Publications by authors named "Jonathan D Tugwood"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Circulating biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2014 Aug 13;74(2):323-32. Epub 2014 Jun 13.

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology Group, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Purpose: Our aims are to determine levels of circulating cellular and protein biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and to analyse any relationships with clinical parameters.

Methods: Fifty-four consenting patients were recruited. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) were enumerated (by CellSearch) and characterised via filtration [by isolation by size of epithelial tumour cells (ISET)] with downstream immunohistochemistry (IHC). Glypican-3 (GPC3) expression in tumour biopsies and CTCs (by IHC) was compared, and levels of circulating caspase-cleaved and full-length cytokeratin 18 (CK18, measured using M30 and M65 ELISAs) were examined as a putative prognostic factor and marker of tumour burden.

Results: CTCs were identified in 14 out of 50 (28%) patients by CellSearch and in 19 out of 19 (100%) patients by ISET. The presence of GPC3-positive CTCs by ISET was 100% concordant with the presence of GPC3-positive cells in the original tumour (n = 5). No statistically significant correlations were observed between CTC number and clinical characteristics, although trends were noted between CTC subtypes, Child-Pugh score and tumour node metastasis stage. Serum M30 and M65 levels (as continuous variables) significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) in a univariate analysis (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively); M65 levels remained statistically significant in a multivariate analysis (p = 0.029).

Conclusions: This is the first study to detect GPC3-positive CTCs in HCC, important for drug development with this target. The significant association of circulating CK18 with OS in HCC further exemplifies the utility of circulating biomarkers in cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-014-2508-7DOI Listing
August 2014

An integrated characterization of serological, pathological, and functional events in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

Toxicol Sci 2014 Jul 27;140(1):3-15. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

Drug Safety & Metabolism, Innovative Medicines, AstraZeneca R&D, Alderley Park Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TF, UK

Many efficacious cancer treatments cause significant cardiac morbidity, yet biomarkers or functional indices of early damage, which would allow monitoring and intervention, are lacking. In this study, we have utilized a rat model of progressive doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy, applying multiple approaches, including cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the timecourse of serological, pathological, and functional events underlying this toxicity. Hannover Wistar rats were dosed with 1.25 mg/kg DOX weekly for 8 weeks followed by a 4 week off-dosing "recovery" period. Electron microscopy of the myocardium revealed subcellular degeneration and marked mitochondrial changes after a single dose. Histopathological analysis revealed progressive cardiomyocyte degeneration, hypertrophy/cytomegaly, and extensive vacuolation after two doses. Extensive replacement fibrosis (quantified by Sirius red staining) developed during the off-dosing period. Functional indices assessed by cardiac MRI (including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output, and E/A ratio) declined progressively, reaching statistical significance after two doses and culminating in "clinical" LV dysfunction by 12 weeks. Significant increases in peak myocardial contrast enhancement and serological cardiac troponin I (cTnI) emerged after eight doses, importantly preceding the LVEF decline to <50%. Troponin I levels positively correlated with delayed and peak gadolinium contrast enhancement, histopathological grading, and diastolic dysfunction. In summary, subcellular cardiomyocyte degeneration was the earliest marker, followed by progressive functional decline and histopathological manifestations. Myocardial contrast enhancement and elevations in cTnI occurred later. However, all indices predated "clinical" LV dysfunction and thus warrant further evaluation as predictive biomarkers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfu057DOI Listing
July 2014

The role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of MMPi-induced skin fibrodysplasia.

BMC Genomics 2013 May 20;14:338. Epub 2013 May 20.

Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Harwell Campus, Oxfordshire, UK.

Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis. MMPs have been an attractive pharmacological target for a number of indications. However, development has been hampered by the propensity of compounds targeting these enzymes to cause connective-tissue pathologies. The broad-spectrum MMP-inhibitor (MMPi) AZM551248 has been shown to induce such effects in the dog. Histopathological changes were consistent with fibrodysplasia (FD), characterised by fibroblast proliferation and the deposition of collagen in the subcutaneous tissues. We conducted a time-course study administering 20mg/kg/day AZM551248 between 4 and 17 days. Cervical subcutaneous tissue and plasma were sampled during the time-course. miRNA expression profiles in subcutaneous skin specimens following the administration of AZM551248 were determined by high-throughput-sequencing.

Results: An increasing number of miRNAs were differentially expressed compared with vehicle treated control animals as the study progressed. Several of these were members of the miR-200 family and were significantly attenuated in response to MMPi. As the severity of FD increased at the later time-points, other miRNAs associated with TGFβ synthesis and regulation of the acute inflammatory response were modulated. Evidence indicative of epithelial to mesenchymal transition was present at all study time points. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed that miR-21 expression in the cervical subcutaneous tissue was a sensitive and specific biomarker of FD incidence.

Conclusions: Our data reveal significant perturbations in canine skin miRNA expression in response to MMPi administration. Furthermore, we have identified dysregulated miRNAs that are associated with processes relevant to the key histopathological events of MMPi-induced FD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3668254PMC
May 2013

Fibrodysplasia induced in dog skin by a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor--a mechanistic analysis.

Toxicol Sci 2012 May 9;127(1):236-45. Epub 2012 Feb 9.

Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG, UK.

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors, candidate therapeutic agents for a number of diseases, are known to be associated with acute fibrosis-type adverse effects in a number of species, including humans. The broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, AZM551248, has previously been shown to cause these effects in the dog. Changes were characterized by the abnormal and extensive proliferation of fibroblasts and the deposition of collagen particularly in the subcutaneous connective tissues (subcutis) and were termed fibrodysplasia (FD). We performed a time-course study in dogs using AZM551248 and sampled skin, subcutis, and plasma before and during the development of FD. Detailed histopathological analysis and global gene expression profiling were performed on the subcutaneous tissues. The gene expression analysis of the subcutis indicated that extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling was initiated asymptomatically at or before the earliest time point, day 4, and this was associated with dysregulation of expression of a number of MMPs and proteolytic enzymes. At later time points, the FD became progressively more extensive and severe, and this was associated with gene expression changes characteristic of tissue fibrosis, for example those associated with procollagen synthesis and processing. We postulate that AZM551248 inhibition of MMP action within the subcutis modulates the activity of several transcription factors and this in turn upregulates expression of specific proteases which initiate ECM remodeling. Persistent MMP inhibition results in the progression of ECM remodeling, culminating in collagen deposition and overt fibrosis. Our data indicate that inhibition of MMPs 1, 2, 3, and 9 is a key early event in AZM551248-induced FD in dog subcutis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs075DOI Listing
May 2012

Generation and analysis of transcriptomics data.

Methods Mol Biol 2011 ;691:167-85

Molecular Toxicology Group, Safety Assessment Department, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK.

Transcript profiling ("Transcriptomics") is a widely used technique that obtains information on the abundance of multiple mRNA transcripts within a biological sample simultaneously. Therefore, when a number of such samples are analysed, as in a scientific experiment, large and complex data sets are gene-rated. Here, we describe the use of one method commonly used to generate transcriptomics data, namely the use of Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. Data generated in transcriptomics experiments can be analysed using a multitude of approaches, but a common goal is to identify those transcripts whose abundance is altered by the experimental conditions, or which differ between sets of samples. Here, we describe a simple approach, the calculation of the volcano score, which identifies transcripts with altered abundance, taking into account both the magnitude of the alteration and its statistical significance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-849-2_10DOI Listing
February 2011

Molecular and genetic association of interleukin-6 in tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2007 Nov;17(11):961-72

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Tacrine, an anticholinesterase used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), leads to an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The factors determining individual susceptibility are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic predisposition.

Methods: Rats were administered single dose tacrine (3-40 mg/kg). After 6 and 24 h, hepatic gene expression was determined using the affymetrix rat U34A microarray. On the basis of the gene expression data, the IL6 gene was identified as a potential candidate for tacrine transaminitis susceptibility. Sixty-nine patients with AD on tacrine with or without transaminitis were genotyped for 17 IL6 polymorphisms.

Results: Serum aspartate aminotransferase levels in rats increased after tacrine (40 mg/kg) administration. Forty-six and 29 genes showed significant upregulation at 6 and 24 h, respectively, after administration, including the IL-6-regulated acute phase response genes alpha2-macroglobulin, fibronectin and haptoglobin. Five of the 17 IL6 polymorphisms studied in AD patients showed an association (P<0.05) with transaminitis [ALT>2 x upper limit of normal (ULN)]. An association existed between maximum ALT and area under curve for ALT over 15 weeks and an intronic polymorphism (P<0.01) and a 3'-variable nucleotide tandem repeat (P<0.05). Multilocus haplotype analysis showed one haplotype (which included the -597A, -572G, -174G and variable nucleotide tandem repeat-D alleles) had a frequency of 0.1 in patients with ALT values >2 x ULN, whereas it was absent in patients with ALT less than 2 x ULN (P=0.0093, Pcorrected=0.049).

Conclusion: The IL6 genotype may act as a predisposing factor for tacrine transaminitis. This, however, requires further confirmatory functional studies. The role of acute dosing rodent models in identifying candidate genes associated with drug-induced liver injury in man deserves further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0b013e3282f00919DOI Listing
November 2007

Microarray analysis of gene expression of mouse hepatocytes of different ploidy.

Mamm Genome 2007 Sep 29;18(9):617-26. Epub 2007 Aug 29.

Pathology Division, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Polyploidisation in hepatocytes has been associated with many physiologic and pathologic processes such as proliferation, metabolism, regeneration, aging, and cancer. We studied gene expression patterns in hepatocytes of different ploidy. Primary hepatocytes were obtained from mice of different ages: young (4-6 weeks old), adult (8-10 weeks old), and older (22-24 weeks old). Diploid (2N), tetraploid (4N), and octoploid (8N) hepatocytes were isolated for studies using a high-density mouse genome microarray. No major changes of gene expression patterns between hepatocytes of different ploidy were found. Fifty genes were identified as differentially expressed in the diploid and tetraploid populations, but the changes were less than twofold either way. Four genes (Gas2, Igfbp2, Nr1i3, and Ccne2) were differentially expressed in tetraploid and octoploid cells. This was confirmed in two age groups, "adult" and "older," but once again the factors were less than twofold and the expressions of Gas2 and Igfbp2 were more different between age groups than between ploidy classes. Our results show that polyploid hepatocytes are stable and "normal" without aberrant gene expression, unlike what is thought for cancer cells. By contrast to megakaryocytes, hepatocyte polyploidisation is not a differentiation step associated with major changes in gene expression. Our data support the hypothesis that hepatocyte polyploidisation is a protective mechanism against oxidative stress that occurs via a controlled process throughout growth and aging where binucleation is important.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-007-9048-yDOI Listing
September 2007

Gene expression profiling for pharmaceutical safety assessment.

Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2005 Aug;1(2):247-60

AstraZeneca R&D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TG, UK.

Toxicogenomics is the application of gene expression profiling technology to toxicology. This results in the generation of very large and complex gene expression data sets associated with the development of toxicities. It is widely assumed that this data can be deconvoluted to reveal novel insights into toxicological processes that are of value to the task of risk assessment. More specifically, it is hoped that toxicogenomics will aid in the prediction of the toxic potential and mechanisms of toxicity of novel chemical entities. On the basis of such promise, the pharmaceutical industry has invested heavily in this area, as the perceived rewards in terms of improved pipeline efficiency and safer drugs are immense. Consequently, a great deal of groundwork has been done over the past several years to establish working methods in toxicogenomics, both within industry and academia, demonstrating utility in proof-of-concept studies, generating the databases on which some approaches depend, and developing new data analysis tools. Despite such activity, there is little reported evidence to suggest that toxicogenomics is making a significant impact on the discovery and development of drugs. This may partly reflect the understandable reluctance of pharmaceutical industries to share information in a competitive environment. It may also partly reflect difficulties in bridging the gap between theory and practice, as is required to deliver real value to the industry. This review will assess the successes and shortcomings of toxicogenomics, and consider how it can be usefully applied to a drug discovery pipeline.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17425255.1.2.247DOI Listing
August 2005

Genomics and the search for novel biomarkers in toxicology.

Biomarkers 2003 Mar-Apr;8(2):79-92

Molecular Toxicology Group Safety Assessment Department, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals Alderley Park Macclesfield.

The advent of 'genomics' technology, in particular transcript profiling, has already had a measurable impact on the drug discovery process in the areas of target identification and validation. This review is concerned with the potential application of this technology to toxicology and drug safety assessment, with particular emphasis on biomarker discovery and characterization. An advantage (or possibly a drawback!) of transcript profiling is that candidate biomarkers of toxicity can be speedily identified, with the caveat that a significant amount of subsequent experimental and bioinformatic effort needs to be expended in order to evaluate and validate them. Attention is also drawn to the critical need for robust experimental design with studies of this type and to issues associated with the analysis of large data sets. In summary, while genomics technology undoubtedly offers much that can assist drug safety assessment, its potential has yet to be realized fully in this area. However, a large amount of resource continues to be applied to 'toxicogenomics'. Tangible benefits, in terms of new biomarkers of toxicity and reduced numbers of adverse drug effects, remain realistic objectives.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354750031000070103DOI Listing
January 2004
-->