potential for identifying therapeutic targets that may also influence outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-020-01177-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822587PMC
January 2021

Early Neurological Change After Ischemic Stroke Is Associated With 90-Day Outcome.

Stroke 2021 01 15;52(1):132-141. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Neurology, Son Espases University Hospital, IdISBa, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (C.V.-B., R.D.-N., S.T., C.J.).

Background And Purpose: Large-scale observational studies of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) promise to reveal mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia. However, meaningful quantitative phenotypes attainable in large patient populations are needed. We characterize a dynamic metric of AIS instability, defined by change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) from baseline to 24 hours baseline to 24 hours (NIHSS - NIHSS = ΔNIHSS), to examine its relevance to AIS mechanisms and long-term outcomes.

Methods: Patients with NIHSS prospectively recorded within 6 hours after onset and then 24 hours later were enrolled in the GENISIS study (Genetics of Early Neurological Instability After Ischemic Stroke). Stepwise linear regression determined variables that independently influenced ΔNIHSS. In a subcohort of tPA (alteplase)-treated patients with large vessel occlusion, the influence of early sustained recanalization and hemorrhagic transformation on ΔNIHSS was examined. Finally, the association of ΔNIHSS with 90-day favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) was assessed. Independent analysis was performed using data from the 2 NINDS-tPA stroke trials (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA).

Results: For 2555 patients with AIS, median baseline NIHSS was 9 (interquartile range, 4-16), and median ΔNIHSS was 2 (interquartile range, 0-5). In a multivariable model, baseline NIHSS, tPA-treatment, age, glucose, site, and systolic blood pressure independently predicted ΔNIHSS (R=0.15). In the large vessel occlusion subcohort, early sustained recanalization and hemorrhagic transformation increased the explained variance (R=0.27), but much of the variance remained unexplained. ΔNIHSS had a significant and independent association with 90-day favorable outcome. For the subjects in the 2 NINDS-tPA trials, ΔNIHSS was similarly associated with 90-day outcomes.

Conclusions: The dynamic phenotype, ΔNIHSS, captures both explained and unexplained mechanisms involved in AIS and is significantly and independently associated with long-term outcomes. Thus, ΔNIHSS promises to be an easily obtainable and meaningful quantitative phenotype for large-scale genomic studies of AIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.028687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769959PMC
January 2021

Hematoma expansion is more frequent in deep than lobar intracerebral hemorrhage.

Neurology 2020 12 20;95(24):e3386-e3393. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

From the Department of Neurology (D.R., A.B., W.R., J.G., M.S.V.E.), Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, and Department of Epidemiology (A.B., C.Y., M.S.V.E.), Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY; Department of Neurology (M.F., D.W.), University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center, OH; Department of Neurology (J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston; and Department of Neurology (F.T.), University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System, Chicago.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that patients with deep intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) would encounter hematoma expansion (HE) more frequently compared to patients with lobar ICH.

Methods: Patients with ICH with neuroimaging to calculate HE were analyzed from the multicenter Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) cohort. Patients with laboratory coagulopathy or preceding anticoagulant use were excluded to assess relationships of ICH location alone (deep vs lobar) with HE, defined as >33% relative growth. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for these relationships were estimated with logistic regression. Sensitivity and specificity determined HE thresholds best associated with poor 3-month outcomes (modified Rankin score 4-6) stratified by location.

Results: There were 1,049 patients with deep and 408 patients with lobar ICH analyzed. Deep ICH locations were more likely to have HE (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.29) after adjustment for age, sex, race, baseline hematoma size, and intraventricular hemorrhage. However, this difference was nonsignificant (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.81-2.24) after controlling for time from symptom onset to admission CT in a subgroup analysis of 729 patients with these data. Yet, the threshold of HE best associated with poor outcomes was smaller in deep (30%) compared to lobar (50%) ICH.

Conclusions: While HE was more frequent in deep than lobar ICH, this could be due to differences in symptom onset to admission CT times in our cohort. However, patients with deep ICH appear particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of small volumes of HE. Further studies should clarify whether ICH location needs to be considered in HE treatment paradigms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836660PMC
December 2020
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