Publications by authors named "Jonas Gunnarsson"

33 Publications

Long-term response of marine benthic fauna to thin-layer capping with powdered activated carbon in the Grenland fjords, Norway.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 19;776:145971. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway.

The Grenland fjords in Norway have a long history of contamination by large emissions of dioxins and mercury. As a possible sediment remediation method in situ, thin-layer capping with powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed with clay was applied at two test sites at 30 m and 95 m depth in the Grenland fjords. This study presents long-term effects of the AC treatment on the benthic community structure, i.e. nine years after capping. Capping with AC significantly reduced the number of species, their abundance and biomass at the two test sites, compared to uncapped reference sites. At the more shallow site, the dominant brittle star species Amphiura filiformis disappeared shortly after capping and did not re-establish nine years after capping. At the deeper site, the AC treatment also caused long-lasting negative effects on the benthic community, but some recovery was observed after nine years. Ecological indices used to assess environmental status did not capture the impaired benthic communities caused by the capping. The present study is the first documentation of negative effects of powdered AC on marine benthic communities on a decadal scale. Our results show that the benefits of reduced contaminant bioavailability from capping with AC should be carefully weighed against the cost of long-term detrimental effects on the benthic community. More research is needed to develop a thin-layer capping material that is efficient at sequestering contaminants without being harmful to benthic species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145971DOI Listing
February 2021

Impaired benthic macrofauna function 4 years after sediment capping with activated carbon in the Grenland fjords, Norway.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 2;28(13):16181-16197. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences (DEEP), Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

The sediments in the Grenland fjords in southern Norway are heavily contaminated by large emissions of dioxins and mercury from historic industrial activities. As a possible in situ remediation option, thin-layer sediment surface capping with powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed with clay was applied at two large test sites (10,000 and 40,000 m) at 30-m and 95-m depths, respectively, in 2009. This paper describes the long-term biological effects of the AC treatment on marine benthic communities up to 4 years after treatment. Our results show that the capping with AC strongly reduced the benthic species diversity, abundance, and biomass by up to 90%. Vital functions in the benthic ecosystem such as particle reworking and bioirrigation of the sediment were also reduced, analyzed by using novel bioturbation and bioirrigation indices (BP, BIP, and IP). Much of the initial effects observed after 1 and 14 months were still present after 49 months, indicating that the effects are long-lasting. These long-lasting negative ecological effects should be carefully considered before decisions are made on sediment remediation with powdered AC, especially in large areas, since important ecosystem functions can be impaired.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11607-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969561PMC
April 2021

Long-term effects of thin layer capping in the Grenland fjords, Norway: Reduced uptake of dioxins in passive samplers and sediment-dwelling organisms.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 7;264(Pt 2):128544. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, 0806, Oslo, Norway.

The Grenlandfjords in South East Norway are severely contaminated with dioxins from a magnesium smelter operated between 1950 and 2001. In 2009, the proposal of thin-layer capping as a potential mitigation method to reduce spreading of dioxins from the fjord sediments, resulted in the set-up of a large-scale field experiment in two fjord areas at 30 and 100 m depth. After capping, several investigations have been carried out to determine effects on benthic communities and bioavailability of dioxins. In this paper we present the results on uptake of dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) in passive samplers and two sediment-dwelling species exposed in boxcores collected from the test plots during four surveys between 2009 (after cap placement) and 2018. Sediment profile images (SPI) and analyses of dioxins revealed that the thin (1-5 cm) cap layers became buried beneath several centimeters of sediments resuspended from adjacent bottoms and deposited on the test plots after capping. Uptake reduction ratios (R) were calculated as dioxins accumulated in cores collected from capped sediments divided by dioxins accumulated in cores collected from uncapped reference sediments. Cap layers with dredged clay or crushed limestone had only short-term positive effect with R-values increasing to about 1.0 (no effect) 1-4 years after capping. In spite of the recontamination, cap layers with clay and activated carbon had significant long-term effects with R-values slowly increasing from 0.12-0.33 during the first three years to 0.39-0.46 in 2018, showing 54-61% reduced uptake of dioxins (PCDD/F-TE) nine years after capping with AC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128544DOI Listing
February 2021

Activated carbon stimulates microbial diversity and PAH biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in oil-polluted sediments.

Chemosphere 2020 Jun 24;248:126023. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Biodegradation by microorganisms is a useful tool that helps alleviating hydrocarbon pollution in nature. Microbes are more efficient in degradation under aerobic than anaerobic conditions, but the majority of sediment by volume is generally anoxic. Incubation experiments were conducted to study the biodegradation potential of naphthalene-a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-and the diversity of microbial communities in presence/absence of activated carbon (AC) under aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Radio-respirometry experiments with endogenous microorganisms indicated that degradation of naphthalene was strongly stimulated (96%) by the AC addition under anaerobic conditions. In aerobic conditions, however, AC had no effects on naphthalene biodegradation. Bioaugmentation tests with cultured microbial populations grown on naphthalene showed that AC further stimulated (92%) naphthalene degradation in anoxia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences implied that sediment amendment with AC increased microbial community diversity and changed community structure. Moreover, the relative abundance of Geobacter, Thiobacillus, Sulfuricurvum, and methanogenic archaea increased sharply after amendment with AC under anaerobic conditions. These results may be explained by the fact that AC particles promoted direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between microorganisms involved in PAH degradation pathways. We suggest that important ecosystem functions mediated by microbes-such as hydrocarbon degradation-can be induced and that AC enrichment strategies can be exploited for facilitating bioremediation of anoxic oil-contaminated sediments and soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126023DOI Listing
June 2020

Salinity drives meiofaunal community structure dynamics across the Baltic ecosystem.

Mol Ecol 2019 08 5;28(16):3813-3829. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Coastal benthic biodiversity is under increased pressure from climate change, eutrophication, hypoxia, and changes in salinity due to increase in river runoff. The Baltic Sea is a large brackish system characterized by steep environmental gradients that experiences all of the mentioned stressors. As such it provides an ideal model system for studying the impact of on-going and future climate change on biodiversity and function of benthic ecosystems. Meiofauna (animals < 1 mm) are abundant in sediment and are still largely unexplored even though they are known to regulate organic matter degradation and nutrient cycling. In this study, benthic meiofaunal community structure was analysed along a salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea proper using high-throughput sequencing. Our results demonstrate that areas with higher salinity have a higher biodiversity, and salinity is probably the main driver influencing meiofauna diversity and community composition. Furthermore, in the more diverse and saline environments a larger amount of nematode genera classified as predators prevailed, and meiofauna-macrofauna associations were more prominent. These findings show that in the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity resulting from accelerated climate change will probably lead to decreased benthic biodiversity, and cause profound changes in benthic communities, with potential consequences for ecosystem stability, functions and services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6852176PMC
August 2019

Capping with activated carbon reduces nutrient fluxes, denitrification and meiofauna in contaminated sediments.

Water Res 2019 01 31;148:515-525. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.

Sediment capping with activated carbon (AC) is an effective technique used in remediation of contaminated sediments, but the ecological effects on benthic microbial activity and meiofauna communities have been largely neglected. This study presents results from a 4-week experiment investigating the influence of two powdered AC materials (bituminous coal-based and coconut shell-derived) and one control material (clay) on biogeochemical processes and meiofauna in contaminated sediments. Capping with AC induced a 62-63% decrease in denitrification and a 66-87% decrease in dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Sediment porewater pH increased from 7.1 to 9.0 and 9.7 after addition of bituminous AC and biomass-derived AC, respectively. High pH (>8) persisted for at least two weeks in the bituminous AC and for at least 24 days in the coconut based AC, while capping with clay had no effect on pH. We observed a strong impact (nitrate fluxes being halved in presence of AC) on nitrification activity as nitrifiers are sensitive to high pH. This partly explains the significant decrease in nitrate reduction rates since denitrification was almost entirely coupled to nitrification. Total benthic metabolism estimated by sediment oxygen uptake was reduced by 30 and 43% in presence of bituminous coal-based AC and coconut shell-derived AC, respectively. Meiofauna abundances decreased by 60-62% in the AC treatments. Taken together, these observations suggest that AC amendments deplete natural organic carbon, intended as food, to heterotrophic benthic communities. Phosphate efflux was 91% lower in presence of bituminous AC compared to untreated sediment probably due to its content of aluminum (Al) oxides, which have high affinity for phosphate. This study demonstrates that capping with powdered AC produces significant effects on benthic biogeochemical fluxes, microbial processes and meiofauna abundances, which are likely due to an increase in porewater pH and to the sequestration of natural, sedimentary organic matter by AC particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.083DOI Listing
January 2019

Ecotoxicology in tropical regions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 05 24;25(14):13203-13206. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Regional Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances (IRET), National University (UNA), Heredia, Costa Rica.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1887-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5978835PMC
May 2018

Insect community composition and functional roles along a tropical agricultural production gradient.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 May 30;25(14):13426-13438. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Botany, Stockholm University, SE-109 61, Stockholm, Sweden.

High intensity agricultural production systems are problematic not only for human health and the surrounding environment, but can threaten the provision of ecosystem services on which farm productivity depends. This research investigates the effects of management practices in Costa Rica on on-farm insect diversity, using three different types of banana farm management systems: high-input conventional system, low-input conventional system, and organic system. Insect sampling was done using pitfall and yellow bowl traps, left for a 24-h period at two locations inside the banana farm, at the edge of the farm, and in adjacent forest. All 39,091 individual insects were classified to family level and then morphospecies. Insect species community composition and diversity were compared using multivariate statistics with ordination analysis and Monte Carlo permutation testing, and revealed that each of the management systems were significantly different from each other for both trap types. Insect diversity decreased as management intensity increased. Reduced insect diversity resulted in fewer functional groups and fewer insect families assuming different functions essential to ecosystem health. Organic farms had similar species composition on the farm compared to adjacent forest sites, whereas species composition increasingly differed between farm and forest sites as management intensity increased. We conclude that while organic production has minimal impact on insect biodiversity, even small reductions in management intensity can have a significantly positive impact on on-farm insect biodiversity and functional roles supported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1818-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5978824PMC
May 2018

Response of marine benthic fauna to thin-layer capping with activated carbon in a large-scale field experiment in the Grenland fjords, Norway.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jun 18;24(16):14218-14233. Epub 2017 Apr 18.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences (DEEP), Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

A field experiment with thin-layer capping was conducted in the Grenland fjords, Norway, for remediation in situ of mercury and dioxin-contaminated sediments. Experimental fields at 30 and 95 m depth were capped with (i) powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed with clay (AC+cla`y), (ii) clay, and (iii) crushed limestone. Ecological effects on the benthic community and species-feeding guilds were studied 1 and 14 months after capping, and a total of 158 species were included in the analyses. The results show that clay and limestone had only minor effects on the benthic community, while AC+clay caused severe perturbations. AC+clay reduced the abundance, biomass, and number of species by up to 90% at both 30 and 95 m depth, and few indications of recovery were found during the period of this investigation. The negative effects of AC+clay were observed on a wide range of species with different feeding strategies, although the suspension feeding brittle star Amphiura filiformis was particularly affected. Even though activated carbon is effective in reducing sediment-to-water fluxes of dioxins and other organic pollutants, this study shows that capping with powdered AC can lead to substantial disturbances to the benthic community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8851-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5486621PMC
June 2017

Assessing the ecological impact of banana farms on water quality using aquatic macroinvertebrate community composition.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 May 23;25(14):13373-13381. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences (DEEP), Stockholm University, S-10961, Stockholm, SE, Sweden.

In Costa Rica, considerable effort goes to conservation and protection of biodiversity, while at the same time agricultural pesticide use is among the highest in the world. Several protected areas, some being wetlands or marine reserves, are situated downstream large-scale banana farms, with an average of 57 pesticide applications per year. The banana industry is increasingly aware of the need to reduce their negative environmental impact, but few ecological field studies have been made to evaluate the efficiency of proposed mitigation strategies. This study compared the composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities up- and downstream effluent water from banana farms in order to assess whether benthic invertebrate community structure can be used to detect environmental impact of banana farming, and thereby usable to assess improvements in management practises. Aquatic invertebrate samples were collected at 13 sites, using kick-net sampling, both up- and downstream banana farms in fast flowing streams in the Caribbean zone of Costa Rica. In total, 2888 invertebrate specimens were collected, belonging to 15 orders and 48 families or taxa. The change in community composition was analysed using multivariate statistics. Additionally, a biodiversity index and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) score system was applied along with a number of community composition descriptors. Multivariate analyses indicated that surface waters immediately up- and downstream large-scale banana farms have different macroinvertebrate community compositions with the most evident differences being higher dominance by a single taxa and a much higher total abundance, mostly of that same taxon. Assessment of macroinvertebrate community composition thus appears to be a viable approach to detect negative impact from chemical-intensive agriculture and could become an effective means to monitor the efficacy of changes/proposed improvements in farming practises in Costa Rica and similar systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8248-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5978817PMC
May 2018

Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world-The Roskilde recommendations.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2017 01;36(1):7-16

Chapema Environmental Strategies, North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk-Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological context for assessments in human-modified systems; 8) assess risks and benefits to humans and the ecosystem and consider unintended consequences of management actions; 9) avoid excessive conservatism or possible underprotection resulting from sole reliance on binary, numerical benchmarks; and 10) develop adaptive risk-management and regulatory goals based on ranges of uncertainty. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:7-16. © 2016 SETAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.3513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130322PMC
January 2017

Comparison of predicted aquatic risks of pesticides used under different rice-farming strategies in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 May 16;25(14):13322-13334. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

This study evaluates the risks of pesticides applied in rice-fish and rice farming, with and without integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, to non-target aquatic organisms in two provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Pesticide inventories and application patterns were collected from 120 Vietnamese farmers through interviews. Risks were assessed using (1) Pesticide RIsks in the Tropics to Man, Environment, and Trade (PRIMET), a first-tier model, which calculates predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pesticides in the rice field, based on the compound's physico-chemical properties and the application pattern, and then compares the PECs to safe concentrations based on literature data, and (2) species sensitivity distribution (SSD), a second-tier assessment model using species sensitivity distributions to calculate potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species based on the PECs from PRIMET. Our results show that several of the used insecticides pose a high risk to fish and arthropods and that the risks are higher among rice farmers than among rice-fish farmers. This study indicates that the PRIMET model in combination with SSDs offer suitable approaches to help farmers and plant protection staff to identify pesticides that may cause high risk to the environment and therefore should be substituted with safer alternatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7991-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5978820PMC
May 2018

Toward a conceptual approach for assessing risks from chemical mixtures and other stressors to coastal ecosystem services.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017 Mar 1;13(2):376-386. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Growth of human populations and increased human activity, particularly in coastal areas, increase pressure on coastal ecosystems and the ecosystem services (ES) they provide. As a means toward being able to assess the impact of multiple stressors on ES, in the present study we propose an 8-step conceptual approach for assessing effects of chemical mixtures and other stressors on ES in coastal areas: step A, identify the relevant problems and policy aims; step B, identify temporal and spatial boundaries; step C, identify relevant ES; step D, identify relevant stressors (e.g., chemicals); step E, translate impacts into ES units; step F, assess cumulative risk in ES units; step G, rank stressors based on their contribution to adverse effects on ES; and step H, implement regulation and management as appropriate and necessary. Two illustrative case studies (Swedish coastal waters and a coastal lagoon in Costa Rica) are provided; one focuses on chemicals that affect human food supply and the other addresses pesticide runoff and trade-offs among ES. The 2 cases are used to highlight challenges of such risk assessments, including use of standardized versus ES-relevant test species, data completeness, and trade-offs among ES. Lessons learned from the 2 case studies are discussed in relation to environmental risk assessment and management of chemical mixtures. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:376-386. © 2016 SETAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.1849DOI Listing
March 2017

In situ toxicity and ecological risk assessment of agro-pesticide runoff in the Madre de Dios River in Costa Rica.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 May 18;25(14):13270-13282. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences (DEEP), Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

The River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its lagoon is a biodiversity rich watershed formed by a system of streams, rivers, channels, and a coastal lagoon communicating with the Caribbean Sea. This basin sustains a large area of agricultural activity (mostly banana, rice, and pineapple) with intensive use of pesticides, continually detected in water samples. We investigated in situ the toxicological effects caused by pesticide runoff from agriculture and the relation of pesticide concentrations with different biological organization levels: early responses in fish biomarkers (sub-organismal), acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (organismal), and aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure. The evaluation was carried out between October 2011 and November 2012 at five sites along the RMD influenced by agricultural discharges and a reference site in a stream outside the RMD that receives less pesticides. Acute toxicity to D. magna was observed only once in a sample from the RMD (Caño Azul); the index of biomarker responses in fish exposed in situ was higher than controls at the same site and at the RMD-Freeman. However, only macroinvertebrates were statistically related to the presence of pesticides, combined with both physical-chemical parameters and habitat degradation. All three groups of variables determined the distribution of macroinvertebrate taxa through the study sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7817-4DOI Listing
May 2018

Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in the River Madre de Dios, Costa Rica using PERPEST, SSD, and msPAF models.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 May 12;25(14):13254-13269. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences (DEEP), Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

This study assesses the ecological risks (ERA) of pesticides to aquatic organisms in the River Madre de Dios (RMD), which receives surface runoff water from banana, pineapple, and rice plantations on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Water samples collected over 2 years at five sites in the RMD revealed a total of 26 pesticides. Their toxicity risk to aquatic organisms was assessed using three recent ERA models. (1) The PERPEST model showed a high probability (>50 %) of clear toxic effects of pesticide mixtures on algae, macrophytes, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and community metabolism and a low probability (<50 %) of clear effects on fish. (2) Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) showed a moderate to high risk of three herbicides: ametryn, bromacil, diuron and four insecticides: carbaryl, diazinon, ethoprophos, terbufos. (3) The multi-substance potentially affected fraction (msPAF) model showed results consistent with PERPEST: high risk to algae (maximum msPAF: 73 %), aquatic plants (61 %), and arthropods (25 %) and low risk to fish (0.2 %) from pesticide mixtures. The pesticides posing the highest risks according to msPAF and that should be substituted with less toxic substances were the herbicides ametryn, diuron, the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethoprophos, and the fungicide difenoconazole. Ecological risks were highest near the plantations and decreased progressively further downstream. The risk to fish was found to be relatively low in these models, but water samples were not collected during fish kill events and some highly toxic pesticides known to be used were not analyzed for in this study. Further sampling and analysis of water samples is needed to determine toxicity risks to fish during peaks of pesticide mixture concentrations. The msPAF model, which estimates the ecological risks of mixtures based on their toxic modes of action, was found to be the most suitable model to assess toxicity risks to aquatic organisms in the RMD. The PERPEST model was found to be a strong tool for screening risk assessments. The SSD approach is useful in deriving water quality criteria for specific pesticides. This study, through the application of three ERA models, clearly shows that pesticides used in plantations within the RMD watershed are expected to have severe adverse effects on most groups of aquatic organisms and that actions are urgently needed to reduce pesticide pollution in this high biodiversity ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7375-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5978829PMC
May 2018

Pelvic organ prolapse repair using the Uphold™ Vaginal Support System: a 1-year multicenter study.

Int Urogynecol J 2016 Sep 13;27(9):1337-45. Epub 2016 Feb 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Danderyd Hospital, Danderyd, Sweden.

Introduction And Hypothesis: The objective was to assess safety and clinical outcomes in women operated on using the Uphold™ Lite Vaginal Support System.

Methods: We carried out a 1-year, multicenter, prospective, single cohort study of 207 women with symptomatic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage ≥2 apical pelvic organ prolapse, with or without concomitant anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Safety data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Anatomical outcome was assessed by the POP-Q and subjective outcomes by the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory after 2 months and 1 year using a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale.

Results: The overall rate of serious complications was 4.3 % (9 out of 207 patients), including 3 patients with bladder perforations, 1 with bleeding >1,000 ml, 2 who had undergone re-operations with complete mesh removal because of pain, and 3 surgical interventions during follow-up because of mesh exposure. POP-Q stage ≤1 after 1 year was 94 % and subjective symptom relief was reported by 91 % of patients (p < 0.001). Pain after 2 months and 1 year was 60 % lower compared with the preoperative mean (p < 0.001). Minor complications occurred in 20 women (9.7 %) and were dominated by lower urinary tract dysfunction. No predisposing risk factors for complications were found.

Conclusions: The Uphold™ Lite procedure in women with apical pelvic organ prolapse provided satisfactory restoration of vaginal topography and symptom relief. However, serious complication rates were largely comparable with those of other transvaginal mesh kits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-016-2973-0DOI Listing
September 2016

Capping in situ with activated carbon in Trondheim harbor (Norway) reduces bioaccumulation of PCBs and PAHs in marine sediment fauna.

Mar Environ Res 2015 Aug 10;109:103-12. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), P.O. Box 3930 Ullevål Stadium, N-0806 Oslo, Norway; Institute for Environmental Science (IMV), Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), 1432 Ås, Norway; Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

Three types of thin-layer caps with activated carbon (AC) were tested in situ in experimental plots (10 × 10 m) in Trondheim harbor, Norway, using AC + clay, AC-only or AC + sand. One year after capping, intact sediment cores were collected from the amended plots for ex situ surveys of the capping efficiency in reducing the PAH and PCB aqueous concentrations and bioaccumulation by the polychaete Hediste diversicolor and the clam Abra nitida. Reduced pore water concentrations were observed in all AC treatments. The capping efficiency was in general AC + clay > AC-only > AC + sand. AC + clay reduced bioaccumulation of PAH and PCB congeners between 40% and 87% in the worms and between 67% and 97% in the clams. Sediment capped with AC-only also led to reduced bioaccumulation of PCBs, while AC + sand showed no reduction in bioaccumulation. Thus the best thin-layer capping method in this study was AC mixed with clay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2015.06.003DOI Listing
August 2015

A large-scale field trial of thin-layer capping of PCDD/F-contaminated sediments: Sediment-to-water fluxes up to 5 years post-amendment.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016 Apr 19;12(2):216-21. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Environmental Engineering, Oslo, Norway.

The longer-term effect (3-5 y) of thin-layer capping on in situ sediment-to-surface water fluxes was monitored in a large-scale field experiment in the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) contaminated Grenlandfjords, Norway (4 trial plots of 10,000 to 40,000 m(2) at 30 to 100 m water depth). Active caps (designed thickness 2.5 cm) were established in 2 fjords, consisting of dredged clean clay amended with powdered activated carbon (PAC) from anthracite. These active caps were compared to 2 nonactive caps in one of the fjords (designed thickness 5 cm) consisting of either clay only (i.e., without PAC) or crushed limestone. Sediment-to-water PCDD/F fluxes were measured in situ using diffusion chambers. An earlier study showed that during the first 2 years after thin-layer capping, flux reductions relative to noncapped reference fields were more extensive at the fields capped with nonactive caps (70%-90%) than at the ones with PAC-containing caps (50%-60%). However, the present work shows that between 3 and 5 years after thin-layer capping, this trend was reversed and cap effectiveness in reducing fluxes was increasing to 80% to 90% for the PAC caps, whereas cap effectiveness of the nonactive caps decreased to 20% to 60%. The increasing effectiveness over time of PAC-containing "active" caps is explained by a combination of slow sediment-to-PAC mass transfer of PCDD/Fs and bioturbation by benthic organisms. The decreasing effectiveness of "nonactive" limestone and clay caps is explained by deposition of contaminated particles on top of the caps. The present field data indicate that the capping efficiency of thin active caps (i.e., enriched with PAC) can improve over time as a result of slow diffusive PCDD/F transfer from sediment to PAC particles and better mixing of the PAC by bioturbation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.1665DOI Listing
April 2016

Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica.

J Environ Biol 2014 Jan;35(1):73-84

Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances (IRET), Universidad Nacional, Heredia 83-3000, Costa Rica.

Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple plantations. In this study, acute laboratory toxicity tests with organophosphate pesticides ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos were conducted on two Costa Rican species, cladoceran Daphnia ambigua and fish Parachromis dovii. Tests showed that chlorpyrifos was more toxic than ethoprophos to D. ambigua and P. dovii and that D. ambigua was also more sensitive than P. dovii to both pesticides. Additionally, bioassays were performed by exposing D. magna and P. dovii to contaminated water collected from the field. Chemical analyses of field water revealed that fungicides were generally the most frequent pesticide group found, followed by insecticides/nematicides and herbicides. The bioassays and values obtained from the literature confirmed that D. magna was more sensitive to pesticide contamination than P. dovii and that D. ambigua was more sensitive than D. magna, suggesting that the native cladoceran is a more suitable test species than its temperate counterpart. Species sensitivity distributions showed no significant difference in sensitivity between tropical and temperate fish and the arthropod species exposed to chlorpyrifos in this study. Choline esterase activity (ChE) was measured in P. dovii in laboratory tests in order to assess the applicability of this biomarker. ChE inhibition in P. dovii was observed in the laboratory at levels below the LC10 of both ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos, confirming that ChE is an efficient biomarker of exposure. Both indigenous Costa Rican species used in this study were found to be suitable standard tropical test species. Further studies are needed to investigate how protective the safe environmental concentrations, derived from LC50 of native tropical species, are for protecting tropical aquatic natural communities.
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January 2014

Large-scale field study on thin-layer capping of marine PCDD/F-contaminated sediments in Grenlandfjords, Norway: physicochemical effects.

Environ Sci Technol 2012 Nov 18;46(21):12030-7. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

Environmental Engineering, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, P.O Box 3930 Ullevaal, NO-0806 Oslo, Norway.

A large-scale field experiment on in situ thin-layer capping was carried out in the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) contaminated Grenlandsfjords, Norway. The main focus of the trial was to test the effectiveness of active caps (targeted thickness of 2.5 cm) consisting of powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed into locally dredged clean clay. Nonactive caps (targed thickness of 5 cm) consisting of clay without AC as well as crushed limestone were also tested. Fields with areas of 10,000 to 40,000 m(2) were established at 30 to 100 m water depth. Auxiliary shaken laboratory batch experiments showed that 2% of the applied powdered AC substantially reduced PCDD/F porewater concentrations, by >90% for tetra-, penta- and hexa-clorinated congeners to 60-70% for octachlorinated ones. In-situ AC profiles revealed that the AC was mixed into the sediment to 3 to 5 cm depth in 20 months. Only around 25% of the AC was found inside the pilot fields. Sediment-to-water PCDD/F fluxes measured by in situ diffusion chambers were significantly lower at the capped fields than at reference fields in the same fjord, reductions being largest for the limestone (50-90%) followed by clay (50-70%), and the AC + clay (60%). Also reductions in overlying aqueous PCDD/F concentrations measured by passive samplers were significant in most cases (20-40% reduction), probably because of the large size of the trial fields. The AC was less effective in the field than in the laboratory, probably due to prolonged sediment-to-AC mass transfer times for PCDD/Fs and field factors such as integrity of the cap, new deposition of contaminated sediment particles, and bioturbation. The present field data indicate that slightly thicker layers of limestone and dredged clay can show as good physicochemical effectiveness as thin caps of AC mixed with clay, at least for PCDD/Fs during the first two years after cap placement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es302431uDOI Listing
November 2012

Clinical efficacy of a trocar-guided mesh kit for repairing lateral defects.

Int Urogynecol J 2013 Feb 16;24(2):249-54. Epub 2012 Jun 16.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Introduction And Hypothesis: The optimal surgery for lateral defects is not well defined. Our objective was to assess the effects of anterior trocar-guided transvaginal mesh repair versus anterior colporrhaphy in women with lateral defects.

Methods: This subanalysis from a randomized controlled trial of mesh kit versus anterior colporrhaphy assessed 99 patient diagnosed at baseline with lateral defects in the anterior vaginal wall. Thirty-nine patients underwent anterior colporrhaphy and 60 anterior trocar-guided transvaginal mesh surgery.

Results: One year after surgery, a persistent lateral defect was significantly more common after colporrhaphy compared with transvaginal mesh [11/32 (34.4 %) vs 1/42 (2.4 %), risk ratio (RR) 14.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.0-106.1; P < 0.001)] However, there were no significant differences between treatment groups with regard to subjective symptoms as reflected by the overall Urogenital Distress Inventory scores, with mean difference from baseline 37.3 ± 50.6 in the colporrhaphy group vs 39.0 ± 45.8 in the mesh group (p = 0.61).

Conclusions: Use of a transvaginal mesh kit increases the odds for anatomical correction of lateral defects compared with anterior colporrhaphy but does not necessarily improve lower urinary tract symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-012-1833-9DOI Listing
February 2013

Capping efficiency of various carbonaceous and mineral materials for in situ remediation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contaminated marine sediments: sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation in boxcosm tests.

Environ Sci Technol 2012 Mar 5;46(6):3343-51. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.

The efficiency of thin-layer capping in reducing sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene, and octachlorostyrene was investigated in a boxcosm experiment. The influence of cap thickness (0.5-5 cm) and different cap materials was tested using a three-factor experimental design. The cap materials consisted of a passive material (coarse or fine limestone or a marine clay) and an active material (activated carbon (AC) or kraft lignin) to sequester the contaminants. The cap thickness and the type of active material were significant factors, whereas no statistically significant effects of the type of passive material were observed. Sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation by the two test species, the surface-dwelling Nassarius nitidus and the deep-burrowing Nereis spp., decreased with increased cap thickness and with addition of active material. Activated carbon was more efficient than lignin, and a ~90% reduction of fluxes and bioaccumulation was achieved with 3 cm caps with 3.3% AC. Small increases in fluxes with increased survival of Nereis spp. indicated that bioturbation by Nereis spp. affected the fluxes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es203528vDOI Listing
March 2012

Influence of contaminant burial depth on the bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs by two benthic invertebrates (Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria spp.).

Chemosphere 2011 Nov 15;85(9):1444-51. Epub 2011 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

The bioaccumulation of buried polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) added to specific depths in sediment (2.0-2.5, 5.0-5.5 and 10.0-10.5cm) was studied in two infaunal species with similar feeding habits (surface deposit-feeders) but different bioturbation modes. The deep-burrowing polychaetes Marenzelleria spp. (Mz) displayed up to 36 times higher tissue concentrations of buried (spiked) contaminants than the surface-dwelling biodiffusing amphipod Monoporeia affinis. The differences in bioaccumulation were most pronounced for less hydrophobic contaminants due to the bioirrigating activity of Mz. Contaminants buried at shallow depths displayed higher accumulation than more deeply buried contaminants. In contrast, the bioaccumulation of unspiked (native) contaminants with a uniform vertical distribution in the sediment was similar between the species. For Mz, the BSAFs increased with increased K(OW) for the uniformly distributed contaminants, but decreased for the buried contaminants, which indicates that the dominant uptake routes of the buried contaminants can differ from the uniformly distributed contaminants. The surface sediment concentration of buried contaminants increased in Mz treatments, showing that Mz bioturbation can remobilize historically buried contaminants to the biologically active surface layer and increase the exposure for surface-dwelling species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.08.024DOI Listing
November 2011

Remediation of contaminated marine sediment using thin-layer capping with activated carbon--a field experiment in Trondheim harbor, Norway.

Environ Sci Technol 2011 Jul 27;45(14):6110-6. Epub 2011 Jun 27.

Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), P.O. Box 3930 Ullevål Stadium, N-0806 Oslo, Norway.

In situ amendment of contaminated sediments using activated carbon (AC) is a recent remediation technique, where the strong sorption of contaminants to added AC reduces their release from sediments and uptake into organisms. The current study describes a marine underwater field pilot study in Trondheim harbor, Norway, in which powdered AC alone or in combination with sand or clay was tested as a thin-layer capping material for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment. Several novel elements were included, such as measuring PAH fluxes, no active mixing of AC into the sediment, and the testing of new manners of placing a thin AC cap on sediment, such as AC+clay and AC+sand combinations. Innovative chemical and biological monitoring methods were deployed to test capping effectiveness. In situ sediment-to-water PAH fluxes were measured using recently developed benthic flux chambers. Compared to the reference field, AC capping reduced fluxes by a factor of 2-10. Pore water PAH concentration profiles were measured in situ using a new passive sampler technique, and yielded a reduction factor of 2-3 compared to the reference field. The benthic macrofauna composition and biodiversity were affected by the AC amendments, AC + clay having a lower impact on the benthic taxa than AC-only or AC + sand. In addition, AC + clay gave the highest AC recoveries (60% vs 30% for AC-only and AC + sand) and strongest reductions in sediment-to-water PAH fluxes and porewater concentrations. Thus, application of an AC-clay mixture is recommended as the optimal choice of the currently tested thin-layer capping methods for PAHs, and more research on optimizing its implementation is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es2011397DOI Listing
July 2011

Bioturbation-driven release of buried PCBs and PBDEs from different depths in contaminated sediments.

Environ Sci Technol 2010 Oct;44(19):7456-64

Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.

Bioturbation can remobilize previously buried contaminants, leading to an increased exposure of aquatic biota. The remobilization of buried polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from three different sediment depth layers (2.0-2.5 cm, 5.0-5.5 cm, and 10.0-10.5 cm) was studied in a laboratory experiment with two benthic macrofauna species, the amphipod Monoporeia affinis and the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. Remobilization of PCBs and PBDEs was significantly higher in the presence of Marenzelleria spp. than in M. affinis treatments and controls (without macrofauna). The highest remobilization occurred from the most shallow layers (2.0-2.5 cm > 5.0-5.5 cm > 10.0-10.5 cm), but contaminants were remobilized due to bioturbation from layers down to at least 10 cm. Congeners with lower hydrophobicity were remobilized to a higher extent than more hydrophobic congeners. The contaminant distribution between the particulate and the dissolved phase in the water column depended on hydrophobicity and burial depth of the contaminant, with congeners from deeper layers displaying an increased distribution to the particulate phase. Release fluxes and sediment-to-water mass transfer coefficients (MTCs) show that bioturbation by the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. can lead to a significant remobilization of buried contaminants from Baltic Sea sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es100615gDOI Listing
October 2010

Meiofauna reduces bacterial mineralization of naphthalene in marine sediment.

ISME J 2010 Nov 13;4(11):1421-30. Epub 2010 May 13.

Department of Systems Ecology, Marine Ecotoxicology,Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

The role of sediment-living meiofauna, benthic invertebrates smaller than 1000 μm such as nematodes and ostracods, on the mineralization of naphthalene, a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in marine sediments, was studied in microcosms using radiorespirometry. A method to extract live meiofauna was developed and used in order to experimentally manipulate meiofauna abundance and group diversity. Higher abundances of meiofauna were found to significantly decrease naphthalene mineralization. Furthermore, a change in the bacterial community composition (studied using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) was also observed in presence of higher meiofauna abundance, as well as a lower number of cultivable naphthalene-degrading bacteria. The reduced mineralization of naphthalene and the altered bacterial community composition in the presence of increased meiofauna abundance is likely the result of top-down control by meiofauna. This study shows that higher abundances of meiofauna can significantly decrease the microbial mineralization of PAHs such as naphthalene and also significantly modify the bacterial community composition in natural marine sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.63DOI Listing
November 2010

Remobilization of polychlorinated biphenyl from Baltic Sea sediment: comparing the roles of bioturbation and physical resuspension.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2009 Nov;28(11):2241-9

Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

The release of a [¹⁴C]-labeled tri-chloro-biphenyl compound ([¹⁴C]PCB 32) from sediment to water was quantified weekly in a 30 d microcosm experiment with re-circulating water. Two modes of bioturbation-driven PCB release: 1) bioturbation by the amphipod Monoporeia affinis (a particle bio-diffuser) and 2) bioturbation by the polychaete Marenzelleria sp. (a bio-irrigator) were compared to the PCB release caused by physical sediment resuspension generated by a motor-driven paddle, used twice a week. Bioturbation by the amphipod M. affinis caused a significantly higher remobilization of both particle-associated (PCBpart) and dissolved PCB (PCBdiss) than the other treatments. Bioturbation by Marenzelleria sp. and physical resuspension caused a similar release of PCBdiss despite a significantly higher amount of total suspended solids in the water column after physical resuspension. In all treatments, the release of PCBdiss was more than one order of magnitude higher than of PCBpart, indicating a significant potential exposure route to pelagic organisms, such as fish, of the most bioavailable PCB form. Calculated mass transfer coefficients (0.3-1.3 cm/d) correspond to previously reported values for tri-chlorinated PCBs. Results from this experiment indicate that biological reworking of sediments can be just as, or even more, important than physical resuspension for the remobilization of sediment-bound contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/08-576.1DOI Listing
November 2009

Bioturbation-driven release of organic contaminants from Baltic Sea sediments mediated by the invading polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta.

Environ Sci Technol 2008 Feb;42(4):1058-65

Goteborg University, Department of Marine Ecology, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, 450 34 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.

Baltic Sea sediments are among the world's most polluted regarding eutrophication and contamination. Eutrophication-induced hypoxia has caused depletion of bioturbating macrofauna in vast areas, producing laminated sediments. We investigated if reoxygenation and colonization by the invading deep-burrowing polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta may cause an augmented contaminant release from Baltic Sea sediments. Intact laminated sediment cores were exposed either to in situ hypoxia, reoxygenation, or reoxygenation combined with bioturbating M. neglecta. The release fluxes of particle-associated (N(Pat)) and dissolved (N(Diss)) PCBs and chlorinated pesticide residues (POPs) were quantified (GC-ECD) after 85 d along with contaminant concentrations in sediment and biota. Lavoisier-based mass transfer coefficients (Kf) were calculated from N(Diss). Sediment contaminant concentrations were high (sigmaPCB7: 42-52 ng g(sediment)(-1) dw) due to emissions from Stockholm. N(Diss) always exceeded N(Part) by an order of magnitude. Bioturbation enhanced N(Diss) and Kf from hypoxic sediments 0.7-3 times while reoxygenation alone had no significant effect. M. neglecta accumulated low amounts of contaminants but significantly stimulated aquatic release of bioavailable sequestered contaminants. Bioturbation should be included in aquatic contaminant fate models. We advise to consider quiescent pollutant sources and possible ecological shifts when aiming to restore eutrophicated aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es071607jDOI Listing
February 2008

Effects of settling organic matter on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and BDE-99 by Baltic Sea benthic invertebrates.

Mar Environ Res 2008 Apr 19;65(3):264-81. Epub 2007 Nov 19.

School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University College, SE-141 89 Huddinge, Sweden.

Settling organic matter (OM) is the major food source for heterotrophic benthic fauna. The high sorption affinity of many contaminants for OM implies that OM can influence both the distribution and bioavailability of contaminants. Here, we experimentally examine the role of settling OM of various nutritional qualities on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and the flame retardant BDE-99 by three benthic invertebrates; Macoma balthica, Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria sp. Contaminants were associated with three types of OM; a microalgae (Tetraselmis spp.), lignin and sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd was proportional to OM nutritional quality for all three species, and was species-specific in the order Marenzelleria>M. balthica>M. affinis. BDE-99 bioaccumulation was highest in the treatment with the most nutritious OM (Tetraselmis). Consequently, both benthic species composition and the nutritive value of organic matter settling to the seafloor can have a substantial effect on the bioaccumulation of both metals and organic contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2007.11.004DOI Listing
April 2008