Publications by authors named "Jonas Falch-Madsen"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Predictors of diagnostically defined insomnia in child and adolescent community samples: a literature review.

Sleep Med 2021 Sep 10;87:241-249. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Diagnostically defined insomnia is prevalent, persistent, and associated with a range of negative outcomes in childhood and adolescence. To inform prevention and treatment, we need to identify relevant predictors that can be addressed in such intervention efforts. Therefore, a systematic search for longitudinal studies involving child and adolescent samples (ages 4 to 19) examining predictors of diagnostically defined insomnia adjusted for previous insomnia was conducted. The search identified 6419 studies, resulting in six included papers involving five samples (n = 9949) conducted in five different countries (the US, New Zealand, Norway, China, and Japan). Few longitudinal studies investigated the predictors of diagnostically defined insomnia in children and adolescents, and insomnia is rarely defined according to diagnostic manuals. The results suggested that poor mental health (most notably depression) and female sex may be involved in the etiology of diagnostically defined insomnia. Stress might be the most modifiable factor identified. However, the diversity of the predictors studied in previous reports combined with the lack of replication prevent any firm conclusions from being drawn. This review serves as a summary of the best available evidence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2021.09.003DOI Listing
September 2021

Child and family predictors of insomnia from early childhood to adolescence.

Sleep Med 2021 Aug 27;87:220-226. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: Insomnia is prevalent among children and adolescents and is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. Knowledge about its determinants is therefore important, but due to the lack of longitudinal studies, such knowledge is limited. The aim of the present inquiry is to identify child and family predictors of future pediatric insomnia within a psycho-bio-behavioral framework.

Methods: A representative community sample (n = 1,037) was followed biennially from 4 to 14 years of age (2007-2017). Insomnia was defined based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria and was diagnosed by a semistructured clinical interview of children (from age eight years of age) and parents (all ages). Predictors included parent ratings of child emotional reactivity, family functioning, and marital conflict; self-reports of personality; and teacher-rated emotion regulation skills.

Results: Random intercept cross-lagged analyses revealed that within-person increases (ie, relative to the child's typical levels across childhood) in emotional reactivity and decreases in emotion regulation skills predicted insomnia diagnosis two years later from ages 4 to 14 after adjusting for previous insomnia and all unmeasured time-invariant factors. Previous insomnia was the strongest predictor of later insomnia, whereas family functioning and marital conflict did not predict insomnia.

Conclusions: Increases in emotional reactivity and decreases in emotion regulation skills predicted insomnia above and beyond all unmeasured time-invariant factors and could be targets for interventions. Previous insomnia predicted later insomnia, thereby underscoring the importance of detecting, preventing, and treating insomnia at an early age.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2021.08.023DOI Listing
August 2021

Persistent Short Sleep from Childhood to Adolescence: Child, Parent and Peer Predictors.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 15;13:163-175. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Purpose: Many children have periods when they sleep too little, with widely recognized detrimental effects. Less is known about persistent short sleep during childhood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of persistent short sleep in school-aged children and identify a set of child, parent, and peer predictors thereof.

Participants And Methods: Objectively measured sleep duration (hip-held accelerometer) was biennially assessed in a community sample followed from 6 to 14 years (n=801). A latent profile analysis was applied to assess whether a subgroup of children slept consistently short across time and predictors of persistent short sleep were determined through regression analysis.

Results: A subgroup of children (n=160; 20.2%) was identified as having persistent short sleep across time. Temperamental negative affectivity (β=0.08; 95% CI=0.01, 0.15; p=0.03) and low observer-assessed parental emotional availability (β=-.09; 95% CI=-.18, -.01; p=0.04) predicted membership to that group. Teacher ratings of victimization from bullying were not associated with persistent short sleep (β=0.01; 95% CI: -.10, 11; p=0.88).

Conclusion: High child temperamental negative affectivity and low parental emotional availability may be involved in the development of persistent short sleep through childhood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S290586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894796PMC
February 2021

Prevalence and stability of insomnia from preschool to early adolescence: a prospective cohort study in Norway.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2020 3;4(1):e000660. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: There is limited knowledge about the prevalence and stability of insomnia defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). We therefore provide such estimates from preschool to early adolescence and explore potential sex differences.

Methods: We followed a representative community sample (n=1037) biennially from 4 to 14 years of age (2007-2017). Insomnia diagnoses and symptoms were captured by a semistructured clinical interview of parents and children (from age 8 years).

Results: At ages 4 and 6 years approximately 2.5% of children met the criteria for insomnia, whereas at ages 8, 10, 12 and 14 years the prevalence ranged from 7.5% to 12.3%. During the 10-year period examined nearly 1 in 5 children had insomnia at least once (18.7%). Sex differences were apparent with DSM-IV, but not DSM-5, criteria: boys (8.1%) had more insomnia than girls (4.5%) did at ages 4-10 years, whereas girls (11.4%) had more insomnia than boys (7.1%) did at ages 12 and 14 years. Insomnia proved stable, with 22.9%-40.1% of children retaining their diagnosis 2 years later. Having current insomnia produced medium to large ORs of between 5.1 (95% CI 2.6 to 9.8) and 15.3 (95% CI 4.4 to 52.9) for subsequent insomnia 2 years later compared with not having preceding insomnia.

Conclusions: Insomnia was less prevalent than previous research indicates, with nearly 1 in 5 participants having insomnia at least once between the ages of 4 and 14 years. Female preponderance emerged in early adolescence. Having insomnia at one time point was a considerable risk for subsequent insomnia, indicating that insomnia is persistent and warrants clinical attention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2020-000660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279650PMC
June 2020

Association Between Objectively Measured Sleep Duration and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders in Middle Childhood.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 12 2;2(12):e1918281. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Importance: The long-term association between sleep duration and mental health in children is currently unknown.

Objective: To investigate the prospective associations between sleep duration and symptoms of emotional and behavioral disorders at ages 6, 8, 10, and 12 years.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This population-based cohort study obtained data from the Trondheim Early Secure Study in Trondheim, Norway. A representative, stratified random sample of children born between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004, were invited to participate. Participants were followed up biennially from age 4 years (2007-2008) to 12 years (2013-2014). Data analysis was conducted from January 2, 2019, to May 28, 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Sleep duration was assessed with 1 week of continuous use of a triaxial accelerometer. Symptoms of emotional (anxiety and depression) and behavioral (oppositional defiant, conduct, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity) disorders were measured by semistructured clinical interviews (using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment and the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment) with parents (at all ages) and children (from age 8 years).

Results: The analytical sample comprised 799 children (mean [SD] age at time point 2, 6.0 [0.2] years; 405 [50.7%] boys; and 771 [96.5%] Norwegian). Shorter sleep duration at age 6 years (β [unstandardized regression coefficient] = -0.44; 95% CI, -0.80 to -0.08; P = .02) and 8 years (β = -0.47; 95% CI, -0.83 to -0.11; P = .01) forecasted symptoms of emotional disorders 2 years later. Comparatively short sleep duration at age 8 years (β = -0.65; 95% CI, -1.22 to -0.08; P = .03) and 10 years (β = -0.58; 95% CI, -1.07 to -0.08; P = .02) was associated with symptoms of behavioral disorders 2 years later among boys but not among girls at age 8 years (β = -0.14; 95% CI,- 0.52 to 0.24; P = .48) or 10 years (β = -0.05; 95% CI, = -0.49 to 0.40; P = .84). These associations were statistically significant among boys compared with girls at age 8 years (Δχ21 = 13.26; P < .001) and 10 years (Δχ21 = 10.25; P = .001). Symptoms of psychiatric disorders did not forecast sleep duration at any age.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found an association between short sleep duration and increased risk of future occurrence of emotional disorder symptoms in both boys and girls and between reduced sleep and behavioral disorder symptoms in boys. These results suggest that improving sleep in children may help protect against the development of symptoms of common psychiatric disorders and may be advantageous in the treatment of such disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.18281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6991225PMC
December 2019
-->