Publications by authors named "Jonathan Gross"

44 Publications

Xylochemicals and where to find them.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128, Mainz, Germany.

This article surveys a range of important platform and high value chemicals that may be considered primary and secondary 'xylochemicals'. A summary of identified xylochemical substances and their natural sources is provided in tabular form. In detail, this review is meant to provide useful assistance for the consideration of potential synthetic strategies using xylochemicals, new methodologies and the development of potentially sustainable, xylochemistry-based processes. It should support the transition from petroleum-based approaches and help to move towards more sustainability within the synthetic community. This feasible paradigm shift is demonstrated with the total synthesis of natural products and active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as the preparation of organic molecules suitable for potential industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03512fDOI Listing
September 2021

Anti-inflammatory dihydroxanthones from a species.

Biol Chem 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Systems Biology, University of Kaiserslautern, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 23, D-67663Kaiserslautern, Germany.

In a search for anti-inflammatory compounds from fungi inhibiting the promoter activity of the small chemokine CXCL10 (Interferon-inducible protein 10, IP-10) as a pro-inflammatory marker gene, the new dihydroxanthone methyl (1, 2)-1,2,8-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-9-oxo-2,9-dihydro-1-xanthene-1-carboxylate () and the previously described dihydroxanthone AGI-B4 () were isolated from fermentations of a species. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by a combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and calculations using density functional theory (DFT). Compounds and inhibited the LPS/IFNγ induced CXCL10 promoter activity in transiently transfected human MonoMac6 cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC values of 4.1 µM (±0.2 µM) and 1.0 µM (±0.06 µM) respectively. Moreover, compounds and reduced mRNA levels and synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines in LPS/IFNγ stimulated MonoMac6 cells by interfering with the Stat1 and NFκB pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2021-0192DOI Listing
August 2021

A Web-Based Tool for Quantification of Potential Gains in Life Expectancy by Preventing Cause-Specific Mortality.

Front Public Health 2021 1;9:663825. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Local health departments are currently limited in their ability to use life expectancy (LE) as a benchmark for improving community health. In collaboration with the Baltimore City Health Department, our aim was to develop a web-based tool to estimate the potential lives saved and gains in LE in specific neighborhoods following interventions targeting achievable reductions in preventable deaths. The PROLONGER (Imved vity through eductions in Cause-Specific Deaths) tool utilizes a novel Lives Saved Simulation model to estimate neighborhood-level potential change in LE after specified reduction in cause-specific mortality. This analysis uses 2012-2016 deaths in Baltimore City residents; a 20% reduction in heart disease mortality is shown as a case study. According to PROLONGER, if heart disease deaths could be reduced by 20% in a given neighborhood in Baltimore City, there could be up to a 2.3-year increase in neighborhood LE. The neighborhoods with highest expected LE increase are not the same as those with highest heart disease mortality burden or lowest overall life expectancies. PROLONGER is a practical resource for local health officials in prioritizing scarce resources to improve health outcomes. Focusing programs based on potential LE impact at the neighborhood level could lend new information for targeting of place-based public health interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.663825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280746PMC
August 2021

Designing Codes around Interactions: The Case of a Spin.

Authors:
Jonathan A Gross

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jul;127(1):010504

Institut quantique et Départment de Physique, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec J1K 2R1, Canada.

I present a new approach for designing quantum error-correcting codes guaranteeing a physically natural implementation of Clifford operations. Inspired by the scheme put forward by Gottesman, Kitaev, and Preskill for encoding a qubit in an oscillator in which Clifford operations may be performed via Gaussian unitaries, this approach yields new schemes for encoding a qubit in a large spin in which single-qubit Clifford operations may be performed via spatial rotations. I construct all possible examples of such codes, provide universal-gate-set implementations using quadratic angular-momentum Hamiltonians, and derive criteria for when these codes exactly correct physically relevant errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.010504DOI Listing
July 2021

MRI-Derived Sarcopenia Associated with Increased Mortality Following Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Health, 660 First Avenue, 3rd Floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the influence of sarcopenia on survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with Y radioembolization.

Materials And Methods: This single-center retrospective cohort study analyzed 82 consecutive patients (65 men and 17 women, mean age 65 years, range 31-83 years) with HCC treated with Y radioembolization between December 2013 and December 2017. Sarcopenia was assessed on pre-procedure MRI performed within 100 days prior to Y radioembolization by segmenting the paraspinal musculature at the level of the superior mesenteric artery origin and subtracting fat-intensity pixels to yield fat-free muscle area (FFMA). Sarcopenia was defined as FFMA ≤31.97 cm for men and ≤28.95 cm for women. Survival at 90 days, 180 days, 1 year, and 3 years following initial treatment was assessed using medical and public obituary records.

Results: Sarcopenia was identified in 30% (25/82) of patients. Death was reported for 49% (32/65) of males and 71% (8/17) of females (mean follow-up 19.6 months, range 21 days-58 months). Patients with sarcopenia were found to have increased mortality at 180 days (31.8% vs. 8.9%) and 1 year (68.2% vs. 21.2%). Sarcopenia was an independent predictor of mortality adjusted for BCLC stage and sub-analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia independently predicted increased mortality for patients with BCLC stage B disease.

Conclusion: Sarcopenia was associated with increased 180-day and 1-year mortality in HCC patients undergoing Y radioembolization. Sarcopenia was an independent predictor of survival adjusted for BCLC stage with significant deviation in the survival curves of BCLC stage B patients with and without sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-021-02874-6DOI Listing
June 2021

The Environmental Impact of Interventional Radiology: An Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from an Academic Interventional Radiology Practice.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2021 06 29;32(6):907-915.e3. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Purpose: To calculate the volume of greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated by a hospital-based interventional radiology (IR) department.

Materials And Methods: Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to calculate GHGs emitted by an IR department at a tertiary care academic medical center. The volume of waste generated, amount of disposable supplies and linens used, and the operating times of electrical equipment were recorded for procedures performed between 7:00 AM and 7:00 PM on 5 consecutive weekdays. LCA was then performed using purchasing data, plug loads for electrical hardware, data from temperature control units, and estimates of emissions related to travel in the area surrounding the medical center.

Results: Ninety-eight procedures were performed on 97 patients. The most commonly performed procedures were drainages (30), placement and removal of venous access (21), and computed tomography-guided biopsies (13). Approximately 23,500 kg COe were emitted during the study. Sources of CO emissions in descending order were related to indoor climate control (11,600 kg COe), production and transportation of disposable surgical items (9,640 kg COe), electricity plug load for equipment and lighting (1,060 kg COe), staff transportation (524 kg COe), waste disposal (426 kg COe), production, laundering, and disposal of linens (279 kg COe), and gas anesthetics (19.3 kg COe).

Conclusions: The practice of IR generates substantial GHG volumes, a majority of which come from energy used to maintain climate control, followed by emissions related to single-use surgical supplies. Efforts to reduce the environmental impact of IR may be focused accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2021.03.531DOI Listing
June 2021

Dynamics of Adaptation During Three Years of Evolution Under Long-Term Stationary Phase.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 06;38(7):2778-2790

Rachel & Menachem Mendelovitch Evolutionary Processes of Mutation & Natural Selection Research Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Many bacterial species that cannot sporulate, such as the model bacterium Escherichia coli, can nevertheless survive for years, following exhaustion of external resources, in a state termed long-term stationary phase (LTSP). Here we describe the dynamics of E. coli adaptation during the first three years spent under LTSP. We show that during this time, E. coli continuously adapts genetically through the accumulation of mutations. For nonmutator clones, the majority of mutations accumulated appear to be adaptive under LTSP, reflected in an extremely convergent pattern of mutation accumulation. Despite the rapid and convergent manner in which populations adapt under LTSP, they continue to harbor extensive genetic variation. The dynamics of evolution of mutation rates under LTSP are particularly interesting. The emergence of mutators affects overall mutation accumulation rates as well as the mutational spectra and the ultimate spectrum of adaptive alleles acquired under LTSP. With time, mutators can evolve even higher mutation rates through the acquisition of additional mutation rate-enhancing mutations. Different mutator and nonmutator clones within a single population and time point can display extreme variation in their mutation rates, resulting in differences in both the dynamics of adaptation and their associated deleterious burdens. Despite these differences, clones that vary greatly in their mutation rates tend to coexist within their populations for many years, under LTSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233507PMC
June 2021

Diels-Alder reaction of β-fluoro-β-nitrostyrenes with cyclic dienes.

Beilstein J Org Chem 2021 27;17:283-292. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation.

The Diels-Alder reaction of β-fluoro-β-nitrostyrenes with cyclic 1,3-dienes was investigated. A series of novel monofluorinated norbornenes was prepared in up to 97% yield. The reaction with 1,3-cyclohexadiene permits the preparation of monofluorinated bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-enes. The kinetic data of the reactions with 1,3-cyclopentadiene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene were used to calculate activation parameters. Furthermore, the synthetic utility of the cycloadducts obtained was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.17.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849230PMC
January 2021

Intragastric Balloon Improves Steatohepatitis and Fibrosis.

ACG Case Rep J 2021 Jan 15;8(1):e00534. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Obesity is a major risk factor for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although weight loss has been shown to reverse histologic features of NASH, lifestyle intervention alone is often challenging and unfeasible. In this case report, we discuss the effects of intragastric balloon (IGB) therapy on steatosis, fibrosis, and portal pressures. We also demonstrate that improvement in histologic features persist at least 6 months after IGB removal. Although there are little data thus far to support IGB therapy in the treatment of NASH, our case provides evidence of the potential benefit of IGB on improving metabolic parameters and markers of liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/crj.0000000000000534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810505PMC
January 2021

Culture Volume Influences the Dynamics of Adaptation under Long-Term Stationary Phase.

Genome Biol Evol 2020 12;12(12):2292-2301

Rachel & Menachem Mendelovitch Evolutionary Processes of Mutation & Natural Selection Research Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel.

Escherichia coli and many other bacterial species, which are incapable of sporulation, can nevertheless survive within resource exhausted media by entering a state termed long-term stationary phase (LTSP). We have previously shown that E. coli populations adapt genetically under LTSP in an extremely convergent manner. Here, we examine how the dynamics of LTSP genetic adaptation are influenced by varying a single parameter of the experiment-culture volume. We find that culture volume affects survival under LTSP, with viable counts decreasing as volumes increase. Across all volumes, mutations accumulate with time, and the majority of mutations accumulated demonstrate signals of being adaptive. However, positive selection appears to affect mutation accumulation more strongly at higher, compared with lower volumes. Finally, we find that several similar genes are likely involved in adaptation across volumes. However, the specific mutations within these genes that contribute to adaptation can vary in a consistent manner. Combined, our results demonstrate how varying a single parameter of an evolutionary experiment can substantially influence the dynamics of observed adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evaa210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719224PMC
December 2020

Essentials of Insulinoma Localization with Selective Arterial Calcium Stimulation and Hepatic Venous Sampling.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 25;9(10). Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, Room 318, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10023, USA.

Insulinomas are the most common functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Most insulinomas can be localized non-invasively with cross-sectional and nuclear imaging. Selective arterial calcium stimulation and hepatic venous sampling is an effective and safe minimally-invasive procedure for insulinoma localization that may be utilized when non-invasive techniques are inconclusive. The procedure's technical success and proper interpretation of its results is dependent on the interventional radiologist's knowledge of normal and variant pancreatic arterial perfusion. Accurate pre-operative localization aids in successful surgical resection. Technical and anatomic considerations of insulinoma localization with selective arterial calcium stimulation and hepatic venous sampling are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601191PMC
September 2020

Bias-preserving gates with stabilized cat qubits.

Sci Adv 2020 Aug 21;6(34). Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

The code capacity threshold for error correction using biased-noise qubits is known to be higher than with qubits without such structured noise. However, realistic circuit-level noise severely restricts these improvements. This is because gate operations, such as a controlled-NOT (CX) gate, which do not commute with the dominant error, unbias the noise channel. Here, we overcome the challenge of implementing a bias-preserving CX gate using biased-noise stabilized cat qubits in driven nonlinear oscillators. This continuous-variable gate relies on nontrivial phase space topology of the cat states. Furthermore, by following a scheme for concatenated error correction, we show that the availability of bias-preserving CX gates with moderately sized cats improves a rigorous lower bound on the fault-tolerant threshold by a factor of two and decreases the overhead in logical Clifford operations by a factor of five. Our results open a path toward high-threshold, low-overhead, fault-tolerant codes tailored to biased-noise cat qubits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay5901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442480PMC
August 2020

Delayed Radial Nerve Palsy After Nonoperative Treatment of Humeral Shaft Fractures: A Report of 2 Cases.

JBJS Case Connect 2020 Jul-Sep;10(3):e1900611

1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Staten Island University Hospital, Northwell Health, Staten Island, New York.

Case: Two patients who developed radial nerve palsy at least 6 weeks after injury during nonoperative treatment of humeral shaft fractures. This complication was associated with external bracing, progressive varus angulation during treatment, and excess callus formation.

Conclusion: Delayed radial nerve palsy may develop during nonoperative treatment of humeral shaft fractures when functional bracing fails to maintain alignment and stability at the fracture site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.19.00611DOI Listing
April 2021

Yttrium-90 Radioembolization in the Office-Based Lab.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2020 Sep 14;31(9):1442-1448. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Radiology, Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology, NYU Langone Health, 660 First Ave, Suite 300, New York, NY 10016.

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and benefits of performing yttrium-90 radioembolization in an office-based lab (OBL) compared to a hospital setting.

Materials And Methods: A radioembolization program was established in March 2019 in an OBL that is managed by the radiology department of a tertiary care center. Mapping and treatment angiograms performed in the OBL from March 2019 through January 2020 were compared to mapping and treatment angiograms performed in the hospital during the same time period.

Results: One hundred seventy-six mapping and treatment angiograms were evaluated. There was no difference in the proportion of mapping versus treatment angiograms performed at each site, the proportion of lobar versus selective dose vial administrations, or the mean number of dose vials administered per treatment procedure. Procedure start delays were longer in the hospital than in the OBL (28.6 minutes vs 0.8 minutes; P < .0001), particularly for procedures that were not scheduled as the first case of the day (hospital later case delay, 38.8 minutes vs OBL later case delay, 0.5 minutes; P < .0001). Procedures performed in the hospital took longer on average than procedures performed in the OBL (2 hours, 1.8 minutes vs 1 hour, 44.4 minutes; P = .0004), particularly for procedures that were not scheduled as the first case of the day (hospital later case duration, 2 hours, 7.4 minutes vs OBL later case duration, 1 hour, 43 minutes; P = .0006).

Conclusions: Establishing a radioembolization program within an OBL is feasible and might provide more efficient procedure scheduling than the hospital setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2020.05.002DOI Listing
September 2020

Structure, Biosynthesis, and Bioactivity of Photoditritide from Meg1.

J Nat Prod 2019 12 4;82(12):3499-3503. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Institute of Organic Chemistry , Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz , 55128 Mainz , Germany.

A new cyclic peptide photoditritide (), containing two rare amino acid d-homoarginine residues, was isolated from Meg1 after the nonribosomal peptide synthetase encoding gene was activated via promoter exchange. The structure of was elucidated by HR-MS and NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of amino acids were determined according to the advanced Marfey's method after hydrolysis of . Bioactivity testing of revealed potent antimicrobial activity against with an MIC value of 3.0 μM and weak antiprotozoal activity against with an IC value of 13 μM. Additionally, the biosynthetic pathway of was also proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00932DOI Listing
December 2019

Association Between Endoscopic and Histologic Findings in a Multicenter Retrospective Cohort of Patients with Non-esophageal Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 07 26;65(7):2024-2035. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Center for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing and Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, CB #7080, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Background: Little is known about the endoscopic and histologic findings of non-esophageal eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGID).

Aim: To characterize the presenting endoscopic and histologic findings in patients with eosinophilic gastritis (EG), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), and eosinophilic colitis (EC) at diagnosis and 6 months after initiating the treatment.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at 6 US centers associated with the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Researchers. Data abstracted included demographics, endoscopic findings, tissue eosinophil counts, and associated histologic findings at diagnosis and, when available, after initial treatment.

Results: Of 373 subjects (317 children and 56 adults), 142 had EG, 123 EGE, and 108 EC. Normal endoscopic appearance was the most common finding across all EGIDs (62% of subjects). Baseline tissue eosinophil counts were quantified in 105 (74%) EG, 36 (29%) EGE, and 80 (74%) EC subjects. The mean peak gastric eosinophil count across all sites was 87 eos/hpf for EG and 78 eos/hpf for EGE. The mean peak colonic eosinophil count for EC subjects was 76 eos/hpf (range 10-500). Of the 29% of subjects with post-treatment follow-up, most had an improvement in clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings regardless of treatment utilized. Reductions in tissue eosinophilia correlated with improvements in clinical symptoms as well as endoscopic and histologic findings.

Conclusions: In this large cohort, normal appearance was the most common endoscopic finding, emphasizing the importance of biopsy, regardless of endoscopic appearance. Decreased tissue eosinophilia was associated with improvement in symptoms, endoscopic, and histologic findings, showing that disease activity is reversible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05961-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315780PMC
July 2020

Making natural products from renewable feedstocks: back to the roots?

Nat Prod Rep 2020 03;37(3):380-424

Institute of Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Covering: up to mid-2019 This review highlights the utilization of biomass-derived building blocks in the total synthesis of natural products. An overview over several renewable feedstock classes, namely wood/lignin, cellulose, chitin and chitosan, fats and oils, as well as terpenes, is given, covering the time span from the initial beginning of natural product synthesis until today. The focus is put on the origin of the employed carbon atoms and on the nature of the complex structures that were assembled therefrom. The emerging trend of turning away from petrochemically derived starting materials back to bio-based resources, just as seen in the early days of total synthesis, shall be demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9np00040bDOI Listing
March 2020

Persistent Basal Cell Hyperplasia Is Associated With Clinical and Endoscopic Findings in Patients With Histologically Inactive Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 06 6;18(7):1475-1482.e1. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Gastroenterology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; University of Pennsylvania Abramson Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Although eosinophil count is the standard used to monitor disease activity in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), there are often disparities between patient-reported symptoms and eosinophil counts. We examined the prevalence of epithelial alterations, namely basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) and spongiosis, among patients with inactive EoE (eosinophil counts below 15 following therapy) and aimed to determine whether maintenance of these changes in epithelial morphology are associated with persistent clinical findings.

Methods: Esophageal biopsies of 243 patients (mean age, 16.9 years) undergoing routine endoscopy at the University of Pennsylvania were evaluated for epithelial BCH and spongiosis. Univariable analysis was used to calculate the association between epithelial changes and symptoms as well as endoscopic findings and peak eosinophil count. We validated our findings using data from a cohort of patients at the University of North Carolina.

Results: The discovery and validation cohorts each included patients with inactive EoE, based on histologic factors, but ongoing BCH and spongiosis. Ongoing BCH, but not spongiosis, in patients with inactive EoE was associated with symptoms (odds ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.03-4.42; P = .041) and endoscopic findings (odds ratio, 7.10; 95% CI, 3.12-16.18; P < .001).

Conclusions: In patients with EoE, the presence of BCH might indicate ongoing disease activity, independent of eosinophil count. This might account for the persistent symptoms in patients who are considered to be in remission based on histologic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2019.08.055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058491PMC
June 2020

Burnout among Interventional Radiologists.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2020 Apr 22;31(4):607-613.e1. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Inova Alexandria Hospital, 4320 Seminary Road, Alexandria, VA 22304. Electronic address:

Purpose: To characterize burnout, as defined by high emotional exhaustion (EE) or depersonalization (DP), among interventional radiologists using a validated assessment tool.

Materials And Methods: An anonymous 34-question survey was distributed to interventional radiologists. The survey consisted of demographic and practice environment questions and the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI). Interventional radiologists with high scores on EE (≥ 27) or DP (≥ 10) MBI subscales were considered to have a manifestation of career burnout.

Results: Beginning on January 7, 2019, 339 surveys were completed over 31 days. Of respondents, 263 (77.6%) identified as male, 75 (22.1%) identified as female, and 1 (0.3%) identified as trans-male. The respondents were interventional radiology attending physicians (298; 87.9%), fellows (20; 5.9%), and residents (21; 6.2%) practicing at academic (136; 40.1%), private (145; 42.8%), and hybrid (58; 17.1%) centers. Respondents worked < 40 hours (15; 4.4%), 40-60 hours (225; 66.4%), 60-80 hours (81; 23.9%), and > 80 hours (18; 5.3%) per week. Mean MBI scores for EE, DP, and personal achievement were 30.0 ± 13.0, 10.6 ± 6.9, and 39.6 ± 6.6. Burnout was present in 244 (71.9%) participants. Identifying as female (odds ratio 2.4; P = .009) and working > 80 hours per week (odds ratio 7.0; P = .030) were significantly associated with burnout.

Conclusions: Burnout is prevalent among interventional radiologists. Identifying as female and working > 80 hours per week were strongly associated with burnout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2019.06.002DOI Listing
April 2020

Increasing Rates of Diagnosis, Substantial Co-Occurrence, and Variable Treatment Patterns of Eosinophilic Gastritis, Gastroenteritis, and Colitis Based on 10-Year Data Across a Multicenter Consortium.

Am J Gastroenterol 2019 06;114(6):984-994

Center for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing and Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: The literature related to eosinophilic gastritis (EG), gastroenteritis (EGE), and colitis (EC) is limited. We aimed to characterize rates of diagnosis, clinical features, and initial treatments for patients with EG, EGE, and EC.

Methods: In this retrospective study, data were collected from 6 centers in the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Researchers from 2005 to 2016. We analyzed demographics, time trends in diagnosis, medical history, presenting symptoms, disease overlap, and initial treatment patterns/responses.

Results: Of 373 subjects (317 children and 56 adults), 38% had EG, 33% EGE, and 29% EC. Rates of diagnosis of all diseases increased over time. There was no male predominance, and the majority of subjects had atopy. Presenting symptoms were similar between diseases with nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain, the most common. One hundred fifty-four subjects (41%) had eosinophilic inflammation outside of their primary disease location with the esophagus the second most common gastrointestinal (GI) segment involved. Multisite inflammation was more common in children than in adults (68% vs 37%; P < 0.001). Initial treatment patterns varied highly between centers. One hundred-nine subjects (29%) had follow-up within 6 months, and the majority had clinical, endoscopic, and histologic improvements.

Conclusions: In this cohort, EG, EGE, and EC were diagnosed more frequently over time, and inflammation of GI segments outside the primary disease site co-occurrence of atopy was common with a lack of male predominance. Symptoms were similar between diseases, and initial treatment strategies were highly variable. Future investigation should assess the cause of the increased prevalence of eosinophilic GI disorders and prospectively assess outcomes to establish treatment algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6554065PMC
June 2019

Fibrostenotic eosinophilic esophagitis might reflect epithelial lysyl oxidase induction by fibroblast-derived TNF-α.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 07 20;144(1):171-182. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Philadelphia, Pa; Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Electronic address:

Background: Fibrosis and stricture are major comorbidities in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Lysyl oxidase (LOX), a collagen cross-linking enzyme, has not been investigated in the context of EoE.

Objective: We investigated regulation of epithelial LOX expression as a novel biomarker and functional effector of fibrostenotic disease conditions associated with EoE.

Methods: LOX expression was analyzed by using RNA-sequencing, PCR assays, and immunostaining in patients with EoE; cytokine-stimulated esophageal 3-dimensional organoids; and fibroblast-epithelial cell coculture, the latter coupled with fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

Results: Gene ontology and pathway analyses linked TNF-α and LOX expression in patients with EoE, which was validated in independent sets of patients with fibrostenotic conditions. TNF-α-mediated epithelial LOX upregulation was recapitulated in 3-dimensional organoids and coculture experiments. We find that fibroblast-derived TNF-α stimulates epithelial LOX expression through activation of nuclear factor κB and TGF-β-mediated signaling. In patients receiver operating characteristic analyses suggested that LOX upregulation indicates disease complications and fibrostenotic conditions in patients with EoE.

Conclusions: There is a novel positive feedback mechanism in epithelial LOX induction through fibroblast-derived TNF-α secretion. Esophageal epithelial LOX might have a role in the development of fibrosis with substantial translational implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.10.067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586527PMC
July 2019

Two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of coarse-grained poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) adsorbed on striped substrates.

J Chem Phys 2018 Oct;149(14):144903

Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Postfach 100 920, 04009 Leipzig, Germany.

We investigate the structural phases of single poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymers that are adsorbed on a two-dimensional substrate with a striped pattern. We use a coarse-grained representation of the polymer and sophisticated Monte Carlo techniques such as a parallelized replica exchange scheme and local as well as non-local updates to the polymer's configuration. From peaks in the canonically derived observables, it is possible to obtain structural phase diagrams for varying substrate parameters. We find that the shape of the stripe pattern has a substantial effect on the obtained configurations of the polymer and can be tailored to promote either more stretched out or more compact configurations. In the compact phases, we observe different structural motifs, such as hairpins, double-hairpins, and interlocking "zipper" states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5046383DOI Listing
October 2018

Optimal and secure measurement protocols for quantum sensor networks.

Phys Rev A (Coll Park) 2018 ;97

Joint Quantum Institute, NIST/University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

Studies of quantum metrology have shown that the use of many-body entangled states can lead to an enhancement in sensitivity when compared with unentangled states. In this paper, we quantify the metrological advantage of entanglement in a setting where the measured quantity is a linear function of parameters individually coupled to each qubit. We first generalize the Heisenberg limit to the measurement of nonlocal observables in a quantum network, deriving a bound based on the multiparameter quantum Fisher information. We then propose measurement protocols that can make use of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states or spin-squeezed states and show that in the case of GHZ states the protocol is optimal, i.e., it saturates our bound. We also identify nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging as a promising setting for this technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.97.042337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6513338PMC
January 2018

Youth Violence Prevention: Local Public Health Approach.

J Public Health Manag Pract 2017 Nov/Dec;23(6):641-643

Public Health Programs, National Association of County & City Health Officials, Washington, District of Columbia (Mss Tibbs, Carr, Ruhe, Keitt, and Bryant); and Safe Streets Baltimore (Ms Layne) and Office of Youth Violence Prevention (Mr Gross), Baltimore City Health Department, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000000687DOI Listing
April 2019

Diagnostic accuracy of tablet-based software for the detection of concussion.

PLoS One 2017 7;12(7):e0179352. Epub 2017 Jul 7.

BrainCheck, Inc, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Despite the high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there are few rapid and straightforward tests to improve its assessment. To this end, we developed a tablet-based software battery ("BrainCheck") for concussion detection that is well suited to sports, emergency department, and clinical settings. This article is a study of the diagnostic accuracy of BrainCheck. We administered BrainCheck to 30 TBI patients and 30 pain-matched controls at a hospital Emergency Department (ED), and 538 healthy individuals at 10 control test sites. We compared the results of the tablet-based assessment against physician diagnoses derived from brain scans, clinical examination, and the SCAT3 test, a traditional measure of TBI. We found consistent distributions of normative data and high test-retest reliability. Based on these assessments, we defined a composite score that distinguishes TBI from non-TBI individuals with high sensitivity (83%) and specificity (87%). We conclude that our testing application provides a rapid, portable testing method for TBI.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179352PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5501428PMC
October 2017

Percutaneous radiologically guided gastrostomy tube placement: comparison of antegrade transoral and retrograde transabdominal approaches.

Diagn Interv Radiol 2017 Jan-Feb;23(1):55-60

Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: We aimed to compare the antegrade transoral and the retrograde transabdominal approaches for fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement.

Methods: Following institutional review board approval, all G-tubes at two academic hospitals (January 2014 to May 2015) were reviewed retrospectively. Retrograde approach was used at Hospital 1 and both antegrade and retrograde approaches were used at Hospital 2. Chart review determined type of anesthesia used during placement, dose of radiation used, fluoroscopy time, procedure time, medical history, and complications.

Results: A total of 149 patients (64 women, 85 men; mean age, 64.4±1.3 years) underwent G-tube placement, including 93 (62%) placed via the retrograde transabdominal approach and 56 (38%) placed via the antegrade transoral approach. Retrograde placement entailed fewer anesthesiology consultations (P < 0.001), less overall procedure time (P = 0.023), and less fluoroscopy time (P < 0.001). A comparison of approaches for placement within the same hospital demonstrated that the retrograde approach led to significantly reduced radiation dose (P = 0.022). There were no differences in minor complication rates (13%-19%; P = 0.430), or major complication rates (6%-7%; P = 0.871) between the two techniques.

Conclusion: G-tube placement using the retrograde transabdominal approach is associated with less fluoroscopy time, procedure time, radiation exposure, and need for anesthesiology consultation with similar safety profile compared with the antegrade transoral approach. Additionally, it is hypothesized that decreased procedure time and anesthesiology consultation using the transoral approach are likely associated with reduced cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/dir.2016.15626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5214078PMC
May 2017

Unexpected Angiography Findings and Effects on Management.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2016 1;6:33. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Despite progress in noninvasive imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, conventional angiography still contributes to the diagnostic workup of oncologic and other diseases. Arteriography can reveal tumors not evident on cross-sectional imaging, in addition to defining aberrant or unexpected arterial supply to targeted lesions. This additional and potentially unanticipated information can alter management decisions during interventional procedures.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5029115PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2156-7514.189727DOI Listing
October 2016

Fisher-Symmetric Informationally Complete Measurements for Pure States.

Phys Rev Lett 2016 May 5;116(18):180402. Epub 2016 May 5.

Center for Quantum Information and Control, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA.

We introduce a new kind of quantum measurement that is defined to be symmetric in the sense of uniform Fisher information across a set of parameters that uniquely represent pure quantum states in the neighborhood of a fiducial pure state. The measurement is locally informationally complete-i.e., it uniquely determines these parameters, as opposed to distinguishing two arbitrary quantum states-and it is maximal in the sense of a multiparameter quantum Cramér-Rao bound. For a d-dimensional quantum system, requiring only local informational completeness allows us to reduce the number of outcomes of the measurement from a minimum close to but below 4d-3, for the usual notion of global pure-state informational completeness, to 2d-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.180402DOI Listing
May 2016

Structural phases of adsorption for flexible polymers on nanocylinder surfaces.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2015 Nov;17(45):30702-11

Soft Matter Systems Research Group, Center for Simulational Physics, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. and Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

By means of generalized-ensemble Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the thermodynamic behavior of a flexible, elastic polymer model in the presence of an attractive nanocylinder. We systematically identify the structural phases that are formed by competing monomer-monomer and monomer-substrate interactions. The influence of the relative surface attraction strength on the structural phases in the hyperphase diagram, parameterized by cylinder radius and temperature, is discussed as well. In the limiting case of the infinitely large cylinder radius, our results coincide with previous outcomes of studies of polymer adsorption on planar substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5cp03952eDOI Listing
November 2015
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