Publications by authors named "Jonathan R Hiatt"

106 Publications

Persistence of Gender Bias Over Four Decades of Surgical Training.

J Surg Educ 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Surgery, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Objective: Female surgeons face gender-specific obstacles during residency training, yet longitudinal data on gender bias experienced by female surgery residents are lacking. We aimed to investigate the evolution of gender bias, identify obstacles experienced by female general surgery residents, and discuss approaches to supporting female surgeons during residency training.

Methods: Between August 2019 and January 2021, we conducted a retrospective cohort study using structured telephone interviews of female graduates of the UCLA General Surgery Residency training program. Responses of early graduates (1981-2009) were compared with those of recent graduates (2010-2020). Quantitative data were compared with Fisher's exact tests and Chi-squared tests. Interview responses were reviewed to catalog gender bias, obstacles experienced by female surgeons, and advice offered to training programs to address women's concerns.

Results: Of 61 female surgery residency graduates, 37 (61%) participated. Compared to early graduates (N = 20), recent graduates (N = 17) were significantly more likely to pursue fellowship training (100% vs. 65%, p < 0.01) and have children before or during residency (65% vs. 25%, p = 0.02). A substantial proportion in each cohort experienced some form of gender bias (71% vs. 85%, p = 0.43). Compared to early graduates, recent graduates were significantly less likely to report experiencing explicit gender bias (12% vs. 50%, p = 0.02) but equally likely to report implicit gender bias (71% vs. 55%, p = 0.50). Female graduates across the decades advocated for specific measures to champion work-life balance in residency (51%), strengthen female mentorship (49%), increase childcare support (41%), and promote women into leadership positions (32%).

Conclusions: While having children during residency has become more common and accepted over the decades, female surgery residents continue to experience implicit gender bias in the workplace. Female surgeons advocate for targeted interventions to establish systems for parental leave, address gender bias, and strengthen female mentorship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2021.06.008DOI Listing
July 2021

Simulation Use in Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Training for Residents.

Am J Med Qual 2021 Sep-Oct 01;36(5):371

Department of Surgery, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA Department of Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JMQ.0000751624.46076.c9DOI Listing
May 2021

When I'm 64 (Slices)-Prognostication in Geriatric Trauma.

JAMA Surg 2019 08;154(8):723-724

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2019.1011DOI Listing
August 2019

Assessment of Anastomotic Biliary Complications in Adult Patients Undergoing High-Acuity Liver Transplant.

JAMA Surg 2019 05;154(5):431-439

Dumont-UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Transplant and Liver Cancer Center, Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA.

Importance: Anastomotic biliary complications (ABCs) constitute the most common technical complications in liver transplant (LT). Given the ever-increasing acuity of LT, identification of factors contributing to ABCs is essential to minimize morbidity and optimize outcomes. A detailed analysis in a patient population undergoing high-acuity LT is lacking.

Objective: To evaluate the rate of, risk factors for, and outcomes of ABCs and acuity level in LT recipients.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study included adult LT recipients from January 1, 2013, through June 30, 2016, at a single large urban transplant center. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months after LT until June 30, 2017. Of 520 consecutive adult patients undergoing LT, 509 LTs in 503 patients were included. Data were analyzed from May 1 through September 13, 2017.

Exposure: Liver transplant.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Any complications occurring at the level of the biliary reconstruction.

Results: Among the 503 transplant recipients undergoing 509 LTs included in the analysis (62.3% male; median age, 58 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 50-63 years), median follow-up was 24 months (IQR, 16-34 months). Overall patient and graft survival at 1 year were 91.1% and 90.3%, respectively. The median Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 35 (IQR, 15-40) for the entire cohort. T tubes were used in 199 LTs (39.1%) during initial bile duct reconstruction. Overall incidence of ABCs included 103 LTs (20.2%). Anastomotic leak occurred in 25 LTs (4.9%) and stricture, 77 (15.1%). Exit-site leak in T tubes occurred in 36 (7.1%) and T tube obstruction in 16 (3.1%). Seventeen patients with ABCs required surgical revision of bile duct reconstruction. Multivariate analysis revealed the following 7 independent risk factors for ABCs: recipient hepatic artery thrombosis (odds ratio [OR], 12.41; 95% CI, 2.37-64.87; P = .003), second LT (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.13-14.50; P = .03), recipient hepatic artery stenosis (OR, 3.81; 95% CI, 1.30-11.17; P = .02), donor hypertension (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.27-6.11; P = .01), recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.23-5.74; P = .01), donor death due to anoxia (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.13-6.03; P = .03), and use of nonabsorbable suture material for biliary reconstruction (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.09-5.54; P = .03).

Conclusions And Relevance: This large, single-center series identified physiologic and anatomical independent risk factors contributing to ABCs after high-acuity LT. Careful consideration of these factors could guide perioperative management and mitigate potentially preventable ABCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2018.5527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537782PMC
May 2019

One Thousand Pediatric Liver Transplants During Thirty Years: Lessons Learned.

J Am Coll Surg 2018 04 2;226(4):355-366. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Pediatric liver transplantation (pLTx) has been the standard of care for children with liver failure since the 1980s. This study examined the world's largest single-center experience and aimed to identify unique preoperative predictors of early graft and patient survival for primary transplantation (1°-pLTx) and retransplantation (Re-pLTx).

Study Design: We conducted an IRB-approved, retrospective study of all consecutive, isolated pLTx patients 18 years of age or younger. Twenty-eight demographic, laboratory, and perioperative variables were analyzed as potential outcome predictors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using log-rank test and Cox's proportional hazards model.

Results: There were 806 children who received 1,016 isolated pLTx between February1984 and June 2017. Median follow-up was 12 years. Leading indications for pLTx were cholestatic liver disease (40%), re-pLTx (21%), and fulminant hepatic failure (14%). Seventy-three percent received cadaveric whole grafts. Overall graft and patient survival rates at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 years were: 76%, 73%, 67%, 63%, 53%, and 87%, 86%, 81%, 78%, 69%, respectively. Relative to 1°-pLTx, re-pLTx recipients were significantly older, larger, with worse renal function, and more likely to be awaiting pLTx in an ICU. Independent significant predictors of graft survival for 1°-pLTx included weight, transplantation era, and renal replacement therapy; for re-pLTx, warm ischemia time and time between 1°-pLTx and re-pLTx. Independent significant predictors of patient survival were renal function, mechanical ventilation, and etiology of liver disease.

Conclusions: This is the largest reported single-center experience of pLTx with substantial follow-up time and a large re-pLTx experience. Important transplant predictors of graft survival include weight, renal function, modern era, warm ischemia time, and time between primary transplantation and re-pLTx. Renal function, mechanical ventilation, and underlying cause of liver disease affect patient survival. Awareness of these factors can help in the decision making for children requiring pLTx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2017.12.042DOI Listing
April 2018

Evaluation of Early Allograft Function Using the Liver Graft Assessment Following Transplantation Risk Score Model.

JAMA Surg 2018 05;153(5):436-444

Dumont-UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Transplant and Liver Cancer Centers, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles.

Importance: Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) following a liver transplant (LT) unequivocally portends adverse graft and patient outcomes, but a widely accepted classification or grading system is lacking.

Objective: To develop a model for individualized risk estimation of graft failure after LT and then compare the model's prognostic performance with the existing binary EAD definition (bilirubin level of ≥10 mg/dL on postoperative day 7, international normalized ratio of ≥1.6 on postoperative day 7, or aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase level of >2000 U/L within the first 7 days) and the Model for Early Allograft Function (MEAF) score.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective single-center analysis used a transplant database to identify all adult patients who underwent a primary LT and had data on 10 days of post-LT laboratory variables at the Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center of the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA between February 1, 2002, and June 30, 2015. Data collection took place from January 4, 2016, to June 30, 2016. Data analysis was conducted from July 1, 2016, to August 30, 2017.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Three-month graft failure-free survival.

Results: Of 2021 patients who underwent primary LT over the study period, 2008 (99.4%) had available perioperative data and were included in the analysis. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of recipients was 56 (49-62) years, and 1294 recipients (64.4%) were men. Overall survival and graft-failure-free survival rates were 83% and 81% at year 1, 74% and 71% at year 3, and 69% and 65% at year 5, with an 11.1% (222 recipients) incidence of 3-month graft failure or death. Multivariate factors associated with 3-month graft failure-free survival included post-LT aspartate aminotransferase level, international normalized ratio, bilirubin level, and platelet count, measures of which were used to calculate the Liver Graft Assessment Following Transplantation (L-GrAFT) risk score. The L-GrAFT model had an excellent C statistic of 0.85, with a significantly superior discrimination of 3-month graft failure-free survival compared with the existing EAD definition (C statistic, 0.68; P < .001) and the MEAF score (C statistic, 0.70; P < .001). Compared with patients with lower L-GrAFT risk, LT recipients in the highest 10th percentile of L-GrAFT scores had higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores (median [IQR], 34 [26-40] vs 31 [25-38]; P = .005); greater need for pretransplant hospitalization (56.8% vs 44.8%; P = .003), renal replacement therapy (42.9% vs 30.5%; P < .001), mechanical ventilation (35.8% vs 18.1%; P < .001), and vasopressors (22.9% vs 11.0%; P < .001); longer cold ischemia times (median [IQR], 436 [311-539] vs 401 [302-506] minutes; P = .04); greater intraoperative blood transfusions (median [IQR], 17 [10-26] vs 10 [6-17] units of packed red blood cells; P < .001); and older donors (median [IQR] age, 47 [28-56] vs 41 [25-52] years; P < .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: The L-GrAFT risk score allows a highly accurate, individualized risk estimation of 3-month graft failure following LT that is more accurate than existing EAD and MEAF scores. Multicenter validation may allow for the adoption of the L-GrAFT as a tool for evaluating the need for a retransplant, for establishing standardized grading of early allograft function across transplant centers, and as a highly accurate clinical end point in translational studies aiming to mitigate ischemia or reperfusion injury by modulating donor quality and recipient factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2017.5040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6584313PMC
May 2018

The Timing of Reoperation for Incidental Gallbladder Cancer: Sooner or Later?

JAMA Surg 2017 02;152(2):149

Office of the Dean, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2016.3643DOI Listing
February 2017

Efficacy of retroperitoneal triple neurectomy for refractory neuropathic inguinodynia.

Am J Surg 2016 Dec 30;212(6):1126-1132. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, 1304 15th Street, Suite 102, Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Refractory neuropathic inguinodynia following inguinal herniorrhaphy is a common and debilitating complication. This prospective study evaluated long-term outcomes associated with laparoscopic retroperitoneal triple neurectomy.

Methods: Sixty-two consecutive patients (51 male; mean age, 47); all failing pain management; prior reoperation in 35, prior neurectomy in 26; average follow-up 681 days (range: 90 days to 3 years). Measured outcomes include numeric pain ratings, dermatomal mapping, histologic confirmation, quantitative sensory testing, complications, narcotic usage, and activity level.

Results: Mean numerical pain scores were significantly decreased (baseline, 8.6) at all postoperative time points (POD 1, 3.6; P < .001: POD 90, 2.3, P < .001) with durable efficacy from POD 90 to 3 years (P < .001). Quantitative sensory testing showed marked group-level increases of sensory thresholds. Narcotic dependence decreased in 57/62 and was eliminated in 44/62 and activity level improved in 58/62.

Conclusions: Retroperitoneal triple neurectomy is an effective and durable treatment for refractory neuropathic inguinodynia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2016.09.012DOI Listing
December 2016

Global Outreach Using a Systematic, Competency-Based Training Paradigm for Inguinal Hernioplasty.

JAMA Surg 2017 01;152(1):66-73

Hernia Repair for the Underserved, Omaha, Nebraska2Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: Sustainable, capacity-building educational collaborations are essential to address the global burden of surgical disease.

Objective: To assess an international, competency-based training paradigm for hernia surgery in underserved countries.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this prospective, observational study performed from November 1, 2013, through October 31, 2015, at 16 hospitals in Brazil, Ecuador, Haiti, Paraguay, and the Dominican Republic, surgeons completed initial training programs in hernia repair, underwent interval proficiency assessments, and were appointed regional trainers. Competency-based evaluations of technical proficiency were performed using the Operative Performance Rating Scale (OPRS). Maintenance of proficiency was evaluated by video assessments 6 months after training. Certified trainees received incentives to document independent surgical outcomes after training.

Main Outcomes And Measures: An OPRS score of 3.0 (scale of 1 [poor] to 5 [excellent]) indicated proficiency. Secondary outcomes included initial vs final scores by country, scores among surgeons trained by the regional trainers (second-order trainees), interval scores 6 months after training, and postoperative complications.

Results: A total of 20 surgeon trainers, 81 local surgeons, and 364 patients (343 adult, 21 pediatric) participated in the study (mean [SD] age, 47.5 [16.3] years; age range, 16-83 years). All 81 surgeons successfully completed the program, and all 364 patients received successful operations. Mean (SD) OPRS scores improved from 4.06 (0.87) before the initial training program to 4.52 (0.57) after training (P < .001). No significant variation was found by country in final scores. On trainee certification, 20 became regional trainers. The mean (SD) OPRS score among 53 second-order trainees was 4.34 (0.68). After 6-month intervals, the mean (SD) OPRS score among participating surgeons was 4.34 (0.55). The overall operative complication rate during training series was 1.1%.

Conclusions And Relevance: Competency-based training helps address the global burden of surgical disease. The OPRS establishes an international standard of technical assessment. Additional studies of long-term surgeon trainer proficiency, community-specific quality initiatives, and expansion to other operations are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2016.3323DOI Listing
January 2017

Evaluation of Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinomas That Do Not Produce α-Fetoprotein.

JAMA Surg 2017 01;152(1):55-64

Dumont-UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Transplant Center and Liver Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: Serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype and inferior outcomes after a liver transplant (LT). Data on the outcomes for patients with HCCs that do not produce AFP are limited.

Objective: To compare characteristics and outcomes among LT recipients with radiographically apparent HCC lesions with AFP-producing tumors or with tumors that do not produce AFP (hereafter referred to as non-AFP-producing tumors), and to identify factors influencing recurrence in LT recipients with non-AFP-producing tumors.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective analysis at a university transplant center of 665 adults with HCC who underwent an LT during the period from 1989 to 2013. Of the 665 LT recipients, 457 (68.7%) had AFP-producing tumors, and 208 (31.3%) had non-AFP-producing tumors (the maximum AFP level before an LT was ≤10 ng/mL). Dates of study analysis were from August 2015 to June 2016.

Intervention: Liver transplant.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Recurrence-free survival and recurrence rates.

Results: Patients with non-AFP-producing tumors had radiographic tumor characteristics similar to those of patients with AFP-producing tumors, but, pathologically, they had fewer lesions (25% vs 35% with >2 lesions; P = .03), smaller cumulative tumor diameters (4.2 vs 5.0 cm; P = .02), fewer microvascular (17% vs 22%) and macrovascular (2% vs 9%) invasions (P < .001), and fewer poorly differentiated tumors (15% vs 28%; P < .001). Patients with non-AFP-producing tumors also had significantly superior recurrence-free survival at 1, 3, and 5 years (88%, 74%, and 67% vs 76%, 59%, and 51%, respectively; P = .002) and lower 5-year recurrence rates (8.8% vs 22%; P < .001) than patients with AFP-producing tumors. When stratified by radiologic Milan criteria, 5-year survival was better, and recurrence lowest, among patients with non-AFP-producing tumors within the Milan criteria (71% survival and 6% recurrence), and survival was worse, and recurrence highest, for patients with AFP-producing tumors outside the Milan criteria (40% survival and 42% recurrence; P < .001). Significant predictors of recurrence among patients with non-AFP-producing tumors include radiologic (>2 tumors [HR, 4.98; 95% CI, 1.72-14.4; P = .003]; cumulative diameter [1.70 per log SD; 1.12-2.59; P < .001]; outside the Milan criteria [10.0; 3.7-33.3; P < .001) and pathologic factors (>2 tumors [4.39; 1.32-14.6; P = .02]; cumulative diameter [2.32 per log SD; 1.43-3.77; P = .001]; microvascular [3.07; 1.02-9.24; P = .05] and macrovascular invasion [8.75; 2.15-35.6; P = .002]).

Conclusions And Relevance: Nearly one-third of patients with radiographically apparent HCC have non-AFP-producing tumors that have more favorable pathologic characteristics, lower posttransplant recurrence, and superior survival compared with patients with AFP-producing tumors. Posttransplant HCC recurrence for patients with non-AFP-producing tumors is predicted by important radiologic and pathologic factors, and is negligible for patients within the Milan criteria. Stratifying patients by AFP status in addition to radiological criteria may improve the selection process for and the prioritization of transplant candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2016.3310DOI Listing
January 2017

Avoiding Futility in Simultaneous Liver-kidney Transplantation: Analysis of 331 Consecutive Patients Listed for Dual Organ Replacement.

Ann Surg 2017 05;265(5):1016-1024

*Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA †Department of Biomathematics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA ‡Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA §Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA ¶Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.

Objective: We sought to evaluate outcomes and predictors of renal allograft futility (RAF-patient death or need for renal replacement therapy at 3 months) after simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLKT).

Background: Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) prioritization of liver recipients with renal dysfunction has significantly increased utilization of SLKT. Data on renal outcomes after SLKT in the highest MELD recipients are scarce, as are accurate predictors of recovery of native kidney function. Without well-established listing guidelines, SLKT potentially wastes renal allografts in both high-acuity liver recipients at risk for early mortality and recipients who may regain native kidney function.

Methods: A retrospective single-center multivariate regression analysis was performed for adult patients undergoing SLKT (January 2004 to August 2014) to identify predictors of RAF.

Results: Of 331 patients dual-listed for SLKT, 171 (52%) expired awaiting transplant, 145 (44%) underwent SLKT, and 15 (5%) underwent liver transplantation alone. After SLKT, 39% experienced delayed graft function and 20.7% had RAF. Compared with patients without RAF, RAF recipients had greater MELD scores, length of hospitalization, intraoperative base deficit, incidence of female donors, kidney and liver donor risk indices, kidney cold ischemia, and inferior overall survival. Multivariate predictors of RAF included pretransplant dialysis duration, kidney cold ischemia, kidney donor risk index, and recipient hyperlipidemia.

Conclusions: With 20% short-term loss of transplanted kidneys after SLKT, our data strongly suggest that renal transplantation should be deferred in liver recipients at high risk for RAF. Consideration for a kidney allocation variance to allow for delayed renal transplantation after liver transplantation may prevent loss of scarce renal allografts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000001801DOI Listing
May 2017

Damage Control as a Strategy to Manage Postreperfusion Hemodynamic Instability and Coagulopathy in Liver Transplant.

JAMA Surg 2015 Nov;150(11):1066-72

Dumont-UCLA Liver Cancer and Transplant Centers, Pfleger Liver Institute, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: Damage control (DC) with intra-abdominal packing and delayed reconstruction is an accepted strategy in trauma and acute care surgery but has not been evaluated in liver transplant.

Objective: To evaluate the incidence, effect on survival, and predictors of the need for DC using intra-abdominal packing and delayed biliary reconstruction in patients with coagulopathy or hemodynamic instability after liver allograft reperfusion.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We performed a retrospective analysis of adults undergoing liver transplant at a large transplant center from February 1, 2002, through July 31, 2012.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Predictors of DC, effects on graft, and patient survival.

Results: Of 1813 patients, 150 (8.3%) underwent DC during liver transplant, with 84 (56.0%) requiring a single additional operation for biliary reconstruction and abdominal closure and 57 (38.0%) requiring multiple additional operations. Compared with recipients without DC, patients requiring DC had greater Model for End-stage Liver Disease scores (33 vs 27; P < .001); more frequent pretransplant hospitalization (72.0% vs 47.9%; P < .001), intubation (33.3% vs 19.9%; P < .001), vasopressors (23.2% vs 10.9%; P < .001), renal replacement therapy (49.6% vs 30.3%; P < .001), and prior major abdominal operations (48.3% vs 21.9%; P < .001), including prior liver transplant (29.3% vs 8.9%; P < .001); greater operative transfusion requirements (37 vs 13 units of packed red blood cells; P < .001); worse intraoperative base deficit (10.3 vs 8.4; P = .03); more frequent postreperfusion syndrome (56.2% vs 27.3%; P < .001); and longer cold (430 vs 404 minutes; P = .04) and warm (46 vs 41 minutes; P < .001) ischemia times. Patients who underwent DC followed by a single additional operation for biliary reconstruction and abdominal closure had similar 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival (71%, 62%, and 62% vs 81%, 71%, and 67%; P = .26) and patient survival (72%, 64%, and 64% vs 84%, 75%, and 70%; P = .15) compared with recipients not requiring DC. Multivariate predictors of DC included prior liver transplant or major abdominal operation, longer pretransplant recipient and donor length of stay, greater Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, and longer warm and cold ischemia times (C statistic, 0.75).

Conclusions And Relevance: To our knowledge, this study represents the first large report of DC as a viable strategy for liver transplant recipients with coagulopathy or hemodynamic instability after allograft reperfusion. In DC recipients not requiring additional operations, outcomes are excellent and comparable to 1-stage liver transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2015.1853DOI Listing
November 2015

Complete pathologic response to pretransplant locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma defines cancer cure after liver transplantation: analysis of 501 consecutively treated patients.

Ann Surg 2015 Sep;262(3):536-45; discussion 543-5

*Department of Surgery, Dumont-UCLA Transplant and Liver Cancer Centers, Los Angeles, CA; and Departments of †Radiology, and ‡Biomathematics, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA.

Objectives: To evaluate the rate, effect, and predictive factors of a complete pathologic response (cPR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing locoregional therapy (LRT) before liver transplantation (LT).

Background: Eligible patients with HCC receive equal model for end-stage liver disease prioritization, despite variable risks of tumor progression, waitlist dropout, and posttransplant recurrence. Pretransplant LRT mitigates these risks by inducing tumor necrosis.

Methods: Comparisons were made among HCC recipients with cPR (n = 126) and without cPR (n = 375) receiving pre-LT LRT (1994-2013). Multivariable predictors of cPR were identified.

Results: Of 501 patients, 272, 148, and 81 received 1, 2, and 3 or more LRT treatments. The overall, recurrence-free, and disease-specific survival at 1-, 3-, and 5 years was 86%, 71%, 63%; 84%, 67%, 60%; and 97%, 90%, 87%. Compared with recipients without cPR, cPR patients had significantly lower laboratory model for end-stage liver disease scores, pretransplant alpha fetoprotein, and cumulative tumor diameters; were more likely to have 1 lesion, tumors within Milan/University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria, LRT that included ablation, and a favorable tumor response to LRT; and had superior 1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence-free survival (92%, 79%, and 73% vs 81%, 63%, and 56%; P = 0.006) and disease-specific survival (100%, 100%, and 99% vs 96%, 89%, and 86%; P < 0.001) with only 1 cancer-specific death and fewer recurrences (2.4% vs 15.2%; P < 0.001). Multivariate predictors of cPR included a favorable post-LRT radiologic/alpha fetoprotein tumor response, longer time interval from LRT to LT, and lower model for end-stage liver disease score and maximum tumor diameter (C-statistic 0.75).

Conclusions: Achieving cPR in patients with HCC receiving LRT strongly predicts tumor-free survival. Factors predicting cPR are identified, allowing for differential prioritization of HCC recipients based on their variable risks of post-LT recurrence. Improving LRT strategies to maximize cPR would enhance posttransplant cancer outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000001384DOI Listing
September 2015

Weekday or Weekend Discharge-Does It Make a Difference?

JAMA Surg 2015 Sep;150(9):856-7

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2015.1092DOI Listing
September 2015

A novel prognostic nomogram accurately predicts hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation: analysis of 865 consecutive liver transplant recipients.

J Am Coll Surg 2015 Apr 27;220(4):416-27. Epub 2014 Dec 27.

Dumont-UCLA Transplant and Liver Cancer Centers, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Although radiologic size criteria (Milan/University of California, San Francisco [UCSF]) have led to improved outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), recurrence remains a significant challenge. We analyzed our 30-year experience with LT for HCC to identify predictors of recurrence.

Study Design: A novel clinicopathologic risk score and prognostic nomogram predicting post-transplant HCC recurrence was developed from a multivariate competing-risk Cox regression analysis of 865 LT recipients with HCC between 1984 and 2013.

Results: Overall patient and recurrence-free survivals were 83%, 68%, 60% and 79%, 63%, and 56% at 1-, 3-, and 5-years, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinoma recurred in 117 recipients, with a median time to recurrence of 15 months, involving the lungs (59%), abdomen/pelvis (38%), liver (35%), bone (28%), pleura/mediastinum (12%), and brain (5%). Multivariate predictors of recurrence included tumor grade/differentiation (G4/poor diff hazard ratio [HR] 8.86; G2-3/mod-poor diff HR 2.56), macrovascular (HR 7.82) and microvascular (HR 2.42) invasion, nondownstaged tumors outside Milan criteria (HR 3.02), nonincidental tumors with radiographic maximum diameter ≥ 5 cm (HR 2.71) and <5 cm (HR 1.55), and pretransplant neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (HR 1.77 per log unit), maximum alpha fetoprotein (HR 1.21 per log unit), and total cholesterol (HR 1.14 per SD). A pretransplantation model incorporating only known radiographic and laboratory parameters had improved accuracy in predicting HCC recurrence (C statistic 0.79) compared with both Milan (C statistic 0.64) and UCSF (C statistic 0.64) criteria alone. A novel clinicopathologic prognostic nomogram included explant pathology and had an excellent ability to predict post-transplant recurrence (C statistic 0.85).

Conclusions: In the largest single-institution experience with LT for HCC, excellent long-term survival was achieved. Incorporation of routine pretransplantation biomarkers to existing radiographic size criteria significantly improves the ability to predict post-transplant recurrence, and should be considered in recipient selection. A novel clinicopathologic prognostic nomogram accurately predicts HCC recurrence after LT and may guide frequency of post-transplantation surveillance and adjuvant therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.12.025DOI Listing
April 2015

Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: an updated review.

Arch Toxicol 2015 Feb 24;89(2):193-9. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

As the most common cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the USA and UK, acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity remains a significant public health concern and common indication for emergent liver transplantation. This problem is largely attributable to acetaminophen combination products frequently prescribed by physicians and other healthcare professionals, with unintentional and chronic overdose accounting for over 50 % of cases of acetaminophen-related ALF. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine can effectively reduce progression to ALF if given early after an acute overdose; however, liver transplantation is the only routinely used life-saving therapy once ALF has developed. With the rapid course of acetaminophen-related ALF and limited supply of donor livers, early and accurate diagnosis of patients that will require transplantation for survival is crucial. Efforts in developing novel treatments for acetaminophen-induced ALF are directed toward bridging patients to recovery. These include auxiliary, artificial, and bioartificial support systems. This review outlines the most recent developments in diagnosis and management of acetaminophen-induced ALF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-014-1432-2DOI Listing
February 2015

A real-time mobile web-based module promotes bidirectional feedback and improves evaluations of the surgery clerkship.

Am J Surg 2015 Jan 22;209(1):101-6. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, 10833 Le Conte Ave 72-235 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Background: We implemented a real-time mobile web-based reporting module for students in our surgery clerkship and evaluated its effect on student satisfaction and perceived abuse.

Methods: Third-year medical students in the surgery clerkship received surveys regarding intimidation, perceived abuse, satisfaction with clerkship resources, and interest in a surgical career. Survey data were analyzed to assess differences after implementing the mobile reporting system and to identify independent predictors of perceived abuse.

Results: With the reporting module, students perceived less intimidation by residents (P < .001) and by faculty (P = .008), greater satisfaction reporting feedback (P < .001), and greater interest in surgical careers (P = .003). Perceived abuse decreased without reaching statistical significance (P = .331). High ratings of intimidation by faculty independently predicted perceived abuse (odds ratio = 1.3), and satisfaction with anonymous reporting was a negative predictor (odds ratio = .2).

Conclusions: A mobile web-based system for real-time reporting fosters open communication and bidirectional feedback and promotes greater satisfaction with the surgery clerkship and interest in a surgical career.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2014.08.035DOI Listing
January 2015

Restoration of portal flow with a pericholedochal varix in adult living donor liver transplantation for patients with total portosplenomesenteric thrombosis.

Liver Transpl 2014 Dec;20(12):1530-1

Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.24040DOI Listing
December 2014

Reoperative complications after primary orthotopic liver transplantation: a contemporary single-center experience in the post-model for end-stage liver disease era.

J Am Coll Surg 2014 Nov 16;219(5):993-1000. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Dumont-UCLA Liver Cancer and Transplant Centers, Pfleger Liver Institute, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Data on complications requiring reoperation after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are limited. We sought to describe the spectrum of reoperative complications after OLT, evaluate the associations with graft and patient survival, and identify predictors of need for reoperation.

Study Design: We retrospectively studied adult patients who underwent primary OLT at our institution from February 2002 to July 2012. The primary outcomes included occurrence of a reoperative complication. Secondary outcomes were graft and patient survival. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to model the associations of recipient, donor, and operative variables with reoperation.

Results: Of 1,620 patients, 470 (29%) had complications requiring reoperation. The most common reoperative complication was bleeding (17.3%). Compared with patients not requiring reoperation, patients with reoperative complications had greater Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores and need for pretransplantation hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, and renal replacement therapy; considerably longer cold and warm ischemia times and greater intraoperative blood transfusion requirements; and substantially worse 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft and patient survival rates. In multivariable analysis, predictors of reoperative complications included intraoperative transfusion of packed RBCs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.91-2.56), donor length of hospitalization >8 days (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.28-2.73), recipient pretransplantation mechanical ventilation (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.21-2.24), cold ischemia time >9 hours (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.23-2.17), warm ischemia time >55 minutes (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.02-2.44), earlier major abdominal surgery (OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03-1.92), and elevated donor serum sodium (OR = 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31).

Conclusions: Patients who require reoperation for complications after OLT have high pretransplantation acuity and inferior post-transplantation survival. We identified factors associated with reoperative complications to guide perioperative donor-recipient matching and improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.07.005DOI Listing
November 2014

American surgery and the Affordable Care Act.

JAMA Surg 2014 Sep;149(9):984-5

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) attempts to change the way we finance and deliver health care by coordinating the delivery of primary, specialty, and hospital services in accountable care organizations. The ways in which accountable care organizations will develop and evolve is unclear; however, the effects on surgeons and their patients will be substantial. High-value care in the ACA emphasizes quality, safety, resource use and appropriateness, and the patient's experience of care. Payment will be linked to these principles. Department chairs overseeing a clinical enterprise in academic medical centers now must add financial and quality measures to the traditional missions of education, research, and clinical service. At a time when surgical training is in dramatic evolution, with work hour limitations for residents and an emphasis on quality, productivity, and increasing oversight of trainees for faculty, residency programs will need to meet the increasing demands of an aging population and newly insured patients under the ACA. The American College of Surgeons, with its century-long commitment to quality improvement, research-based standards, and performance measurement and verification, has begun its Inspiring Quality Campaign, is developing new educational tools, and is preparing proposals for payment reform based on surgeons' participation in quality programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1343DOI Listing
September 2014

A 20-year experience with liver transplantation for polycystic liver disease: does previous palliative surgical intervention affect outcomes?

J Am Coll Surg 2014 Oct 23;219(4):695-703. Epub 2014 May 23.

Department of Surgery, Dumont-UCLA Transplant and Liver Cancer Centers, Pfleger Liver Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Although it is the only curative treatment for polycystic liver disease (PLD), orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been reserved for severely symptomatic, malnourished, or refractory patients who are not candidates for palliative disease-directed interventions (DDI). Data on the effect of previous DDIs on post-transplant morbidity and mortality are scarce. We analyzed the outcomes after OLT for PLD recipients, and determined the effects of previous palliative surgical intervention on post-transplantation morbidity and mortality.

Study Design: We performed a retrospective analysis of factors affecting perioperative outcomes after OLT for PLD between 1992 and 2013, including comparisons of recipients with previous major open DDIs (Open DDI, n = 12) with recipients with minimally invasive or no previous DDIs (minimal DDI, n = 16).

Results: Over the 20-year period, 28 recipients underwent OLT for PLD, with overall 30-day, 1-, and 5-year graft and patient survivals of 96%, 89%, 75%, and 96%, 93%, 79%, respectively. Compared with the minimal DDI group, open DDI recipients accounted for all 5 deaths, had inferior 90-day and 1- and 5-year survivals (83%, 83%, and 48% vs 100%, 100%, 100%; p = 0.009), and greater intraoperative (42% vs 0%; p = 0.003), total (58% vs 19%; p = 0.031), and Clavien grade IV or greater (50% vs 6%; p = 0.007) postoperative complications, more unplanned reoperations (50% vs 13%; p = 0.003), and longer total hospital (27 days vs 17 days; p = 0.035) and ICU (10 days vs 4 days; p = 0.045) stays.

Conclusions: In one of the largest single-institution experiences of OLT for PLD, we report excellent long-term graft and patient survival. Previous open DDIs are associated with increased risks of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Improved identification of PLD patients bound for OLT may mitigate perioperative complications and potentially improve post-transplantation outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.03.058DOI Listing
October 2014

Assessment of resident operative performance using a real-time mobile Web system: preparing for the milestone age.

J Surg Educ 2014 Nov-Dec;71(6):e41-6. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Objective: To satisfy trainees' operative competency requirements while improving feedback validity and timeliness using a mobile Web-based platform.

Design: The Southern Illinois University Operative Performance Rating Scale (OPRS) was embedded into a website formatted for mobile devices. From March 2013 to February 2014, faculty members were instructed to complete the OPRS form while providing verbal feedback to the operating resident at the conclusion of each procedure. Submitted data were compiled automatically within a secure Web-based spreadsheet. Conventional end-of-rotation performance (CERP) evaluations filed 2006 to 2013 and OPRS performance scores were compared by year of training using serial and independent-samples t tests. The mean CERP scores and OPRS overall resident operative performance scores were directly compared using a linear regression model. OPRS mobile site analytics were reviewed using a Web-based reporting program.

Setting: Large university-based general surgery residency program.

Participants: General Surgery faculty used the mobile Web OPRS system to rate resident performance. Residents and the program director reviewed evaluations semiannually.

Results: Over the study period, 18 faculty members and 37 residents logged 176 operations using the mobile OPRS system. There were 334 total OPRS website visits. Median time to complete an evaluation was 45 minutes from the end of the operation, and faculty spent an average of 134 seconds on the site to enter 1 assessment. In the 38,506 CERP evaluations reviewed, mean performance scores showed a positive linear trend of 2% change per year of training (p = 0.001). OPRS overall resident operative performance scores showed a significant linear (p = 0.001), quadratic (p = 0.001), and cubic (p = 0.003) trend of change per year of clinical training, reflecting the resident operative experience in our training program. Differences between postgraduate year-1 and postgraduate year-5 overall performance scores were greater with the OPRS (mean = 0.96, CI: 0.55-1.38) than with CERP measures (mean = 0.37, CI: 0.34-0.41). Additionally, there were consistent increases in each of the OPRS subcategories.

Conclusions: In contrast to CERPs, the OPRS fully satisfies the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and American Board of Surgery operative assessment requirements. The mobile Web platform provides a convenient interface, broad accessibility, automatic data compilation, and compatibility with common database and statistical software. Our mobile OPRS system encourages candid feedback dialog and generates a comprehensive review of individual and group-wide operative proficiency in real time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2014.06.008DOI Listing
July 2015

Evaluation of hospital readmissions in surgical patients: do administrative data tell the real story?

JAMA Surg 2014 Aug;149(8):759-64

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)2Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California.

Importance: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services has developed an all-cause readmission measure that uses administrative data to measure readmission rates and financially penalize hospitals with higher-than-expected readmission rates.

Objectives: To examine the accuracy of administrative codes in determining the cause of readmission as determined by medical record review, to evaluate the readmission measure's ability to accurately identify a readmission as planned, and to document the frequency of readmissions for reasons clinically unrelated to the original hospital stay.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective review of all consecutive patients discharged from general surgery services at a tertiary care, university-affiliated teaching hospital during 8 consecutive quarters (quarter 4 [October through December] of 2009 through quarter 3 [July through September] of 2011). Clinical readmission diagnosis determined from direct medical record review was compared with the administrative diagnosis recorded in a claims database. The number of planned hospital readmissions defined by the readmission measure was compared with the number identified using clinical data. Readmissions unrelated to the original hospital stay were identified using clinical data.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Discordance rate between administrative and clinical diagnoses for all hospital readmissions, discrepancy between planned readmissions defined by the readmission measure and identified by clinical medical record review, and fraction of hospital readmissions unrelated to the original hospital stay.

Results: Of the 315 hospital readmissions, the readmission diagnosis listed in the administrative claims data differed from the clinical diagnosis in 97 readmissions (30.8%). The readmission measure identified 15 readmissions (4.8%) as planned, whereas clinical data identified 43 readmissions (13.7%) as planned. Unrelated readmissions comprised 70 of the 258 unplanned readmissions (27.1%).

Conclusions And Relevance: Administrative billing data, as used by the readmission measure, do not reliably describe the reason for readmission. The readmission measure accounts for less than half of the planned readmissions and does not account for the nearly one-third of readmissions unrelated to the original hospital stay. Implementation of this readmission measure may result in unwarranted financial penalties for hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2014.18DOI Listing
August 2014

Preventable readmissions to surgical services: lessons learned and targets for improvement.

J Am Coll Surg 2014 Sep 13;219(3):382-9. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA; VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Hospital readmissions are under intense scrutiny as a measure of health care quality. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has proposed using readmission rates as a benchmark for improving care, including targeting them as nonreimbursable events. Our study aim was to describe potentially preventable readmissions after surgery and to identify targets for improvement.

Study Design: Patients discharged from a general surgery service over 8 consecutive quarters (Q4 2009 to Q3 2011) were selected. A working group of attending surgeons defined terms and created classification schemes. Thirty-day readmissions were identified and reviewed by a 2-physician team. Readmissions were categorized as preventable or unpreventable, and by target for future quality improvement intervention.

Results: Overall readmission rate was 8.3% (315 of 3,789). The most common indication for initial admission was elective general surgery. Among readmitted patients in our sample, 28% did not undergo an operation during their index admission. Only 21% (55 of 258) of readmissions were likely preventable based on medical record review. Of the preventable readmissions, 38% of patients were discharged within 24 hours and 60% within 48 hours. Dehydration occurred more frequently among preventable readmissions (p < 0.001). Infection accounted for more than one-third of all readmissions. Among preventable readmissions, targets for improvement included closer follow-up after discharge (49%), management in the outpatient setting (42%), and avoidance of premature discharge (9%).

Conclusions: A minority of readmissions may potentially be preventable. Targets for reducing readmissions include addressing the clinical issues of infection and dehydration as well as improving discharge planning to limit both early and short readmissions. Policies aimed at penalizing reimbursements based on readmission rates should use clinical data to focus on inappropriate hospitalization in order to promote high quality patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.03.046DOI Listing
September 2014

B-type natriuretic peptide for the evaluation of volume status in elderly postoperative patients.

JAMA 2014 May;311(19):2017-8

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine of UCLA, Los Angeles, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.7300DOI Listing
May 2014

Shoring up the safety net.

Authors:
Jonathan R Hiatt

JAMA Surg 2014 Mar;149(3):236

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2013.3616DOI Listing
March 2014

Liver transplantation in highest acuity recipients: identifying factors to avoid futility.

Ann Surg 2014 Jun;259(6):1186-94

Department of *Surgery †The Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, and Departments of ‡Hepatology ¶Cardiology §Biomathematics, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles ∥Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Objective: To identify medical predictors of futility in recipients with laboratory Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores of 40 or more at the time of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).

Background: Although the survival benefit for transplant patients with the highest MELD scores is indisputable, the medical and economic effort to bring these highest acuity recipients through OLT presents a major challenge for every transplant center.

Methods: This study was undertaken to analyze outcomes in patients with MELD scores of 40 or more undergoing OLT during the period February 2002 to December 2010. The analysis was focused on futile outcome (3-month or in-hospital mortality) and long-term posttransplant outcome. Independent predictors of futility and failure-free survival were identified and a futility risk model was created.

Results: During the study period, 1522 adult cadaveric OLTs were performed, and 169 patients (13%) had a MELD score of 40 or more. The overall 1, 3, 5, and 8-year patient survivals were 72%, 64%, 60%, and 56%. Futile outcome occurred in 37 patients (22%). MELD score, pretransplant septic shock, cardiac risk, and comorbidities were independent predictors of futile outcome. Using all 4 factors, the futility risk model had a good discriminatory ability (c-statistic 0.75). Recipient age per year, life-threatening postoperative complications, hepatitis C, and metabolic syndrome were independent predictors for long-term survival in nonfutile patients (Harrels c-statistic 0.72).

Conclusions: Short- and long-term outcomes of recipients with MELD scores of 40 or more are primarily determined by disease-specific factors. Cardiac risk, pretransplant septic shock, and comorbidities are the most important predictors and can be used for risk stratification in these highest acuity recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000000265DOI Listing
June 2014

Liver transplantation in children using organ donation after circulatory death: a case-control outcomes analysis of a 20-year experience in a single center.

JAMA Surg 2014 Jan;149(1):77-82

Department of Surgery, Dumont-UCLA Liver Cancer and Transplant Centers, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: While orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a durable life-saving treatment for patients with irreversible liver disease, the waiting list mortality rate for children younger than 6 years is 4 times higher than for children aged 11 to 17 years and adults owing to scarce availability of size-appropriate grafts for transplantation.

Objective: To compare long-term outcomes for children (aged ≤18 years) undergoing OLT using grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) and donation after brain death (DBD).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective study using case-control matched groups at a university transplant center. All patients aged 18 years and younger who underwent OLT using DCD organs between February 1, 1990, and November 30, 2010, at the University of California, Los Angeles, were matched in a 1 to 3 ratio with patients who received primary OLT from DBD donors within a 12-month period. Other matching criteria included recipient age, weight, cause of liver disease, and acuity of illness. Outcomes after OLT were compared for DCD (n = 7) and DBD (n = 21) donors. The median follow-up was 4.5 years.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome measure was graft failure-free survival; the secondary end point was the development of ischemic cholangiopathy.

Results: Comparing DCD and DBD groups, recipient median age (28.4 vs 20.1 months, respectively; P = .80), weight (12.0 vs 11.6 kg, respectively; P = .87), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease/Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score (19 vs 11, respectively; P = .48), and donor age (24.0 vs 13.1 months, respectively; P = .72) were similar. For the DCD donors, the median donor warm ischemia duration was 24 minutes. Liver test results were similar for both groups at 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months following OLT. Ten-year patient and graft survival rates for both DCD and DBD were 100%. Neither ischemic cholangiopathy nor vascular complications occurred in the DCD group. Biliary anastomotic strictures occurred in 1 DCD patient and 3 DBD patients.

Conclusions And Relevance: Our study showed excellent long-term outcomes with liver transplantation in children using DCD organs. Use of liver grafts procured after circulatory death is an effective approach to expand the donor pool and remains an untapped resource for children with end-stage liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2013.3195DOI Listing
January 2014

Acute care surgery in heart transplant recipients.

Am Surg 2013 Oct;79(10):973-6

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is the optimal treatment for end-stage heart failure. We reviewed our institutional experience between 2008 and 2012 with acute care surgery (ACS) consultations and procedures within 1 year of OHT in recipients bridged to transplantation with medical therapy (MT, n = 169), including intravenous inotropes, and ventricular assist devices (VADs, n = 74). In total, 28 consultations were required in 21 patients (9%) and 16 procedures were performed in 11 patients (5%). The interval from transplantation to consultation was shorter for the MT group (50 vs 82 days; P = 0.015), whereas the interval from consultation to operation was longer (5 vs 1 day; P = 0.03). Patients undergoing MT were more likely to require consultation for abdominal problems (88 vs 27%; P = 0.004). All but one of the seven ischemic/inflammatory abdominal problems occurred in the MT group. Complications occurred after five ACS procedures (31%) in two patients undergoing MT and three patients undergoing VAD. Mortality was 24 per cent with five deaths occurring within 30 days of ACS consultation and/or operation. In summary, this is one of the largest series of ACS problems in patients undergoing OHT bridged to transplant with MT or VAD. With similar incidence in MT and VAD groups, ACS consultations and operations are infrequent with high mortality and morbidity.
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October 2013
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