Publications by authors named "Jonathan Ciron"

52 Publications

Risk Factors and Time to Clinical Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis Among Patients With Radiologically Isolated Syndrome.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Oct 1;4(10):e2128271. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Centre de Resssource et Competence Sclérose En Plaques Nice, Unité Recherche Clinique Cote d'Azur Unité de Recherche sur le Syndrome Radiologique Isolé, Université Nice Côte d'Azur, Neurologie Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pasteur 2, Nice, France.

Importance: Younger age, oligoclonal bands, and infratentorial and spinal cord lesions are factors associated with an increased 10-year risk of clinical conversion from radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) to multiple sclerosis (MS). Whether disease-modifying therapy is beneficial for individuals with RIS is currently unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year risk of a clinical event (onset of clinical symptoms of MS) prospectively, identify factors associated with developing an early clinical event, and simulate the sample size needed for a phase III clinical trial of individuals with RIS meeting 2009 RIS criteria.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study used data on prospectively followed-up individuals with RIS identified at 1 of 26 tertiary centers for MS care in France that collect data for the Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques database. Participants were aged 10 to 80 years with 2 or more magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans after study entry and an index scan after 2000. All diagnoses were validated by an expert group, whose review included a double centralized MRI reading. Data were analyzed from July 2020 to January 2021.

Exposure: Diagnosis of RIS.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Risk of clinical event and associated covariates at index scan were analyzed among all individuals with RIS. Time to the first clinical event was compared by covariates, and sample size estimates were modeled based on identified risk factors.

Results: Among 372 individuals with RIS (mean [SD] age at index MRI scan, 38.6 [12.1] years), 354 individuals were included in the analysis (264 [74.6%] women). A clinical event was identified among 49 patients (13.8%) within 2 years, which was associated with an estimated risk of conversion of 19.2% (95% CI, 14.1%-24.0%). In multivariate analysis, age younger than 37 years (hazard ratio [HR], 4.04 [95% CI, 2.00-8.15]; P < .001), spinal cord lesions (HR, 5.11 [95% CI, 1.99-13.13]; P = .001), and gadolinium-enhancing lesions on index scan (HR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.13-3.87]; P = .02) were independently associated with an increased risk of conversion to MS. Having 2 factors at the time of the index MRI scan was associated with a risk of 27.9% (95% CI, 13.5%-39.9%) of a seminal event within 2 years, increasing to 90.9% (95% CI, 41.1%-98.6%) for individuals with all 3 factors (3 risk factors vs none: HR, 23.34 [95% CI, 9.08-59.96]; P < .001). Overall, with 80% power to detect an effect size of 60% within 24 months, a total of 160 individuals with RIS were needed assuming an event rate of 20%.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found that age younger than age 37 years, spinal cord involvement, and gadolinium-enhancing lesions on index MRI scan were associated with earlier clinical disease and relevant to the number of enrolled patients needed to detect a potential treatment effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28271DOI Listing
October 2021

Natalizumab Versus Fingolimod in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Subgroup Analysis From Three International Cohorts.

CNS Drugs 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Neurology Unit, Garibaldi Hospital, Catania, Italy.

Introduction: Natalizumab has proved to be more effective than fingolimod in reducing disease activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Whether this association is universal for all patient groups remains to be determined.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of natalizumab and fingolimod in RRMS subgroups defined by the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of interest.

Methods: Patients with RRMS who were given natalizumab or fingolimod were identified in a merged cohort from three international registries. Efficacy outcomes were compared across subgroups based on patients' sex, age, disease duration, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and disease and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity 12 months prior to treatment initiation. Study endpoints were number of relapses (analyzed with weighted negative binomial generalized linear model) and 6-month confirmed disability worsening and improvement events (weighted Cox proportional hazards model), recorded during study therapy. Each patient was weighted using inverse probability of treatment weighting based on propensity score.

Results: A total of 5148 patients (natalizumab 1989; fingolimod 3159) were included, with a mean ± standard deviation age at baseline of 38 ± 10 years, and the majority (72%) were women. The median on-treatment follow-up was 25 (quartiles 15-41) months. Natalizumab was associated with fewer relapses than fingolimod (incidence rate ratio [IRR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) in women (0.76; 0.65-0.88); in those aged ≤ 38 years (0.64; 0.54-0.76); in those with disease duration ≤ 7 years (0.63; 0.53-0.76); in those with EDSS score < 4 (0.75; 0.64-0.88), < 6 (0.80; 0.70-0.91), and ≥ 6 (0.52; 0.31-0.86); and in patients with pre-baseline relapses (0.74; 0.64-0.86). A higher probability of confirmed disability improvement on natalizumab versus fingolimod (hazard ratio [HR]; 95% CI) was observed among women (1.36; 1.10-1.66); those aged > 38 years (1.34; 1.04-1.73); those with disease duration > 7 years (1.33; 1.01-1.74); those with EDSS score < 6 (1.21; 1.01-1.46) and ≥ 6 (1.93; 1.11-3.34); and patients with no new MRI lesion (1.73; 1.19-2.51).

Conclusions: Overall, in women, younger patients, those with shorter disease durations, and patients with pre-treatment relapses, natalizumab was associated with a lower frequency of multiple sclerosis relapses than fingolimod. It was also associated with an increased chance of recovery from disability among most patients, particularly women and those with no recent MRI activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-021-00860-7DOI Listing
September 2021

A meta-analysis comparing first-line immunosuppressants in neuromyelitis optica.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Oct 10;8(10):2025-2037. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Neurology, CRCSEP Lille, CHU de Lille, University of Lille, Inserm U1172, Lille, France.

Objective: As phase III trials have shown interest in innovative but expensive drugs in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), data are needed to clarify strategies in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). This meta-analysis compares the efficacy of first-line strategies using rituximab (RTX), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), or azathioprine (AZA), which are still widely used.

Methods: Studies identified by the systematic review of Huang et al. (2019) were selected if they considered at least two first-line immunosuppressants among RTX, MMF, and AZA. We updated this review. The Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and ClinicalTrials databases were queried between November 2018 and April 2020. To be included, the hazard ratio (HR) [95% CI] for the time to first relapse after first-line immunosuppression had to be available, calculable, or provided by the authors.

Results: We gathered data from 919 NMO patients (232 RTX-, 294 MMF-, and 393 AZA-treated patients). The risk of first relapse after first-line immunosuppression was 1.55 [1.04, 2.31] (p = 0.03) for MMF compared with RTX, 1.42 [0.87, 2.30] (p = 0.16) for AZA compared with RTX, and 0.94 [0.58, 1.54] (p = 0.08) for MMF compared with AZA.

Interpretation: The findings suggest that RTX is more efficient than MMF as a first-line therapy. Even if the results of our meta-analysis cannot conclude that RTX has a better efficacy in delaying the first relapse than AZA, the observed effect difference between both treatments combined with the results of previous studies using as outcome the annualized relapse rate may be in favor of RTX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51451DOI Listing
October 2021

DMTs and Covid-19 severity in MS: a pooled analysis from Italy and France.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 08 7;8(8):1738-1744. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Neurology, CIC INSERM 1434, CHU de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

We evaluated the effect of DMTs on Covid-19 severity in patients with MS, with a pooled-analysis of two large cohorts from Italy and France. The association of baseline characteristics and DMTs with Covid-19 severity was assessed by multivariate ordinal-logistic models and pooled by a fixed-effect meta-analysis. 1066 patients with MS from Italy and 721 from France were included. In the multivariate model, anti-CD20 therapies were significantly associated (OR = 2.05, 95%CI = 1.39-3.02, p < 0.001) with Covid-19 severity, whereas interferon indicated a decreased risk (OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.18-0.99, p = 0.047). This pooled-analysis confirms an increased risk of severe Covid-19 in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and supports the protective role of interferon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351392PMC
August 2021

Effects of High- and Low-Efficacy Therapy in Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurology 2021 08 30;97(9):e869-e880. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

From the CORe (I.R., C.M., T.K.), Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne; Melbourne MS Centre (I.R., K.B., C.M., T.K.), Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia; Rennes University (E.L.), EHESP, REPERES EA 7449; Univ Rennes (E.L.), CHU Rennes, Inserm, CIC 1414 (Centre d'Investigation Clinique de Rennes); Université de Lyon (R.C.), Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1; Hospices Civils de Lyon (R.C.), Service de Neurologie, sclérose en plaques, pathologies de la myéline et neuro-inflammation, Bron; Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques (R.C.), Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon, INSERM 1028 et CNRS UMR 5292; EUGENE DEVIC EDMUS Foundation Against Multiple Sclerosis (R.C.), state-approved foundation, Bron, France; Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience (D.H., E.H.), First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University; General University Hospital (D.H., E.H.), Prague, Czech Republic; Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena (G.I., S.E.M.), Sevilla, Spain; Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies (F.P.), GF Ingrassia; Multiple Sclerosis Center (F.P.), University of Catania, Italy; Centre hospitalier universitaire de Rennes (G.E.), Hôpital Pontchaillou, Service de neurologie, CIC1414 INSERM; Nancy University Hospital (M.D.), Department of Neurology; Université de Lorraine (M.D.), APEMAC, Nancy, France; Aix Marseille Univ (J.P.), APHM, Hôpital de la Timone, Pôle de Neurosciences Cliniques, Service de Neurologie, France; Dokuz Eylul University (S.O.), Konak/Izmir, Turkey; Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drugs and Child Health Area (NEUROFARBA) (M.P.A.), Section Neurosciences, University of Florence, Italy; CHU Clermont-Ferrand (P.C.), Department of Neurology; Université Clermont Auvergne (P.C.), Inserm, Neuro-Dol, Clermont-Ferrand, France; CISSS Chaudière-Appalache (P.G.), Lévis, Canada; KTU Medical Faculty Farabi Hospital (C.B.), Trabzon, Turkey; Department of Neurology (K.B., O.S., H.B.), Box Hill Hospital, Monash University; The Alfred Hospital (O.S.), Melbourne, Australia; CHU de Toulouse (J.C.), Hôpital Pierre-Paul Riquet, Department of Neurology, CRC-SEP, Toulouse Cedex 9, France; Department of Neurology (O.G.), Zuyderland Medical Center, Sittard-Geleen, the Netherlands; Neuro Rive-Sud (F.G.), Quebec, Canada; School of Medicine and Public Health (J.L.-S.), University Newcastle; Department of Neurology (J.L.-S.), John Hunter Hospital, Hunter New England Health, Newcastle; Central Clinical School (H.B.), Monash University; Department of Neurology (H.B.), The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Service de neurologie (S.V.), sclérose en plaques, pathologies de la myéline et neuro-inflammation; Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer (S.V.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon/Bron; France Centre des Neurosciences de Lyon (S.V.), Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques, INSERM 1028 et CNRS UMR5292; and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (S.V.), Faculté de médecine Lyon Est, France.

Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness of high- and low-efficacy treatments in patients with recently active and inactive secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) after accounting for therapeutic lag.

Methods: Patients treated with high-efficacy (natalizumab, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone, ocrelizumab, rituximab, cladribine, fingolimod) or low-efficacy (interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide) therapies after SPMS onset were selected from MSBase and Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques (OFSEP), 2 large observational cohorts. Therapeutic lag was estimated for each patient from their demographic and clinical characteristics. Propensity score was used to match patients treated with high- and low-efficacy therapies. Outcomes after the period of therapeutic lag was disregarded were compared in paired, pairwise-censored analyses.

Results: One thousand patients were included in the primary analysis. Patients with active SPMS treated with high-efficacy therapy experienced less frequent relapses than those on low-efficacy therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.7, = 0.006). In patients with inactive SPMS, there was no evidence for a difference in relapse frequency between groups (HR 0.8, = 0.39). No evidence for a difference in the risk of disability progression was observed.

Conclusion: In treated patients with SPMS, high-efficacy therapy is superior to low-efficacy therapy in reducing relapses in patients with active but not those with inactive SPMS. However, more potent therapies do not offer an advantage in reducing disability progression in this patient group.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that high-efficacy therapy is superior to low-efficacy therapy in reducing relapses in patients with active SPMS, although we did not find a difference in disability progression between patients treated with high- and low-efficacy therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012354DOI Listing
August 2021

The effectiveness of natalizumab vs fingolimod-A comparison of international registry studies.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Aug 8;53:103012. Epub 2021 May 8.

KTU Medical Faculty Farabi Hospital, Trabzon, Turkey.

Background: Natalizumab and fingolimod were the first preparations recommended for disease breakthrough in priorly treated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Of three published head-to-head studies two showed that natalizumab is the more effective to prevent relapses and EDSS worsening.

Methods: By re-analyzing original published results from MSBase, France, and Denmark using uniform methodologies, we aimed at identifying the effects of differences in methodology, in the MS-populations, and at re-evaluating the differences in effectiveness between the two drugs. We gained access to copies of the individual amended databases and pooled all data. We used uniform inclusion/exclusion criteria and statistical methods with Inverse Probability Treatment Weighting.

Results: The pooled analyses comprised 968 natalizumab- and 1479 fingolimod treated patients. The on-treatment natalizumab/fingolimod relapse rate ratio was 0.77 (p=0.004). The hazard ratio (HR) for a first relapse was 0.82 (p=0.030), and the HR for sustained EDSS improvement was 1.4 (p=0.009). There were modest differences between each of the original published studies and the replication study, but the conclusions of the three original studies remained unchanged: in two of them natalizumab was more effective, but in the third there was no difference between natalizumab and fingolimod.

Conclusion: The results were largely invariant to the epidemiological and statistical methods but differed between the MS populations. Generally, the advantage of natalizumab was confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.103012DOI Listing
August 2021

TNF-α inhibitors used as steroid-sparing maintenance monotherapy in parenchymal CNS sarcoidosis.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Service de Neurologie, Hôpital de la Timone, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Marseille, Marseille, France

Objective: To assess the efficacy of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors used as steroid-sparing monotherapy in central nervous system (CNS) parenchymal sarcoidosis.

Methods: The French Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroinflammation Centers retrospectively identified patients with definite or probable CNS sarcoidosis treated with TNF-α inhibitors as steroid-sparing monotherapy. Only patients with CNS parenchymal involvement demonstrated by MRI and imaging follow-up were included. The primary outcome was the minimum dose of steroids reached that was not associated with clinical or imaging worsening during a minimum of 3 months after dosing change.

Results: Of the identified 38 patients with CNS sarcoidosis treated with TNF-α inhibitors, 23 fulfilled all criteria (13 females). Treatments were infliximab (n=22) or adalimumab (n=1) for a median (IQR) of 24 (17-40) months. At treatment initiation, the mean (SD) age was 41.5 (10.5) years and median (IQR) disease duration 22 (14-49.5) months. Overall, 60% of patients received other immunosuppressive agents before a TNF-α inhibitor. The mean (SD) minimum dose of steroids was 31.5 (33) mg before TNF-α inhibitor initiation and 6.5 (5.5) mg after (p=0.001). In all, 65% of patients achieved steroids dosing <6 mg/day; 61% showed clinical improvement, 30% stability and 9% disease worsening. Imaging revealed improvement in 74% of patients and stability in 26%.

Conclusion: TNF-α inhibitors can greatly reduce steroids dosing in patients with CNS parenchymal sarcoidosis, even refractory.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that TNF-α inhibitor used as steroid-sparing monotherapy is effective for patients with CNS parenchymal sarcoidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-325665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292597PMC
June 2021

Leptomeningeal enhancement on post-contrast FLAIR images for early diagnosis of Susac syndrome.

Mult Scler 2021 May 14:13524585211012349. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neuroradiology, Hôpital Purpan, Toulouse, France.

Background: Leptomeningeal enhancement (LME) is a key feature of Susac syndrome (SuS) but is only occasionally depicted on post-contrast T1-weighted images (T1-WI).

Objective: As post-contrast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) may be more sensitive, our aim was to assess LME in SuS on this sequence.

Methods: From 2010 to 2020, 20 patients with definite SuS diagnosis were retrospectively enrolled in this multicentre study. Two radiologists independently assessed the number of LME on post-contrast FLAIR and T1-WI acquisitions performed before any treatment. A chi-square test was used to compare both sequences and the interrater agreement was calculated.

Results: Thirty-five magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) were performed before treatment, including 19 post-contrast FLAIR images in 17 patients and 25 post-contrast T1-WI in 19 patients. In terms of patients, LME was observed on all post-contrast FLAIR, contrary to post-contrast T1-WI (17/17 (100%) vs. 15/19 (79%),  < 0.05). In terms of sequences, LME was observed on all post-contrast FLAIR, contrary to post-contrast T1-WI (19/19 (100%) vs. 16/25 (64%),  < 0.005). LME was disseminated at both supratentorial (19/19) and infratentorial (18/19) levels on post-contrast FLAIR, contrary to post-contrast T1-WI (3/25 and 9/25, respectively). Interrater agreement was excellent for post-contrast FLAIR (κ = 0.95) but only moderate for post-contrast T1-WI (κ = 0.61).

Conclusion: LME was always observed and easily visible on post-contrast FLAIR images prior to SuS treatment. In association with other MRI features, it is highly indicative of SuS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13524585211012349DOI Listing
May 2021

Untreated patients with multiple sclerosis: A study of French expert centers.

Eur J Neurol 2021 06 19;28(6):2026-2036. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Service de Neurologie, Hôpital Maison-Blanche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Reims, Reims, France.

Background And Purpose: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) have an impact on relapses and disease progression. Nonetheless, many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) remain untreated. The objectives of the present study were to determine the proportion of untreated patients with MS followed in expert centers in France and to determine the predictive factors of nontreatment.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Data were extracted from the 38 centers participating in the European Database for Multiple Sclerosis (EDMUS) on December 15, 2018, and patients with MS seen at least once during the study period (from June 15, 2016 to June 14, 2017) were included.

Results: Of the 21,189 patients with MS (age 47.1 ± 13.1 years; Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 3.4 ± 2.4), 6,631 (31.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 30.7-31.9) were not receiving any DMT. Although patients with a relapsing-remitting course (n = 11,693) were the most likely to receive DMT, 14.8% (95% CI 14.2-15.4) were still untreated (6.8% never treated). After multivariate analysis among patients with relapsing-remitting MS, the main factors explaining never having been treated were: not having ≥9 lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (odds ratio [OR] 0.52 [95% CI 0.44-0.61]) and lower EDSS score (OR 0.78 [95% CI 0.74-0.82]). Most patients with progressive MS (50.4% for secondary and 64.2% for primary progressive MS) did not receive any DMT during the study period, while 11.6% of patients with secondary and 34.0% of patients with primary progressive MS had never received any DMT.

Conclusion: A significant proportion of patients with MS did not receive any DMT, even though such treatments are reimbursed by the healthcare system for French patients. This result highlights the unmet need for current DMTs for a large subgroup of patients with MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14790DOI Listing
June 2021

The long-term outcome of MOGAD: An observational national cohort study of 61 patients.

Eur J Neurol 2021 05 19;28(5):1659-1664. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Neurology, Centre de référence des maladies inflammatoires rares du cerveau et de la moelle (MIRCEM), AP-HP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Background And Objective: The prognosis in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) is a matter of debate. Our aim was to assess the long-term outcomes of patients with MOGAD.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed the clinical and paraclinical data of patients from the French nationwide observatory study NOMADMUS who tested positive for MOG antibodies (MOG-IgG) and who had clinical follow-up of at least 8 years from their first episode.

Results: Sixty-one patients (median [range] age at onset 27 [3-69] years), with a median (mean; range) follow-up of 177 (212.8; 98-657) months, were included. Among 58 patients with a relapsing course, 26.3% relapsed in the first year after onset. Of the 61 patients, 90.2% experienced at least one episode of optic neuritis. At last visit, the median (mean; range) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was 1 (2.12; 0-7.5), 12.5% had an EDSS score ≥6 and 37.5% had an EDSS score ≥3. Of 51 patients with final visual acuity (VA) data available, 15.7% had VA ≤0.1 in at least one eye and 25.5% had VA ≤0.5 in at least one eye. Bilateral blindness (VA ≤0.1) was present in 5.9% of patients. Finally, 12.5% of patients presented bladder dysfunction requiring long-term urinary catheterization. No factor associated significantly with a final EDSS score ≥3 or with final VA ≤0.1 was found.

Conclusion: Overall long-term favourable outcomes were achieved in a majority of our patients, but severe impairment, in particular visual damage, was not uncommon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14746DOI Listing
May 2021

Determinants of therapeutic lag in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 10 11;27(12):1838-1851. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

CHU de Caen, MS Expert Centre, Department of Neurology, avenue de la Côte-de-Nacre, Normandy University, Caen, France.

Background: A delayed onset of treatment effect, termed therapeutic lag, may influence the assessment of treatment response in some patient subgroups.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore the associations of patient and disease characteristics with therapeutic lag on relapses and disability accumulation.

Methods: Data from MSBase, a multinational multiple sclerosis (MS) registry, and OFSEP, the French MS registry, were used. Patients diagnosed with MS, minimum 1 year of exposure to MS treatment and 3 years of pre-treatment follow-up, were included in the analysis. Studied outcomes were incidence of relapses and disability accumulation. Therapeutic lag was calculated using an objective, validated method in subgroups stratified by patient and disease characteristics. Therapeutic lag under specific circumstances was then estimated in subgroups defined by combinations of clinical and demographic determinants.

Results: High baseline disability scores, annualised relapse rate (ARR) ⩾ 1 and male sex were associated with longer therapeutic lag on disability progression in sufficiently populated groups: females with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) < 6 and ARR < 1 had mean lag of 26.6 weeks (95% CI = 18.2-34.9), males with EDSS < 6 and ARR < 1 31.0 weeks (95% CI = 25.3-36.8), females with EDSS < 6 and ARR ⩾ 1 44.8 weeks (95% CI = 24.5-65.1), and females with EDSS ⩾ 6 and ARR < 1 54.3 weeks (95% CI = 47.2-61.5).

Conclusions: Pre-treatment EDSS and ARR are the most important determinants of therapeutic lag.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520981300DOI Listing
October 2021

Relapses in Patients Treated with High-Dose Biotin for Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 01 22;18(1):378-386. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

High-dose biotin (HDB) is a therapy used in non-active progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). Several reports have suggested that HDB treatment may be associated with an increased risk of relapse. We aimed to determine whether HDB increases the risk of clinical relapse in PMS and describe the characteristics of the patients who experience it. We conducted a French, multicenter, retrospective study, comparing a group of PMS patients treated with HDB to a matched control group. Poisson regression was applied to model the specific statistical distribution of the annualized relapse rate (ARR). A propensity score (PS), based on the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW), was used to adjust for indication bias and included the following variables: gender, primary PMS or not, age, EDSS, time since the last relapse, and co-prescription of a DMT. Two thousand six hundred twenty-eight patients treated with HDB and 654 controls were analyzed with a follow-up of 17 ± 8 months. Among them, 148 validated relapses were observed in the group treated with biotin and 38 in the control group (p = 0.62). After adjustment based on the PS, the ARR was 0.044 ± 0.23 for the biotin-treated group and 0.028 ± 0.16 for the control group (p = 0.18). The more relapses there were before biotin, the higher the risk of relapse during treatment, independently from the use of HDB. While the number of relapses reported for patients with no previous inflammatory activity receiving biotin has gradually increased, the present retrospective study is adequately powered to exclude an elevated risk of relapse for patients with PMS treated with HDB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-020-00926-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116391PMC
January 2021

Clinical Features and Risk of Relapse in Children and Adults with Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Disease.

Ann Neurol 2021 01 15;89(1):30-41. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Neurology, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroinflammation, Pierre Wertheimer Neurological Hospital, Lyon Civil Hospices, Lyon, France.

Objective: The main objective was to compare clinical features, disease course, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody (Ab) dynamics between children and adults with MOG-Ab-associated disease (MOGAD).

Methods: This retrospective multicentric, national study included 98 children and 268 adults with MOGAD between January 2014 and September 2019. Cox regression model for recurrent time-to-event data and Kaplan-Meier curves for time to antibody negativity were performed for the objectives.

Results: Isolated optic neuritis was the most frequent clinical presentation in both children (40.8%) and adults (55.9%, p = 0.013), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis syndrome was more frequent in children (36.7% vs 5.6%, p < 0.001). Compared to adults, children displayed better recovery (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≥ 3.0 at last follow-up reached only by 10 of 97 [10.3%] vs 66/247 [26.7%], p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, adults were at higher risk of relapse than children (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.78, p = 0.003). At 2 years, 64.2% (95% CI = 40.9-86.5) of nonrelapsing children became MOG-Ab negative compared to 14.1% (95% CI = 4.7-38.3) of relapsing children (log-rank p < 0.001), with no differences observed in adults (log-rank p = 0.280).

Interpretation: MOGAD patients differ in the clinical presentation at onset, showing an age-related shift in the clinical features across age groups. Compared to children, adults have a higher risk of relapse and worse functional recovery. Finally, children with monophasic disease become MOG-Ab negative earlier than relapsing children, but this is not true in adults. Considering these differences, management and treatment guidelines should be considered independently in children and adults. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:30-41.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25909DOI Listing
January 2021

Treatment of MOG-IgG-associated disorder with rituximab: An international study of 121 patients.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Sep 2;44:102251. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Children's Hospital Datteln, University Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.

Objective: To assess the effect of anti-CD20 B-cell depletion with rituximab (RTX) on relapse rates in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorder (MOGAD).

Methods: Retrospective review of RTX-treated MOGAD patients from 29 centres in 13 countries. The primary outcome measure was change in relapse rate after starting rituximab (Poisson regression model).

Results: Data on 121 patients were analysed, including 30 (24.8%) children. Twenty/121 (16.5%) were treated after one attack, of whom 14/20 (70.0%) remained relapse-free after median (IQR) 11.2 (6.3-14.1) months. The remainder (101/121, 83.5%) were treated after two or more attacks, of whom 53/101 (52.5%) remained relapse-free after median 12.1 (6.3-24.9) months. In this 'relapsing group', relapse rate declined by 37% (95%CI=19-52%, p<0.001) overall, 63% (95%CI=35-79%, p = 0.001) when RTX was used first line (n = 47), and 26% (95%CI=2-44%, p = 0.038) when used after other steroid-sparing immunotherapies (n = 54). Predicted 1-year and 2-year relapse-free survival was 79% and 55% for first-line RTX therapy, and 38% and 18% for second-/third-line therapy. Circulating CD19B-cells were suppressed to <1% of total circulating lymphocyte population at the time of 45/57 (78.9%) relapses.

Conclusion: RTX reduced relapse rates in MOGAD. However, many patients continued to relapse despite apparent B-cell depletion. Prospective controlled studies are needed to validate these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895306PMC
September 2020

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Multiple Sclerosis.

JAMA Neurol 2020 09;77(9):1079-1088

Service de Neurologie, Clinical Investigation Center Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale 1434, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Importance: Risk factors associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may modify the risk of developing a severe COVID-19 infection, beside identified risk factors such as age and comorbidities.

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with MS and COVID-19 and identify factors associated with COVID-19 severity.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Covisep registry is a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study conducted in MS expert centers and general hospitals and with neurologists collaborating with MS expert centers and members of the Société Francophone de la Sclérose en Plaques. The study included patients with MS presenting with a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and May 21, 2020.

Exposures: COVID-19 diagnosed with a polymerase chain reaction test on a nasopharyngeal swab, thoracic computed tomography, or typical symptoms.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen). We collected demographics, neurological history, Expanded Disability Severity Scale score (EDSS; ranging from 0 to 10, with cutoffs at 3 and 6), comorbidities, COVID-19 characteristics, and outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of collected variables with COVID-19 outcomes.

Results: A total of 347 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [12.8] years, 249 women; mean [SD] disease duration, 13.5 [10.0] years) were analyzed. Seventy-three patients (21.0%) had a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more, and 12 patients (3.5%) died of COVID-19. The median EDSS was 2.0 (range, 0-9.5), and 284 patients (81.8%) were receiving DMT. There was a higher proportion of patients with a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more among patients with no DMT relative to patients receiving DMTs (46.0% vs 15.5%; P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression models determined that age (odds ratio per 10 years: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.5]), EDSS (OR for EDSS ≥6, 6.3 [95% CI. 2.8-14.4]), and obesity (OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0-8.7]) were independent risk factors for a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more (indicating hospitalization or higher severity). The EDSS was associated with the highest variability of COVID-19 severe outcome (R2, 0.2), followed by age (R2, 0.06) and obesity (R2, 0.01).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study of patients with MS, age, EDSS, and obesity were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19; there was no association found between DMTs exposure and COVID-19 severity. The identification of these risk factors should provide the rationale for an individual strategy regarding clinical management of patients with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320356PMC
September 2020

Outcome and risk of recurrence in a large cohort of idiopathic longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis without AQP4/MOG antibodies.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Apr 23;17(1):128. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Service de neurologie, sclérose en plaques, pathologies de la myéline et neuro-inflammation, and Centre de Référence des Maladies Inflammatoires Rares du Cerveau et de la Moelle, Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69677, Lyon/Bron, France.

Background: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is classically related to aquaporin (AQP4)-antibodies (Ab) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or more recently to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-Ab associated disease. However, some patients remain negative for any diagnosis, despite a large work-up including AQP4-Ab and MOG-Ab. Data about natural history, disability outcome, and treatment are limited in this group of patients. We aimed to (1) describe clinical, biological, and radiological features of double seronegative LETM patients; (2) assess the clinical course and identify prognostic factors; and (3) assess the risk of recurrence, according to maintenance immunosuppressive therapy.

Methods: Retrospective evaluation of patients with a first episode of LETM, tested negative for AQP-Ab and MOG-Ab, from the French nationwide observatory study NOMADMUS.

Results: Fifty-three patients (median age 38 years (range 16-80)) with double seronegative LETM were included. Median nadir EDSS at onset was 6.0 (1-8.5), associated to a median EDSS at last follow-up of 4.0 (0-8). Recurrence was observed in 24.5% of patients in the 18 following months, with a median time to first relapse of 5.7 months. The risk of recurrence was lower in the group of patients treated early with an immunosuppressive drug (2/22, 9%), in comparison with untreated patients (10/31, 32%).

Conclusions: A first episode of a double seronegative LETM is associated to a severe outcome and a high rate of relapse in the following 18 months, suggesting that an early immunosuppressive treatment may be beneficial in that condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01773-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178729PMC
April 2020

Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of first-line therapies in NMOSD.

Neurology 2020 04 13;94(15):e1645-e1656. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

From the Department of Neurology (J.P., J.G., O.O., H.Z.) and U995-LIRIC-Lille Inflammation Research International Center, Inserm, Univ Lille (J.G., H.Z.), CHU Lille; Department of Neurology (R.D.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris; CNRS, CRMBM UMR 7339 (B.A.), Aix-Marseille Université; Service de Neurologie (B.A.), Pôle de Neurosciences Cliniques, APHM, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille; Department of Neurology (J.C.), Hôpital Purpan, CHU de Toulouse; Department of Neurology (E.M., C.P.), Hôpital de la Pitié Salpêtrière, AP-HP, Paris; Biopathologie de la Myéline, Neuroprotection et Stratégies Thérapeutiques (N.C.), INSERM U1119, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), Université de Strasbourg; Département de Neurologie (N.C.) and Centre d'Investigation Clinique, INSERM U1434 (N.C.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Strasbourg; Department of Neurology (B.B.), Hôpital Charles Nicolle, CHU Rouen; Centre de Ressources et Compétences Sclérose en Plaques, Neurologie (M.S.), Université Nice Côte d'Azur, CHU Pasteur 2, Nice; Department of Neurology (S.W., D.L.), CHU Nantes; Service de Neurologie, Sclérose en Plaques, Pathologies de la Myéline et Neuro-inflammation (S.V., R.M.), Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer Hospices Civils de Lyon; Centre de Référence des Maladies Inflammatoires Rares du Cerveau et de la Moelle (R.M.), Lyon; and INSERM U1028 (R.M.), CNRS UMR 5292, Center for Research in Neuroscience of Lyon, Lyon1 University, France.

Objective: To compare the efficacy and the risk of severe infectious events of immunosuppressive agents used early as first-line therapy in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).

Methods: We retrospectively included patients with NMOSD and a seropositive status for aquaporin 4 or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies beginning first-line immunosuppressants within 3 years after the disease onset. The main outcome was occurrence of relapse after the initiation of immunosuppressants; the secondary outcome was the annual relapse rate (AAR).

Results: A total of 136 patients were included: 62 (45.6%) were treated with rituximab (RTX), 42 (30.9%) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and 23 (16.9%) with azathioprine (AZA). Compared with RTX-treated patients, the risk of relapse was higher among MMF-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR], 2.74 [1.17-6.40]; = 0.020) after adjusting for age at disease onset, sex, antibody status, disease duration, ARR before treatment, corticosteroid intake, and relapse location. We did not observe any difference between RTX-treated and AZA-treated patients (HR, 2.13 [0.72-6.28]; = 0.17). No interaction was found between the antibody status and immunosuppressive treatments. ARR was lower with RTX than with MMF ( = 0.039), but no difference was observed with AZA. We observed 9 serious infectious events with MMF, 6 with RTX, and none with AZA.

Conclusions: The use of first-line RTX in NMOSD appears more effective than MMF in suppressing clinical activity, independent of the antibody status.

Classification Of Evidence: That study provides Class III evidence that for patients with NMOSD, first-line RTX is superior to MMF to reduce the risk of relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009245DOI Listing
April 2020

Electrophysiological features of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy associated with IgG4 antibodies targeting neurofascin 155 or contactin 1 glycoproteins.

Clin Neurophysiol 2020 04 6;131(4):921-927. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Neurology, APHP, Hôpital Pitie Salpêtrière, France.

Objective: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies (CIDP) with antibodies against neurofascin 155 (Nfasc155) or contactin-1 (CNTN1) have distinctive clinical features. Knowledge on their electrophysiological characteristics is still scarce. In this study, we are investigating whether these patients have specific electrophysiological characteristics.

Methods: The electrophysiological data from 13 patients with anti-Nfasc155 IgG4 antibodies, 9 with anti-CNTN1 IgG4 antibodies were compared with those of 40 consecutive CIDP patients without antibodies.

Results: All the patients with antibodies against Nfasc155 or CNTN1 fulfilled the EFNS/PNS electrodiagnostic criteria for definite CIDP. There was no electrophysiological difference between patients with anti-CNTN1 and anti-Nfasc155 antibodies. Nerve conduction abnormalities were heterogeneously distributed along nerves trunks and roots. They were more pronounced than in CIDP without antibodies. Motor conduction velocity on median nerve <24 m/s or motor velocity on ulnar nerve <26 m/s or motor distal latency on ulnar nerve >7.4 ms were predictive of positive antibodies against the node of Ranvier with a sensitivity of 59% and a specificity of 93%.

Conclusions: Marked conduction abnormalities may suggest the presence of positive antibodies against the node of Ranvier.

Significance: Anti-Nfasc155 and anti-CNTN1 antibodies target the the paranodal axo-glial domain but are associated with nerve conduction abnormalities mimicking a "demyelinating" neuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2020.01.013DOI Listing
April 2020

Papilledema and Peripheral Neuropathies.

Neurologist 2019 Nov;24(6):185-193

Neurology, CHU Limoges (Dupuytren University Hospital), Limoges.

Introduction: Papilledema is a common sign in ophthalmology and is typically associated with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in neurological diseases. Since the beginning of the 20th century, some cases of papilledema have been reported in association with acute or chronic inflammatory neuropathies.

Case Report: We describe a 42-year-old man with acute-onset inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy and bilateral papilledema.

Conclusions: Based on a personal case report and from an extensive review of the medical literature, we identify 2 distinct patterns. First, radiculoneuropathy may be a consequence of intracranial pressure (peripheral nerve involvement corresponding to a "false localizing sign"). Second, papilledema may occur after the onset of inflammatory neuropathy. For such cases, the pathophysiological mechanism remains unknown (eg, reactional inflammatory processes or actions of unknown autoantibodies) and requires further elucidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NRL.0000000000000250DOI Listing
November 2019

Prospective validation of the PML risk biomarker l-selectin and influence of natalizumab extended intervals.

Neurology 2019 09 22;93(12):550-554. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

From the Department of Neurology with Institute of Translational Neurology (N.S., T.S.-H., P.O., L.K., C.C.G., S.G.M., H.W.), University of Münster, Münster, Germany; CRC-SEP-Neurosciences Department (B.P., F.B., L.S., J.C., D. Biotti, D. Brassat), CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France; CPTP-INSERM U1043-CNRS U5282-Université Toulouse III (B.P., F.B., L.S., D. Brassat), Toulouse, France; APHM (C.L.-F.), Hôpital de la Timone, Pôle de Neurosciences Cliniques, Marseille, France; CHU of Nice (G.M.), Nice, France; CHU Montpied, Neurology, Clermont-Ferrand, France (P.C.); APHM (J.P.), Hôpital de la Timone, Pôle de Neurosciences Cliniques, Service de Neurologie, CRCSEP Marseille, France; Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology (I.M.), Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany; Department of Neurology (S.W.), Clinics Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany; and Department of Neurology (F.G.), Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008135DOI Listing
September 2019

Hearing loss in inherited peripheral neuropathies: Molecular diagnosis by NGS in a French series.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 09 8;7(9):e839. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

University of Limoges, MMNP, Limoges, France.

Background: The most common inherited peripheral neuropathy is Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), with a prevalence of 1/2500. Other symptoms can be associated to the condition, such as hearing loss. Currently, no global hearing impairment assessment has been determined, and the physiopathology is not well known.

Methods: The aim of the study was to analyze among a French series of 3,412 patients with inherited peripheral neuropathy (IPN), the ones who also suffer from hearing loss, to establish phenotype-genotype correlations. An NGS strategy for IPN one side and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) on the other side, were performed.

Results: Hearing loss (HL) was present in only 44 patients (1.30%). The clinical data of 27 patients were usable. Demyelinating neuropathy was diagnosed in 15 cases and axonal neuropathy in 12 cases. HL varied from mild to profound. Five cases of auditory neuropathy were noticed. Diagnosis was made for 60% of these patients. Seven novel pathogenic variants were discovered in five different genes: PRPS1; MPZ; SH3TC2; NEFL; and ABHD12. Two patients with PMP22 variant, had also an additional variant in COCH and MYH14 respectively. No pathogenic variant was found at the DFNB1 locus. Genotype-phenotype correlations do exist, especially with SH3TC2, PRPS1, ABHD12, NEFL, and TRPV4.

Conclusion: Involvement of PMP22 is not enough to explain hearing loss in patients suffering from IPN. HL can be due to cochlear impairment and/or auditory nerve dysfunction. HL is certainly underdiagnosed, and should be evaluated in every patient suffering from IPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732311PMC
September 2019

Evaluation of treatment response in adults with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Jul 2;16(1):134. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Service de Neurologie, Sclérose en Plaques, Pathologies de la Myéline et Neuro-Inflammation, Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Background: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) are related to several acquired demyelinating syndromes in adults, but the therapeutic approach is currently unclear. We aimed to describe the response to different therapeutic strategies in adult patients with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease.

Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in France and Spain including 125 relapsing MOG-Ab patients aged ≥ 18 years. First, we performed a survival analysis to investigate the relapse risk between treated and non-treated patients, performing a propensity score method based on the inverse probability of treatment weighting. Second, we assessed the annualised relapse rates (ARR), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and visual acuity pre-treatment and on/end-treatment.

Results: Median age at onset was 34.1 years (range 18.0-67.1), the female to male ratio was 1.2:1, and 96% were Caucasian. At 5 years, 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.1-89.8) patients relapsed. At the last follow-up, 66 (52.8%) received maintenance therapy. Patients initiating immunosuppressants (azathioprine, mycophenolate mophetil [MMF], rituximab) were at lower risk of new relapse in comparison to non-treated patients (HR, 0.41; 95CI%, 0.20-0.82; p = 0.011). Mean ARR (standard deviation) was reduced from 1.05(1.20) to 0.43(0.79) with azathioprine (n = 11; p = 0.041), from 1.20(1.11) to 0.23(0.60) with MMF (n = 11; p = 0.033), and from 1.08(0.98) to 0.43(0.89) with rituximab (n = 26; p = 0.012). Other immunosuppressants (methotrexate/mitoxantrone/cyclophosphamide; n = 5), or multiple sclerosis disease-modifying drugs (MS-DMD; n = 9), were not associated with significantly reduced ARR. Higher rates of freedom of EDSS progression were observed with azathioprine, MMF or rituximab.

Conclusion: In adults with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease, immunosuppressant therapy (azathioprine, MMF and rituximab) is associated with reduced risk of relapse and better disability outcomes. Such an effect was not found in the few patients treated with MS-DMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1525-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6607517PMC
July 2019

Frequency and characteristics of short versus longitudinally extensive myelitis in adults with MOG antibodies: A retrospective multicentric study.

Mult Scler 2020 07 31;26(8):936-944. Epub 2019 May 31.

Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, Villeurbanne, France.

Objectives: We aim to (1) determine the frequency and distinctive features of short myelitis (SM) and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) in a cohort of adults with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody (Ab)-associated myelitis and (2) determine baseline prognostic factors among MOG-Ab-positive patients whose disease started with myelitis.

Material And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical and paraclinical variables from a multicentric French cohort of adults with MOG-Ab-associated myelitis. At last follow-up, patients were classified into two groups according to the severity of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) as ⩽2.5 or ⩾3.0.

Results: Seventy-three patients with at least one episode of myelitis over disease course were included; among them, 28 (38.4%) presented with SM at the time of the first myelitis. Motor and sphincter involvement was less frequently observed in SM (51.9% and 48.2%, respectively) than in LETM patients (83.3% and 78.6%, respectively),  = 0.007 and  = 0.017; 61% of LETM patients displayed brain lesions compared to 28.6% in the SM group,  = 0.008, and the thoracic segment was more frequently involved in the LETM (82.2%) than in the SM group (39.3%),  < 0.001. EDSS at last follow-up was higher in LETM (median 3.0 (interquartile range: 2.0-4.0)) compared to SM patients (2.0, (1.0-3.0)),  = 0.042. Finally, a higher EDSS at onset was identified as the only independent risk factor for EDSS ⩾3.0 (odds ratio, 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.95,  = 0.046).

Conclusion: SM in MOG-Ab-associated disease is not rare. The severity at onset was the only independent factor related to the final prognosis in MOG-Ab-associated myelitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458519849511DOI Listing
July 2020

What is the Relevance of the Systematic Use of Gadolinium During the MRI Follow-Up of Multiple Sclerosis Patients Under Natalizumab?

Clin Neuroradiol 2020 Sep 29;30(3):553-558. Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Neuroradiology, CHU Purpan, Place du Docteur Baylac, 31059, Toulouse, France.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients represent a population potentially affected by the intracerebral accumulation of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) due to repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed during their lifetime; however, MRI is still the best tool to monitor MS inflammatory activity.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relevance of GBCA injections during the MRI follow-up of MS patients under natalizumab (Tysabri) treatment.

Methods: The MRI data results were retrospectively reviewed in a monocentric study (University Hospital of Toulouse, France) from all consecutive patients treated with natalizumab from January 2014 to January 2017. For each examination during the whole MRI follow-up, new lesions (enhancing and non-enhancing) were analyzed.

Results: A total of 129 patients were included in this study (65% female, mean age = 41 years, mean treatment duration 6.5 years, 50% positive for John Cunningham virus) and benefited from 735 MRIs with GBCA. Only 3 MRIs showed a new enhancing lesion, systematically encountered after treatment discontinuation.

Conclusion: According to this study based on the clinical and radiological practice, the systematic use of GBCA seems of limited relevance in the MRI follow-up of asymptomatic patients treated continuously with natalizumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00062-019-00794-0DOI Listing
September 2020

Correction to: Usefulness of MOG-antibody titres at first episode to predict the future clinical course in adults.

J Neurol 2019 Apr;266(4):816

Service de neurologie, sclérose en plaques, pathologies de la myéline et neuro-inflammation and Centre de référence pour les maladies inflammatoires rares du cerveau et de la moelle (MIRCEM), Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer Hospices Civils de Lyon, 59 boulevard Pinel, BRON cedex, 69677, Lyon, France.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09215-1DOI Listing
April 2019

First clinical inflammatory demyelinating events of the central nervous system in a population aged over 70 years: A multicentre study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Feb 14;28:309-312. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Service de Neurologie, CHU de Bordeaux, Place Amélie Raba Léon, F-33076, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Background: Few data are available regarding patients with very late-onset inflammatory demyelinating events. (VLO-IDE).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, biological, and radiological characteristics and aetiological diagnosis of very late first inflammatory demyelinating events of the central nervous system.

Methods: We conducted a national descriptive retrospective multicentre study on a case series of patients aged >70 years at the time of VLO-IDE. Patients were recruited from a national call on behalf of the 'Société Francophone de la Sclérose en Plaques' (French Multiple Sclerosis Society).

Results: Twenty-five patients were referred (F:M sex ratio 2.1:1). The most frequent clinical impairment was a spinal cord deficit (23/25), usually severe (disability score, median EDSS 4.5 [2-9.5]). Spinal cord lesions were usually extensive, spanning at least three segments (11/25), and large brain lesions were also observed (lesions >20 mm in 6/25). The final aetiological diagnoses comprised multiple sclerosis (9/25), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (7/25), neurosystemic lupus erythematosus (2/25), transverse myelitis without aetiological diagnosis (6/25) and optic neuritis (1/25).

Conclusions: This study highlights a particular phenotype of first clinical inflammatory demyelinating events in predominantly female patients aged >70 years who have severe motor impairment with common longitudinal extensive myelitis and large and common very active radiological inflammatory lesions. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders seem overrepresented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2018.12.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Area postrema syndrome: Another feature of anti-GFAP encephalomyelitis.

Mult Scler 2020 02 21;26(2):253-255. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Lyon, France.

Anti-Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) encephalomyelitis is a recently described entity and while the spectrum of this disease has been explored, further research is needed to fully describe its phenotype. Area postrema syndrome (APS) is usually associated with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), whereas no case of APS has been previously reported with anti-GFAP encephalomyelitis. In this article, we report a case of APS in a 41-year-old woman in the context of anti-GFAP encephalomyelitis. This case was not associated with additional anti-AQP4 IgG and therefore extends the clinico-radiological spectrum of anti-GFAP encephalomyelitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458518817992DOI Listing
February 2020

Usefulness of MOG-antibody titres at first episode to predict the future clinical course in adults.

J Neurol 2019 Apr 3;266(4):806-815. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Service de neurologie, sclérose en plaques, pathologies de la myéline et neuro-inflammation and Centre de référence pour les maladies inflammatoires rares du cerveau et de la moelle (MIRCEM), Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer Hospices Civils de Lyon, 59 boulevard Pinel, BRON cedex, 69677, Lyon, France.

Objective: To analyze whether myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab) titres at onset of the disease were different according to the clinical phenotype at presentation, and to investigate whether the titres were associated with risk of further relapses or predicted clinical outcome in adult patients. Finally, we assessed an alternative method to the classical measurement of MOG-Ab levels by serial dilutions.

Methods: This is a retrospective study including 79 MOG-Ab-positive adult patients, whose samples were obtained at first episode. MOG-Ab were tested by cell-based assay. HEK293 cells were transfected (tHEK293) with human-MOG plasmid. Non-tHEK293 cells were used as negative controls. Assessment of antibody titres was performed by serial dilution, and delta mean fluorescence intensity ratio signal (MOG-ratio ΔMFI) by flow cytometry. MOG-ratio ΔMFI was calculated as follows: (MFI tHEK293cells- MFI non-tHEK293cells)/MFI non-tHEK293cells. MOG-ratio ΔMFI was calculated from the first serum dilution at 1:320. The association between MOG-Ab titres and risk of relapse was analyzed by Cox regression. The association between MOG-Ab titres and visual or motor disability at last follow-up was performed by binary logistic regression. Poor visual outcome was defined when patients displayed some degree of visual disability (visual acuity [VA] < 20/20) and poor motor outcome when patients displayed some degree of motor disability (Disability Status Scale [DSS] > 1). We also investigated correlations between MOG-Ab titres and MOG-ratio ΔMFI.

Results: MOG-Ab titres were higher in Caucasians than in those with other ethnicities, and in patients with a more severe VA (VA ≤ 20/100) or motor disability (DSS ≥ 3.0) at onset (p = 0.006, 0.034, and 0.058, respectively). MOG-Ab titres were not associated with risk of relapses or with the final clinical outcome. MOG-ratio ΔMFI correlated with MOG-Ab titres in the whole cohort (ρ = 0.90; p < 0.001), and when stratified by initial clinical phenotype.

Conclusion: High MOG-Ab titres at onset are associated with a more severe presentation, but do not predict the future disease course. MOG-ratio ΔMFI is an alternative and straightforward method to determine MOG-Ab levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-9160-9DOI Listing
April 2019

The coexistence of recurrent cerebral tumefactive demyelinating lesions with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and demyelinating neuropathy.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Jan 3;27:223-225. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Neurology, CHU Montpellier, 80 avenue Augustin Fliche, Montpellier 34000, France.

Combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD) is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder of the nervous system. In this article, we report on a CCPD patient with a very unusual pattern of central demyelination, comprising recurrent cerebral tumefactive demyelinating lesions (three times, each one in a new area of the brain) and one episode of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. This patient could not be classified as having multiple sclerosis, or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, or any other well-known inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, associated with demyelinating neuropathy. A diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disorder (IIDD) was made while waiting for more knowledge concerning the diseases currently characterized as IIDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2018.11.002DOI Listing
January 2019
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