Publications by authors named "Jonathan D Burlison"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Never Enough Time: Mixed Methods Study Identifies Drivers of Temporal Demand That Contribute to Burnout Among Physicians Who Care for Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Patients.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Mar 15:OP2000754. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Office of Quality and Patient Care, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Purpose: Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment because of chronic occupational stress. Approximately one third of pediatric hematology-oncology physicians experience burnout. The goal of this mixed methods study was to determine the prevalence and drivers of burnout among physicians caring for pediatric hematology-oncology patients at our institution.

Materials And Methods: This mixed methods, cross-sectional study was conducted at a large academic cancer center. Validated survey instruments were used to measure burnout, job demands, experience with patient safety events, and workplace culture. Quantitative data informed development of a semistructured interview guide, and physicians were randomly selected to participate in individual interviews. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed via content analysis based on a priori codes.

Results: The survey was distributed to 132 physicians, and 53 complete responses were received (response rate 40%). Of the 53 respondents, 15 (28%) met criteria for burnout. Experiencing burnout was associated with increased temporal demand. Twenty-six interviews were conducted. Qualitative themes revealed that frequent meetings, insufficient support staff, and workflow interruptions were key drivers of temporal demand and that temporal demand contributed to burnout through emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment.

Conclusion: Nearly one-third of participating physicians met criteria for burnout, and burnout was associated with increased temporal demand. Qualitative interviews identified specific drivers of temporal demand and burnout, which can be targeted for intervention. This methodology can be easily adapted for broad use and may represent an effective strategy for identifying and mitigating institution-specific drivers of burnout.
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March 2021

Improving Patient Handoffs and Transitions through Adaptation and Implementation of I-PASS Across Multiple Handoff Settings.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2020 Jul-Aug;5(4):e323. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Introduction: Communication failures are common root causes of serious medical errors. Standardized, structured handoffs improve communication and patient safety. I-PASS is a handoff program that decreases medical errors and preventable patient harm. The I-PASS mnemonic is defined as illness severity, patient information, action list, situational awareness and contingency plans, and synthesis by receiver. I-PASS was validated for physician handoffs, yet has the potential for broader application. The objectives of this quality improvement initiative were to adapt and implement I-PASS to handoff contexts throughout a pediatric hospital, including those with little or no known evidence of using I-PASS.

Methods: We adapted and implemented I-PASS for inpatient nursing bedside report, physician handoff, and imaging/procedures handoff. Throughout the initiative, end-user stakeholders participated as team members and informed the adaptation of the I-PASS mnemonic, handoff processes, written handoff documents, and performance evaluation methods. Peers observed handoffs, scored performance, and provided formative feedback. Adherence to I-PASS was the primary outcome. We also evaluated changes in handoff-related error frequency and clinician attitudes about the effects of I-PASS on personal and overall handoff performance.

Results: All 5 elements of the I-PASS mnemonic were used in 87% of inpatient nursing, 76% of physician, and 89% of imaging/procedures handoffs. Inpatient nurses reported reductions in handoff-related errors following I-PASS implementation. Clinicians across most handoff settings reported that using I-PASS improved both general and personal handoff performance.

Conclusions: I-PASS is adaptable to many handoff settings, which expands its potential to improve patient safety. Clinicians reported reductions in errors and improvements in handoff performance. We identified broad institutional support, customized written handoff documents, and peer observations with feedback as crucial factors in sustaining I-PASS usage.
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July 2020

Validation of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool-Revised in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

J Patient Saf 2020 Mar 13. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

From the Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital.

Objective: The aim of the study was to validate a revised version of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST-R). The SVEST survey instrument was developed to measure the emotional and professional impact of medical errors and adverse patient events on healthcare providers and can help healthcare organizations evaluate the effectiveness of support resources.

Methods: An SVEST-R was completed by 316 healthcare providers from seven neonatal intensive care units affiliated with a large, pediatric hospital. The original 29-item measure was expanded to 43 items to assess eight psychosocial domains (psychological distress, physical distress, colleague support, supervisor support, institutional support, nonwork-related support, professional self-efficacy, resilience) and two employment-related domains (turnover intentions, absenteeism) associated with the second victim experience. Seven additional items assessed desired forms of support (e.g., time away from the unit). A confirmatory factor analysis evaluated the factor structure of the modified measure.

Results: The initial confirmatory factor analysis did not reveal an acceptable factor structure; thus, eight items were removed because of inadequate factor loadings or for conceptual reasons. This resulted in an acceptable model for the final 35-item measure. The final version included nine factors (i.e., psychological distress, physical distress, colleague support, supervisor support, institutional support, professional self-efficacy, resilience, turnover intentions, and absenteeism), with Cronbach α ranging from 0.66 to 0.86.

Conclusions: The SVEST-R is a valid measure for assessing the impact of errors or adverse events on healthcare providers. Importantly, the SVEST-R now includes positive outcomes (i.e., resilience) that may result from the second victim experience.
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March 2020

Optimizing Drug-Drug Interaction Alerts Using a Multidimensional Approach.

Pediatrics 2019 03 13;143(3). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Objectives: Excessive alerts are a common concern associated with clinical decision support systems that monitor drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To reduce the number of low-value interruptive DDI alerts at our hospital, we implemented an iterative, multidimensional quality improvement effort, which included an interdisciplinary advisory group, alert metrics, and measurement of perceived clinical value.

Methods: Alert data analysis indicated that DDIs were the most common interruptive medication alert. An interdisciplinary alert advisory group was formed to provide expert advice and oversight for alert refinement and ongoing review of alert data. Alert data were categorized into drug classes and analyzed to identify DDI alerts for refinement. Refinement strategies included alert suppression and modification of alerts to be contextually aware.

Results: On the basis of historical analysis of classified DDI alerts, 26 alert refinements were implemented, representing 47% of all alerts. Alert refinement efforts resulted in the following substantial decreases in the number of interruptive DDI alerts: 40% for all clinicians (22.9-14 per 100 orders) and as high as 82% for attending physicians (6.5-1.2 per 100 orders). Two patient safety events related to alert refinements were reported during the project period.

Conclusions: Our quality improvement effort refined 47% of all DDI alerts that were firing during historical analysis, significantly reduced the number of DDI alerts in a 54-week period, and established a model for sustained alert refinements.
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March 2019

A quality improvement project to improve pediatric medical provider sleep and communication during night shifts.

Int J Qual Health Care 2019 Oct;31(8):633-638

Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, MS-101, Memphis, TN, USA.

Quality Problem Or Issue: Night-shift medical providers frequently experience limited sleep resulting in fatigue, often because of paging activity. Streamlined medical-specific communication interventions are known to improve sleep and communication among these providers.

Initial Assessment: We found that non-urgent paging communication occurred frequently during night-shifts, leading to provider sleep disturbances within our institution. We tested a quality improvement (QI) intervention to improve paging practices and determined its effect on provider sleep.

Choice Of Solution: We used a Plan-Do-Study-Act QI model aimed at improving clinician sleep and paging communications.

Implementation: We initially conducted focus groups of nurses and physician trainees to inform the creation of a standardized paging intervention. We collected actigraphy and sleep log data from physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician trainees and performed electronic collection of paging frequency data.

Evaluation: Data were collected between December 2015 and March 2017 from pediatric residents, pediatric hematology/oncology (PHO) fellows, hospitalist medicine nocturnists and nurses working during night-shift hours in PHO inpatient units. We collected baseline data before implementation of the QI intervention and at 1 month post-implementation. Although objective measures and provider reports demonstrated improved medical-specific communication paging practices, provider sleep was not affected.

Lessons Learned: Provider-based standardization of paging communication was associated with improved medical-specific communication between nurses and providers; however, provider sleep was not affected. The strategies used in this intervention may be transferable to other clinics and institutions to streamline medical-specific communication.
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October 2019

Psychometric Properties of Korean Version of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (K-SVEST).

J Patient Saf 2020 09;16(3):179-186

From the College of Nursing, Mo-Im Kim Nursing Research Institute, Yonsei University.

Objectives: "Second victims" are defined as healthcare professionals whose wellness is influenced by adverse clinical events. The Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST) was used to measure the second-victim experience and quality of support resources. Although the reliability and validity of the original SVEST have been validated, those for the Korean tool have not been validated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the SVEST.

Methods: The study included 305 clinical nurses as participants. The SVEST was translated into Korean via back translation. Content validity was assessed by seven experts, and test-retest reliability was evaluated by 30 clinicians. Internal consistency and construct validity were assessed via confirmatory factor analysis. The analyses were performed using SPSS 23.0 and STATA 13.0 software.

Results: The content validity index value demonstrated validity; item- and scale-level content validity index values were both 0.95. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability were satisfactory: the intraclass consistent coefficient was 0.71, and Cronbach α values ranged from 0.59 to 0.87. The CFA showed a significantly good fit for an eight-factor structure (χ = 578.21, df = 303, comparative fit index = 0.92, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.90, root mean square error of approximation = 0.05).

Conclusions: The K-SVEST demonstrated good psychometric properties and adequate validity and reliability. The results showed that the Korean version of SVEST demonstrated the extent of second victimhood and support resources in Korean healthcare workers and could aid in the development of support programs and evaluation of their effectiveness.
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September 2020

Using EHR Data to Detect Prescribing Errors in Rapidly Discontinued Medication Orders.

Appl Clin Inform 2018 01 31;9(1):82-88. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Background: Previous research developed a new method for locating prescribing errors in rapidly discontinued electronic medication orders. Although effective, the prospective design of that research hinders its feasibility for regular use.

Objectives: Our objectives were to assess a method to retrospectively detect prescribing errors, to characterize the identified errors, and to identify potential improvement opportunities.

Methods: Electronically submitted medication orders from 28 randomly selected days that were discontinued within 120 minutes of submission were reviewed and categorized as most likely errors, nonerrors, or not enough information to determine status. Identified errors were evaluated by amount of time elapsed from original submission to discontinuation, error type, staff position, and potential clinical significance. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare rates of errors across prescriber types.

Results: In all, 147 errors were identified in 305 medication orders. The method was most effective for orders that were discontinued within 90 minutes. Duplicate orders were most common; physicians in training had the highest error rate ( < 0.001), and 24 errors were potentially clinically significant. None of the errors were voluntarily reported.

Conclusion: It is possible to identify prescribing errors in rapidly discontinued medication orders by using retrospective methods that do not require interrupting prescribers to discuss order details. Future research could validate our methods in different clinical settings. Regular use of this measure could help determine the causes of prescribing errors, track performance, and identify and evaluate interventions to improve prescribing systems and processes.
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January 2018

A Multilevel Analysis of U.S. Hospital Patient Safety Culture Relationships With Perceptions of Voluntary Event Reporting.

J Patient Saf 2020 09;16(3):187-193

Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.

Objectives: Patient safety events offer opportunities to improve patient care, but, unfortunately, events often go unreported. Although some barriers to event reporting can be reduced with electronic reporting systems, insight on organizational and cultural factors that influence reporting frequency may help hospitals increase reporting rates and improve patient safety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between dimensions of patient safety culture and perceived reporting practices of safety events of varying severity.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey study using previously collected data from The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture as predictors and outcome variables. The dataset included health-care professionals in U.S. hospitals, and data were analyzed using multilevel modeling techniques.

Results: Data from 223,412 individuals, 7816 work areas/units, and 967 hospitals were analyzed. Whether examining near miss, no harm, or potential for harm safety events, the dimension feedback about error accounted for the most unique predictive variance in the outcome frequency of events reported. Other significantly associated variables included organizational learning, nonpunitive response to error, and teamwork within units (all P < 0.001). As the perceived severity of the safety event increased, more culture dimensions became significantly associated with voluntary reporting.

Conclusions: To increase the likelihood that a patient safety event will be voluntarily reported, our study suggests placing priority on improving event feedback mechanisms and communication of event-related improvements. Focusing efforts on these aspects may be more efficient than other forms of culture change.
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September 2020

The Effects of the Second Victim Phenomenon on Work-Related Outcomes: Connecting Self-Reported Caregiver Distress to Turnover Intentions and Absenteeism.

J Patient Saf 2021 Apr;17(3):195-199

Department of Nursing Administration, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.

Objectives: Second victim experiences can affect the well-being of healthcare providers and compromise patient safety. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between self-reported second victim-related distress to turnover intention and absenteeism. Organizational support was examined concurrently because it was hypothesized to explain the potential relationships between distress and work-related outcomes.

Methods: A cross-sectional, self-report survey (the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool) of nurses directly involved in patient care (N = 155) was analyzed by using hierarchical linear regression. The tool assesses organizational support, distress due to patient safety event involvement, and work-related outcomes.

Results: Second victim distress was significantly associated with turnover intentions (P < 0.001) and absenteeism (P < 0.001), while controlling for the effects of demographic variables. Organizational support fully mediated the distress-turnover intentions (P < 0.05) and distress-absenteeism (P < 0.05) relationships, which indicates that perceptions of organizational support may explain turnover intentions and absenteeism related to the second victim experience.

Conclusions: Involvement in patient safety events and the important role of organizational support in limiting caregiver event-related trauma have been acknowledged. This study is one of the first to connect second victim distress to work-related outcomes. This study reinforces the efforts health care organizations are making to develop resources to support their staff after patient safety events occur. This study broadens the understanding of the negative effects of a second victim experience and the need to support caregivers as they recover from adverse event involvement.
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April 2021

Patient Safety Culture and the Second Victim Phenomenon: Connecting Culture to Staff Distress in Nurses.

Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2016 Aug;42(8):377-86

Quality and Safety, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, USA.

Background: Second victim experiences can affect the wellbeing of health care providers and compromise patient safety. Many factors associated with improved coping after patient safety event involvement are also components of a strong patient safety culture, so that supportive patient safety cultures may reduce second victim-related trauma. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted to assess the influence of patient safety culture on second victim-related distress.

Methods: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) and the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST), which was developed to assess organizational support and personal and professional distress after involvement in a patient safety event, were administered to nurses involved in direct patient care.

Results: Of 358 nurses at a specialized pediatric hospital, 169 (47.2%) completed both surveys. Hierarchical linear regres sion demonstrated that the patient safety culture survey dimension nonpunitive response to error was significantly associated with reductions in the second victim survey dimensions psychological, physical, and professional distress (p < 0.001). As a mediator, organizational support fully explained the nonpunitive response to error-physical distress and nonpunitive response to error-professional distress relationships and partially explained the nonpunitive response to error-psychological distress relationship.

Conclusions: The results suggest that punitive safety cultures may contribute to self-reported perceptions of second victim-related psychological, physical, and professional distress, which could reflect a lack of organizational support. Reducing punitive response to error and encouraging supportive coworker, supervisor, and institutional interactions may be useful strategies to manage the severity of second victim experiences.
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August 2016

Standardizing terms for clinical pharmacogenetic test results: consensus terms from the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC).

Genet Med 2017 02 21;19(2):215-223. Epub 2016 Jul 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Introduction: Reporting and sharing pharmacogenetic test results across clinical laboratories and electronic health records is a crucial step toward the implementation of clinical pharmacogenetics, but allele function and phenotype terms are not standardized. Our goal was to develop terms that can be broadly applied to characterize pharmacogenetic allele function and inferred phenotypes.

Materials And Methods: Terms currently used by genetic testing laboratories and in the literature were identified. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) used the Delphi method to obtain a consensus and agree on uniform terms among pharmacogenetic experts.

Results: Experts with diverse involvement in at least one area of pharmacogenetics (clinicians, researchers, genetic testing laboratorians, pharmacogenetics implementers, and clinical informaticians; n = 58) participated. After completion of five surveys, a consensus (>70%) was reached with 90% of experts agreeing to the final sets of pharmacogenetic terms.

Discussion: The proposed standardized pharmacogenetic terms will improve the understanding and interpretation of pharmacogenetic tests and reduce confusion by maintaining consistent nomenclature. These standard terms can also facilitate pharmacogenetic data sharing across diverse electronic health care record systems with clinical decision support.Genet Med 19 2, 215-223.
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February 2017

Alert dwell time: introduction of a measure to evaluate interruptive clinical decision support alerts.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2016 Apr 24;23(e1):e138-41. Epub 2015 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA

Metrics for evaluating interruptive prescribing alerts have many limitations. Additional methods are needed to identify opportunities to improve alerting systems and prevent alert fatigue. In this study, the authors determined whether alert dwell time-the time elapsed from when an interruptive alert is generated to when it is dismissed-could be calculated by using historical alert data from log files. Drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts from 3 years of electronic health record data were queried. Alert dwell time was calculated for 25,965 alerts, including 777 unique DDIs. The median alert dwell time was 8 s (range, 1-4913 s). Resident physicians had longer median alert dwell times than other prescribers (P < 001). The 10 most frequent DDI alerts (n = 8759 alerts) had shorter median dwell times than alerts that only occurred once (P < 001). This metric can be used in future research to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of interruptive prescribing alerts.
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April 2016

The Second Victim Experience and Support Tool: Validation of an Organizational Resource for Assessing Second Victim Effects and the Quality of Support Resources.

J Patient Saf 2017 06;13(2):93-102

From the *Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee; †Patient Safety and Risk Management, University of Missouri Health Care/Sinclair School of Nursing, Columbia, Missouri; ‡Department of Nursing Research, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; and §Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Objectives: Medical errors and unanticipated negative patient outcomes can damage the well-being of health care providers. These affected individuals, referred to as "second victims," can experience various psychological and physical symptoms. Support resources provided by health care organizations to prevent and reduce second victim-related harm are often inadequate. In this study, we present the development and psychometric evaluation of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST), a survey instrument that can assist health care organizations to implement and track the performance of second victim support resources.

Methods: The SVEST (29 items representing 7 dimensions and 2 outcome variables) was completed by 303 health care providers involved in direct patient care. The survey collected responses on second victim-related psychological and physical symptoms and the quality of support resources. Desirability of possible support resources was also measured. The SVEST was assessed for content validity, internal consistency, and construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis.

Results: Confirmatory factor analysis results suggested good model fit for the survey. Cronbach α reliability scores for the survey dimensions ranged from 0.61 to 0.89. The most desired second victim support option was "A respected peer to discuss the details of what happened."

Conclusions: The SVEST can be used by health care organizations to evaluate second victim experiences of their staff and the quality of existing support resources. It can also provide health care organization leaders with information on second victim-related support resources most preferred by their staff. The SVEST can be administered before and after implementing new second victim resources to measure perceptions of effectiveness.
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June 2017

Adverse drug event detection in pediatric oncology and hematology patients: using medication triggers to identify patient harm in a specialized pediatric patient population.

J Pediatr 2014 Sep 25;165(3):447-52.e4. Epub 2014 Apr 25.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the use of a trigger tool for the detection of adverse drug events (ADE) in a pediatric hospital specializing in oncology, hematology, and other catastrophic diseases.

Study Design: A medication-based trigger tool package analyzed electronic health records from February 2009 to February 2013. Chart review determined whether an ADE precipitated the trigger. Severity was assigned to ADEs, and preventability was assessed. Preventable ADEs were compared with the hospital's electronic voluntary event reporting system to identify whether these ADEs had been previously identified. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of the entire trigger tool and individual triggers were calculated to assess their accuracy to detect ADEs.

Results: Trigger occurrences (n = 706) were detected in 390 patients from 6 medication triggers, 33 of which were ADEs (overall PPV = 16%). Hyaluronidase had the greatest PPV (60%). Most ADEs were category E harm (temporary harm) per the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention index. One event was category H harm (intervention to sustain life). Naloxone was associated with the most grade 4 ADEs per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. Twenty-one (64%) ADEs were preventable, 3 of which were submitted via the voluntary reporting system.

Conclusion: Most of the medication-based triggers yielded low PPVs. Refining the triggers based on patients' characteristics and medication usage patterns could increase the PPVs and make them more useful for quality improvement. To efficiently detect ADEs, triggers must be revised to reflect specialized pediatric patient populations such as hematology and oncology patients.
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September 2014

Risk screening for ADHD in a college population: is there a relationship with academic performance?

J Atten Disord 2013 Jan 22;17(1):58-63. Epub 2012 May 22.

Department of Psychology, The University of Memphis, TN 38152, USA.

Objective: The present study examines the relationship between self-reported levels of ADHD and academic outcomes, as well as aptitude.

Method: A total of 523 college students took the Adult Self-Report Scale-Version 1.1 (ASRS-V1.1), and their scores were compared with course performance and ACT (American College Test) composite scores.

Results: The measure identified 70 students (13.4%) as being in the "highly likely" category for an ADHD diagnosis. Course exam and ACT scores for the 70 "highly likely" students were statistically identical to the remaining 453 students in the sample and the 77 students identified as "highly unlikely" as well. Only 4 of the "highly likely" 70 students were registered with the university's Office of Student Disability Services as having been diagnosed with ADHD.

Conclusions: The ASRS-V1.1 failed to discriminate academic performance and aptitude differences between ADHD "highly likely" and "highly unlikely" individuals. The use of self-report screeners of ADHD is questioned in contexts relating ADHD to academic performance.
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January 2013