Publications by authors named "Jolita Ciapaite"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A novel mouse model for pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy due to antiquitin deficiency.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 Nov;29(19):3266-3284

Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene leading to blockade of the lysine catabolism pathway. PDE is characterized by recurrent seizures that are resistant to conventional anticonvulsant treatment but are well-controlled by pyridoxine (PN). Most PDE patients also suffer from neurodevelopmental deficits despite adequate seizure control with PN. To investigate potential pathophysiological mechanisms associated with ALDH7A1 deficiency, we generated a transgenic mouse strain with constitutive genetic ablation of Aldh7a1. We undertook extensive biochemical characterization of Aldh7a1-KO mice consuming a low lysine/high PN diet. Results showed that KO mice accumulated high concentrations of upstream lysine metabolites including ∆1-piperideine-6-carboxylic acid (P6C), α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (α-AASA) and pipecolic acid both in brain and liver tissues, similar to the biochemical picture in ALDH7A1-deficient patients. We also observed preliminary evidence of a widely deranged amino acid profile and increased levels of methionine sulfoxide, an oxidative stress biomarker, in the brains of KO mice, suggesting that increased oxidative stress may be a novel pathobiochemical mechanism in ALDH7A1 deficiency. KO mice lacked epileptic seizures when fed a low lysine/high PN diet. Switching mice to a high lysine/low PN diet led to vigorous seizures and a quick death in KO mice. Treatment with PN controlled seizures and improved survival of high-lysine/low PN fed KO mice. This study expands the spectrum of biochemical abnormalities that may be associated with ALDH7A1 deficiency and provides a proof-of-concept for the utility of the model to study PDE pathophysiology and to test new therapeutics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddaa202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689292PMC
November 2020

Pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency in zebrafish results in fatal seizures and metabolic aberrations.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2020 03 21;1866(3):165607. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 EA Utrecht, the Netherlands; Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 EA Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) catalyzes oxidation of pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B. PNPO deficiency results in neonatal/infantile seizures and neurodevelopmental delay. To gain insight into this disorder we generated Pnpo deficient (pnpo) zebrafish (CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing). Locomotion analysis showed that pnpo zebrafish develop seizures resulting in only 38% of pnpo zebrafish surviving beyond 20 days post fertilization (dpf). The age of seizure onset varied and survival after the onset was brief. Biochemical profiling at 20 dpf revealed a reduction of PLP and pyridoxal (PL) and accumulation of PMP and pyridoxamine (PM). Amino acids involved in neurotransmission including glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine were decreased. Concentrations of several, mostly essential, amino acids were increased in pnpo zebrafish suggesting impaired activity of PLP-dependent transaminases involved in their degradation. PLP treatment increased survival at 20 dpf and led to complete normalization of PLP, PL, glutamate, GABA and glycine. However, amino acid profiles only partially normalized and accumulation of PMP and PM persisted. Taken together, our data indicate that not only decreased PLP but also accumulation of PMP may play a role in the clinical phenotype of PNPO deficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2019.165607DOI Listing
March 2020

Bi-allelic GOT2 Mutations Cause a Treatable Malate-Aspartate Shuttle-Related Encephalopathy.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 09 15;105(3):534-548. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

On behalf of "United for Metabolic Diseases," 1105AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Metabolic Laboratory, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Early-infantile encephalopathies with epilepsy are devastating conditions mandating an accurate diagnosis to guide proper management. Whole-exome sequencing was used to investigate the disease etiology in four children from independent families with intellectual disability and epilepsy, revealing bi-allelic GOT2 mutations. In-depth metabolic studies in individual 1 showed low plasma serine, hypercitrullinemia, hyperlactatemia, and hyperammonemia. The epilepsy was serine and pyridoxine responsive. Functional consequences of observed mutations were tested by measuring enzyme activity and by cell and animal models. Zebrafish and mouse models were used to validate brain developmental and functional defects and to test therapeutic strategies. GOT2 encodes the mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase. GOT2 enzyme activity was deficient in fibroblasts with bi-allelic mutations. GOT2, a member of the malate-aspartate shuttle, plays an essential role in the intracellular NAD(H) redox balance. De novo serine biosynthesis was impaired in fibroblasts with GOT2 mutations and GOT2-knockout HEK293 cells. Correcting the highly oxidized cytosolic NAD-redox state by pyruvate supplementation restored serine biosynthesis in GOT2-deficient cells. Knockdown of got2a in zebrafish resulted in a brain developmental defect associated with seizure-like electroencephalography spikes, which could be rescued by supplying pyridoxine in embryo water. Both pyridoxine and serine synergistically rescued embryonic developmental defects in zebrafish got2a morphants. The two treated individuals reacted favorably to their treatment. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for the biochemical abnormalities in GOT2 deficiency that may also hold for other MAS defects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732527PMC
September 2019

Running wheel access fails to resolve impaired sustainable health in mice feeding a high fat sucrose diet.

Aging (Albany NY) 2019 03;11(5):1564-1579

Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, Dept of Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Diet and physical activity are thought to affect sustainable metabolic health and survival. To improve understanding, we studied survival of mice feeding a low-fat (LF) or high-saturated fat/high sugar (HFS) diet, each with or without free running wheel (RW) access. Additionally several endocrine and metabolic health indices were assessed at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. As expected, HFS feeding left-shifted survival curve of mice compared to LF feeding, and this was associated with increased energy intake and increased (visceral/total) adiposity, liver triglycerides, and increased plasma cholesterol, corticosterone, HOMA-IR, and lowered adiponectin levels. Several of these health parameters improved (transiently) by RW access in HFS and LF fed mice (i.e., HOMA-IR, plasma corticosterone), others however deteriorated (transiently) by RW access only in HFS-fed mice (i.e., body adiposity, plasma resistin, and free cholesterol levels). Apart from these multiple and sometimes diverging health effects of RW access, RW access did not affect survival curves. Important to note, voluntary RW activity declined with age, but this effect was most pronounced in the HFS fed mice. These results thus challenge the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running can counteract HFS-induced deterioration of survival and metabolic health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.101857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428087PMC
March 2019

PLPHP deficiency: clinical, genetic, biochemical, and mechanistic insights.

Brain 2019 03;142(3):542-559

British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Biallelic pathogenic variants in PLPBP (formerly called PROSC) have recently been shown to cause a novel form of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, the pathophysiological basis of which is poorly understood. When left untreated, the disease can progress to status epilepticus and death in infancy. Here we present 12 previously undescribed patients and six novel pathogenic variants in PLPBP. Suspected clinical diagnoses prior to identification of PLPBP variants included mitochondrial encephalopathy (two patients), folinic acid-responsive epilepsy (one patient) and a movement disorder compatible with AADC deficiency (one patient). The encoded protein, PLPHP is believed to be crucial for B6 homeostasis. We modelled the pathogenicity of the variants and developed a clinical severity scoring system. The most severe phenotypes were associated with variants leading to loss of function of PLPBP or significantly affecting protein stability/PLP-binding. To explore the pathophysiology of this disease further, we developed the first zebrafish model of PLPHP deficiency using CRISPR/Cas9. Our model recapitulates the disease, with plpbp-/- larvae showing behavioural, biochemical, and electrophysiological signs of seizure activity by 10 days post-fertilization and early death by 16 days post-fertilization. Treatment with pyridoxine significantly improved the epileptic phenotype and extended lifespan in plpbp-/- animals. Larvae had disruptions in amino acid metabolism as well as GABA and catecholamine biosynthesis, indicating impairment of PLP-dependent enzymatic activities. Using mass spectrometry, we observed significant B6 vitamer level changes in plpbp-/- zebrafish, patient fibroblasts and PLPHP-deficient HEK293 cells. Additional studies in human cells and yeast provide the first empirical evidence that PLPHP is localized in mitochondria and may play a role in mitochondrial metabolism. These models provide new insights into disease mechanisms and can serve as a platform for drug discovery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391652PMC
March 2019

Increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation in a mouse model with decreased malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT1B.

Cardiovasc Res 2018 08;114(10):1324-1334

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1425 Madison Avenue, Box 1498, New York, NY, USA.

Aims: Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is an important energy provider for cardiac work and changes in cardiac substrate preference are associated with different heart diseases. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) is thought to perform the rate limiting enzyme step in FAO and is inhibited by malonyl-CoA. The role of CPT1B in cardiac metabolism has been addressed by inhibiting or decreasing CPT1B protein or after modulation of tissue malonyl-CoA metabolism. We assessed the role of CPT1B malonyl-CoA sensitivity in cardiac metabolism.

Methods And Results: We generated and characterized a knock in mouse model expressing the CPT1BE3A mutant enzyme, which has reduced sensitivity to malonyl-CoA. In isolated perfused hearts, FAO was 1.9-fold higher in Cpt1bE3A/E3A hearts compared with Cpt1bWT/WT hearts. Metabolomic, proteomic and transcriptomic analysis showed increased levels of malonylcarnitine, decreased concentration of CPT1B protein and a small but coordinated downregulation of the mRNA expression of genes involved in FAO in Cpt1bE3A/E3A hearts, all of which aim to limit FAO. In vivo assessment of cardiac function revealed only minor changes, cardiac hypertrophy was absent and histological analysis did not reveal fibrosis.

Conclusions: Malonyl-CoA-dependent inhibition of CPT1B plays a crucial role in regulating FAO rate in the heart. Chronic elevation of FAO has a relatively subtle impact on cardiac function at least under baseline conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvy089DOI Listing
August 2018

Running-wheel activity delays mitochondrial respiratory flux decline in aging mouse muscle via a post-transcriptional mechanism.

Aging Cell 2018 02 9;17(1). Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Section Systems Medicine of Metabolism and Signaling, Laboratory of Pediatrics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Loss of mitochondrial respiratory flux is a hallmark of skeletal muscle aging, contributing to a progressive decline of muscle strength. Endurance exercise alleviates the decrease in respiratory flux, both in humans and in rodents. Here, we dissect the underlying mechanism of mitochondrial flux decline by integrated analysis of the molecular network. Mice were given a lifelong ad libitum low-fat or high-fat sucrose diet and were further divided into sedentary and running-wheel groups. At 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, muscle weight, triglyceride content and mitochondrial respiratory flux were analysed. Subsequently, transcriptome was measured by RNA-Seq and proteome by targeted LC-MS/MS analysis with C-labelled standards. In the sedentary groups, mitochondrial respiratory flux declined with age. Voluntary running protected the mitochondrial respiratory flux until 18 months of age. Beyond this time point, all groups converged. Regulation Analysis of flux, proteome and transcriptome showed that the decline of flux was equally regulated at the proteomic and at the metabolic level, while regulation at the transcriptional level was marginal. Proteomic regulation was most prominent at the beginning and at the end of the pathway, namely at the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and at the synthesis and transport of ATP. Further proteomic regulation was scattered across the entire pathway, revealing an effective multisite regulation. Finally, reactions regulated at the protein level were highly overlapping between the four experimental groups, suggesting a common, post-transcriptional mechanism of muscle aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5770778PMC
February 2018

Diabetic db/db mice do not develop heart failure upon pressure overload: a longitudinal in vivo PET, MRI, and MRS study on cardiac metabolic, structural, and functional adaptations.

Cardiovasc Res 2017 Aug;113(10):1148-1160

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical NMR, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Aims: Heart failure is associated with altered myocardial substrate metabolism and impaired cardiac energetics. Comorbidities like diabetes may influence the metabolic adaptations during heart failure development. We quantified to what extent changes in substrate preference, lipid accumulation, and energy status predict the longitudinal development of hypertrophy and failure in the non-diabetic and the diabetic heart.

Methods And Results: Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed in non-diabetic (db/+) and diabetic (db/db) mice to induce pressure overload. Magnetic resonance imaging, 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), 1H MRS, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) were applied to measure cardiac function, energy status, lipid content, and glucose uptake, respectively. In vivo measurements were complemented with ex vivo techniques of high-resolution respirometry, proteomics, and western blotting to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways. In non-diabetic mice, TAC induced progressive cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, which correlated with increased protein kinase D-1 (PKD1) phosphorylation and increased glucose uptake. These changes in glucose utilization preceded a reduction in cardiac energy status. At baseline, compared with non-diabetic mice, diabetic mice showed normal cardiac function, higher lipid content and mitochondrial capacity for fatty acid oxidation, and lower PKD1 phosphorylation, glucose uptake, and energetics. Interestingly, TAC affected cardiac function only mildly in diabetic mice, which was accompanied by normalization of phosphorylated PKD1, glucose uptake, and cardiac energy status.

Conclusion: The cardiac metabolic adaptations in diabetic mice seem to prevent the heart from failing upon pressure overload, suggesting that restoring the balance between glucose and fatty acid utilization is beneficial for cardiac function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvx100DOI Listing
August 2017

An In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Liver Lipid Metabolism in Rats.

Nutrients 2017 May 10;9(5). Epub 2017 May 10.

Biomedical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or solutions containing 13% (/) glucose, 13% fructose, or 0.4% aspartame. After 7 weeks, in vivo hepatic dietary lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis were assessed with proton-observed, carbon-13-edited MRS combined with C-labeled lipids and C-labeled glucose, respectively. The molecular basis of alterations in hepatic liver metabolism was analyzed in detail ex vivo using immunoblotting and targeted quantitative proteomics. Both glucose and fructose feeding increased adiposity, but only fructose induced hepatic lipid accumulation. In vivo MRS showed that this was not caused by increased hepatic uptake of dietary lipids, but could be attributed to an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Stimulation of lipogenesis by fructose was confirmed by a strong upregulation of lipogenic enzymes, which was more potent than with glucose. The non-caloric sweetener aspartame did not significantly affect liver lipid content or metabolism. In conclusion, liquid fructose more severely affected liver lipid metabolism in rats than glucose, while aspartame had no effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9050476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5452206PMC
May 2017

Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial myopathy.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2017 05 8;312(5):R689-R701. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands;

Muscle weakness and exercise intolerance negatively affect the quality of life of patients with mitochondrial myopathy. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We investigated whether 1 wk of dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation decreases the oxygen cost of exercise and improves mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial myopathy. Ten patients with mitochondrial myopathy (40 ± 5 yr, maximal whole body oxygen uptake = 21.2 ± 3.2 ml·min·kg body wt, maximal work load = 122 ± 26 W) received 8.5 mg·kg body wt·day inorganic nitrate (~7 mmol) for 8 days. Whole body oxygen consumption at 50% of the maximal work load, in vivo skeletal muscle oxidative capacity (evaluated from postexercise phosphocreatine recovery using P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy), and ex vivo mitochondrial oxidative capacity in permeabilized skinned muscle fibers (measured with high-resolution respirometry) were determined before and after nitrate supplementation. Despite a sixfold increase in plasma nitrate levels, nitrate supplementation did not affect whole body oxygen cost during submaximal exercise. Additionally, no beneficial effects of nitrate were found on in vivo or ex vivo muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity. This is the first time that the therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate for patients with mitochondrial myopathy was evaluated. We conclude that 1 wk of dietary nitrate supplementation does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve mitochondrial function in the group of patients tested.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00264.2016DOI Listing
May 2017

Translational Targeted Proteomics Profiling of Mitochondrial Energy Metabolic Pathways in Mouse and Human Samples.

J Proteome Res 2016 09 5;15(9):3204-13. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Department of Pharmacy, Analytical Biochemistry, University of Groningen , 9713 AV, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Absolute measurements of protein abundance are important in the understanding of biological processes and the precise computational modeling of biological pathways. We developed targeted LC-MS/MS assays in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode to quantify over 50 mitochondrial proteins in a single run. The targeted proteins cover the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid β-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Assays used isotopically labeled concatemers as internal standards designed to target murine mitochondrial proteins and their human orthologues. Most assays were also suitable to quantify the corresponding protein orthologues in rats. After exclusion of peptides that did not pass the selection criteria, we arrived at SRM assays for 55 mouse, 52 human, and 51 rat proteins. These assays were optimized in isolated mitochondrial fractions from mouse and rat liver and cultured human fibroblasts and in total liver extracts from mouse, rat, and human. The developed proteomics approach is suitable for the quantification of proteins in the mitochondrial energy metabolic pathways in mice, rats, and humans as a basis for translational research. Initial data show that the assays have great potential for elucidating the adaptive response of human patients to mutations in mitochondrial proteins in a clinical setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00419DOI Listing
September 2016

Malnutrition-associated liver steatosis and ATP depletion is caused by peroxisomal and mitochondrial dysfunction.

J Hepatol 2016 12 14;65(6):1198-1208. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Center for Liver, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Physiology and Experimental Medicine Program, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Severe malnutrition in young children is associated with signs of hepatic dysfunction such as steatosis and hypoalbuminemia, but its etiology is unknown. Peroxisomes and mitochondria play key roles in various hepatic metabolic functions including lipid metabolism and energy production. To investigate the involvement of these organelles in the mechanisms underlying malnutrition-induced hepatic dysfunction we developed a rat model of malnutrition.

Methods: Weanling rats were placed on a low protein or control diet (5% or 20% of calories from protein, respectively) for four weeks. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial structural features were characterized using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Mitochondrial function was assessed using high-resolution respirometry. A novel targeted quantitative proteomics method was applied to analyze 47 mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid β-oxidation pathways.

Results: Low protein diet-fed rats developed hypoalbuminemia and hepatic steatosis, consistent with the human phenotype. Hepatic peroxisome content was decreased and metabolomic analysis indicated peroxisomal dysfunction. This was followed by changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure and increased mitochondrial content. Mitochondrial function was impaired due to multiple defects affecting respiratory chain complex I and IV, pyruvate uptake and several β-oxidation enzymes, leading to strongly reduced hepatic ATP levels. Fenofibrate supplementation restored hepatic peroxisome abundance and increased mitochondrial β-oxidation capacity, resulting in reduced steatosis and normalization of ATP and plasma albumin levels.

Conclusions: Malnutrition leads to severe impairments in hepatic peroxisomal and mitochondrial function, and hepatic metabolic dysfunction. We discuss the potential future implications of our findings for the clinical management of malnourished children.

Lay Summary: Severe malnutrition in children is associated with metabolic disturbances that are poorly understood. In order to study this further, we developed a malnutrition animal model and found that severe malnutrition leads to an impaired function of liver mitochondria which are essential for energy production and a loss of peroxisomes, which are important for normal liver metabolic function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2016.05.046DOI Listing
December 2016

Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice.

PLoS One 2016 17;11(2):e0149419. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, Neurobiology, Unit of Behavioral Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, NL-9747AG Groningen, The Netherlands.

At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149419PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4757540PMC
August 2016

Protection against the Metabolic Syndrome by Guar Gum-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids Depends on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1.

PLoS One 2015 20;10(8):e0136364. Epub 2015 Aug 20.

Center for Liver, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pediatrics & Systems Biology Center for Energy Metabolism and Ageing, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Netherlands Consortium for Systems Biology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Top Institute Food and Nutrition, P.O. Box 557, 6700 AN Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The dietary fiber guar gum has beneficial effects on obesity, hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in both humans and rodents. The major products of colonic fermentation of dietary fiber, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), have been suggested to play an important role. Recently, we showed that SCFAs protect against the metabolic syndrome via a signaling cascade that involves peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ repression and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism via which the dietary fiber guar gum protects against the metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 0% or 10% of the fiber guar gum for 12 weeks and effects on lipid and glucose metabolism were studied. We demonstrate that, like SCFAs, also guar gum protects against high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities by PPARγ repression, subsequently increasing mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 expression and AMP/ATP ratio, leading to the activation of AMPK and culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism in both liver and adipose tissue. Moreover, guar gum markedly increased peripheral glucose clearance, possibly mediated by the SCFA-induced colonic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. Overall, this study provides novel molecular insights into the beneficial effects of guar gum on the metabolic syndrome and strengthens the potential role of guar gum as a dietary-fiber intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0136364PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4546369PMC
May 2016

Carnitine supplementation in high-fat diet-fed rats does not ameliorate lipid-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2015 Oct 18;309(7):E670-8. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; and

Muscle lipid overload and the associated accumulation of lipid intermediates play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Carnitine insufficiency is a common feature of insulin-resistant states and might lead to incomplete fatty acid oxidation and impaired export of lipid intermediates out of the mitochondria. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that carnitine supplementation reduces high-fat diet-induced lipotoxicity, improves muscle mitochondrial function, and ameliorates insulin resistance. Wistar rats were fed either normal chow or a high-fat diet for 15 wk. One group of high-fat diet-fed rats was supplemented with 300 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) L-carnitine during the last 8 wk. Muscle mitochondrial function was measured in vivo by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry. Muscle lipid status was determined by (1)H MRS (intramyocellular lipids) and tandem mass spectrometry (acylcarnitines). High-fat diet feeding induced insulin resistance and was associated with decreases in muscle and blood free carnitine, elevated levels of muscle lipids and acylcarnitines, and an increased number of muscle mitochondria that showed an improved capacity to oxidize fat-derived substrates when tested ex vivo. This was, however, not accompanied by an increase in muscle oxidative capacity in vivo, indicating that in vivo mitochondrial function was compromised. Despite partial normalization of muscle and blood free carnitine content, carnitine supplementation did not induce improvements in muscle lipid status, in vivo mitochondrial function, or insulin sensitivity. Carnitine insufficiency, therefore, does not play a major role in high-fat diet-induced muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00144.2015DOI Listing
October 2015

Cardiac LXRα protects against pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction by enhancing glucose uptake and utilization.

EMBO Mol Med 2015 Sep;7(9):1229-43

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by a shift in metabolic substrate utilization from fatty acids to glucose, but the molecular events underlying the metabolic remodeling remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of liver X receptors (LXRs), which are key regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism, in cardiac hypertrophic pathogenesis. Using a transgenic approach in mice, we show that overexpression of LXRα acts to protect the heart against hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. Gene expression profiling studies revealed that genes regulating metabolic pathways were differentially expressed in hearts with elevated LXRα. Functionally, LXRα overexpression in isolated cardiomyocytes and murine hearts markedly enhanced the capacity for myocardial glucose uptake following hypertrophic stress. Conversely, this adaptive response was diminished in LXRα-deficient mice. Transcriptional changes induced by LXRα overexpression promoted energy-independent utilization of glucose via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, resulting in O-GlcNAc modification of GATA4 and Mef2c and the induction of cytoprotective natriuretic peptide expression. Our results identify LXRα as a key cardiac transcriptional regulator that helps orchestrate an adaptive metabolic response to chronic cardiac stress, and suggest that modulating LXRα may provide a unique opportunity for intervening in myocyte metabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201404669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4568954PMC
September 2015

Fiber-type-specific sensitivities and phenotypic adaptations to dietary fat overload differentially impact fast- versus slow-twitch muscle contractile function in C57BL/6J mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2015 Feb 25;26(2):155-64. Epub 2014 Oct 25.

Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands; Netherlands Consortium for Systems Biology, PO Box 94215, NL-1090GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Pediatrics, Center for Liver, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, Building 3226, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands.

High-fat diets (HFDs) have been shown to interfere with skeletal muscle energy metabolism and cause peripheral insulin resistance. However, understanding of HFD impact on skeletal muscle primary function, i.e., contractile performance, is limited. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD containing lard (HFL) or palm oil (HFP), or low-fat diet (LFD) for 5weeks. Fast-twitch (FT) extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch (ST) soleus muscles were characterized with respect to contractile function and selected biochemical features. In FT EDL muscle, a 30%-50% increase in fatty acid (FA) content and doubling of long-chain acylcarnitine (C14-C18) content in response to HFL and HFP feeding were accompanied by increase in protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes and acyl-CoA dehydrogenases involved in mitochondrial FA β-oxidation. Peak force of FT EDL twitch and tetanic contractions was unaltered, but the relaxation time (RT) of twitch contractions was 30% slower compared to LFD controls. The latter was caused by accumulation of lipid intermediates rather than changes in the expression levels of proteins involved in calcium handling. In ST soleus muscle, no evidence for lipid overload was found in any HFD group. However, particularly in HFP group, the peak force of twitch and tetanic contractions was reduced, but RT was faster than LFD controls. The latter was associated with a fast-to-slow shift in troponin T isoform expression. Taken together, these data highlight fiber-type-specific sensitivities and phenotypic adaptations to dietary lipid overload that differentially impact fast- versus slow-twitch skeletal muscle contractile function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.09.014DOI Listing
February 2015

Cardiac diastolic dysfunction in high-fat diet fed mice is associated with lipotoxicity without impairment of cardiac energetics in vivo.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2014 Oct 30;1842(10):1525-37. Epub 2014 Jul 30.

Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Obesity is often associated with abnormalities in cardiac morphology and function. This study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related cardiomyopathy is caused by impaired cardiac energetics. In a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, we applied in vivo cardiac (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate cardiac energy status and function, respectively. The measurements were complemented by ex vivo determination of oxygen consumption in isolated cardiac mitochondria, the expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, and markers of oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis. We also assessed whether HFD induced myocardial lipid accumulation using in vivo (1)H MRS, and if this was associated with apoptosis and fibrosis. Twenty weeks of HFD feeding resulted in early stage cardiomyopathy, as indicated by diastolic dysfunction and increased left ventricular mass, without any effects on systolic function. In vivo cardiac phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio and ex vivo oxygen consumption in isolated cardiac mitochondria were not reduced after HFD feeding, suggesting that the diastolic dysfunction was not caused by impaired cardiac energetics. HFD feeding promoted mitochondrial adaptations for increased utilization of fatty acids, which was however not sufficient to prevent the accumulation of myocardial lipids and lipid intermediates. Myocardial lipid accumulation was associated with oxidative stress and fibrosis, but not apoptosis. Furthermore, HFD feeding strongly reduced the phosphorylation of phospholamban, a prominent regulator of cardiac calcium homeostasis and contractility. In conclusion, HFD-induced early stage cardiomyopathy in mice is associated with lipotoxicity-associated oxidative stress, fibrosis, and disturbed calcium homeostasis, rather than impaired cardiac energetics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.07.016DOI Listing
October 2014

Metformin impairs mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of both lean and diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner.

PLoS One 2014 20;9(6):e100525. Epub 2014 Jun 20.

Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Metformin is a widely prescribed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated in vitro that metformin specifically inhibits Complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This seems contraindicative since muscle mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, its significance for in vivo skeletal muscle mitochondrial function has yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of metformin on in vivo and ex vivo skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in a rat model of diabetes. Healthy (fa/+) and diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker diabetic fatty rats were treated by oral gavage with metformin dissolved in water (30, 100 or 300 mg/kg bodyweight/day) or water as a control for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, muscle oxidative capacity was assessed in vivo using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ex vivo by measuring oxygen consumption in isolated mitochondria using high-resolution respirometry. Two weeks of treatment with metformin impaired in vivo muscle oxidative capacity in a dose-dependent manner, both in healthy and diabetic rats. Whereas a dosage of 30 mg/kg/day had no significant effect, in vivo oxidative capacity was 21% and 48% lower after metformin treatment at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively, independent of genotype. High-resolution respirometry measurements demonstrated a similar dose-dependent effect of metformin on ex vivo mitochondrial function. In conclusion, metformin compromises in vivo and ex vivo muscle oxidative capacity in Zucker diabetic fatty rats in a dose-dependent manner.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0100525PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4065055PMC
October 2015

Differential effects of short- and long-term high-fat diet feeding on hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2011 Jul-Aug;1811(7-8):441-51. Epub 2011 May 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Imbalance in the supply and utilization of fatty acids (FA) is thought to contribute to intrahepatic lipid (IHL) accumulation in obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of changes in the liver capacity to oxidize and store FA in response to high-fat diet (HFD). Adult male Wistar rats were fed either normal chow or HFD for 2.5weeks (short-term) and 25weeks (long-term). Short-term HFD feeding led to a 10% higher palmitoyl-l-carnitine-driven ADP-stimulated (state 3) oxygen consumption rate in isolated liver mitochondria indicating up-regulation of β-oxidation. This adaptation was insufficient to cope with the dietary FA overload, as indicated by accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines, depletion of free carnitine and increase in FA content in the liver, reflecting IHL accumulation. The latter was confirmed by in vivo((1))H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Oil Red O staining. Long-term HFD feeding caused further up-regulation of mitochondrial β-oxidation (24% higher oxygen consumption rate in state 3 with palmitoyl-l-carnitine as substrate) and stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis as indicated by 62% higher mitochondrial DNA copy number compared to controls. These adaptations were paralleled by a partial restoration of free carnitine levels and a decrease in long-chain acylcarnitine content. Nevertheless, there was a further increase in IHL content, accompanied by accumulation of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products. In conclusion, partially effective adaption of hepatic FA metabolism to long-term HFD feeding came at a price of increased oxidative stress, caused by a combination of higher FA oxidation capacity and oversupply of FA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2011.05.005DOI Listing
August 2011

Acute temperature resistance threshold in heart mitochondria: Febrile temperature activates function but exceeding it collapses the membrane barrier.

Int J Hyperthermia 2010 Feb;26(1):56-66

Centre of Environmental Research, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, LT-44404 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Purpose: Molecular mechanisms underlying hyperthermia-induced cellular injury are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify the components of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation affected by mild hyperthermia and to quantify the contribution of each component to changes in system behaviour.

Methods: Temperature effects on the oxidative phosphorylation in isolated rat-heart mitochondria were assessed using modular kinetic analysis. Mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production and lipid peroxidation were measured for estimation of temperature-induced oxidative damage.

Results: The increase of temperature in the febrile range (40 degrees C) slightly activated mitochondrial function through stimulation of the respiratory module, without affecting the kinetics of the proton leak and phosphorylation modules. At 42 degrees C, state 3 respiration rate remained unchanged, the proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane was substantially increased, the respiratory module slightly inhibited, leading to decreased membrane potential (Deltapsi) and diminished ATP synthesis (16% lower phosphorylation flux). Increase of temperature above 42 degrees C caused dissipation of Deltapsi and abolishment of ATP synthesis indicating complete uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. The changes in mitochondrial functions induced by incubation at 42 degrees C were completely reversible in contrast to only partial recovery after incubation at higher temperature (45 degrees C). Furthermore, hyperthermia stimulated the production of H(2)O(2) and membrane lipid peroxidation with maximal rates observed at 40 degrees C.

Conclusions: We demonstrated for the first time that febrile temperature (40 degrees C) activates mitochondrial energy supplying functions, whereas further temperature increase by only a few degrees leads to severe impairment of mitochondrial ability to maintain DeltaPsi and synthesise ATP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02656730903262140DOI Listing
February 2010

Modular kinetic analysis reveals differences in Cd2+ and Cu2+ ion-induced impairment of oxidative phosphorylation in liver.

FEBS J 2009 Jul 1;276(13):3656-68. Epub 2009 Jun 1.

Centre of Environmental Research, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Impaired mitochondrial function contributes to copper- and cadmium-induced cellular dysfunction. In this study, we used modular kinetic analysis and metabolic control analysis to assess how Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions affect the kinetics and control of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated rat liver mitochondria. For the analysis, the system was modularized in two ways: (a) respiratory chain, phosphorylation and proton leak; and (b) coenzyme Q reduction and oxidation, with the membrane potential (Delta psi) and fraction of reduced coenzyme Q as the connecting intermediate, respectively. Modular kinetic analysis results indicate that both Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions inhibited the respiratory chain downstream of coenzyme Q. Moreover, Cu(2+), but not Cd(2+) ions stimulated proton leak kinetics at high Delta psi values. Further analysis showed that this difference can be explained by Cu(2+) ion-induced production of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation. In agreement with modular kinetic analysis data, metabolic control analysis showed that Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions increased control of the respiratory and phosphorylation flux by the respiratory chain module (mainly because of an increase in the control exerted by cytochrome bc(1) and cytochrome c oxidase), decreased control by the phosphorylation module and increased negative control of the phosphorylation flux by the proton leak module. In summary, we showed that there is a subtle difference in the mode of action of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions on the mitochondrial function, which is related to the ability of Cu(2+) ions to induce reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.07084.xDOI Listing
July 2009

Palmitate and oleate have distinct effects on the inflammatory phenotype of human endothelial cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2007 Feb 20;1771(2):147-54. Epub 2006 Dec 20.

Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Free fatty acids may create a state of continuous and progressive damaging to the vascular wall manifested by endothelial dysfunction. In this study we determine the mechanisms by which fatty acids palmitate (C16:0) and oleate (C18:1) affect intracellular long chain acyl-CoA (LCAC) content, energy metabolism, cell survival and proliferation and activation of NF-kappaB in cultured endothelial cells. A 48-h exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to 0.5 mM palmitate or 0.5 mM oleate increased total long chain acyl-CoA (LCAC) content 1.7 and 2 fold, respectively and decreased ATP(total)/ADP(total) ratio by 26+/-5% (mean+/-SEM) and 15+/-2%, respectively, which was prevented by the acyl-CoA synthetase inhibitor triacsin C. Furthermore, palmitate inhibited cell proliferation by 34+/-5%, while oleate stimulated it by 12+/-2%. alpha-Tocopherol fully and triacsin C partially abolished the effect of palmitate on cell proliferation. Palmitate and oleate increased caspase-3 activity 3.2 and 1.4 fold, respectively. Palmitate-induced caspase-3 activation was prevented by triacsin C and slightly reduced by alpha-tocopherol and by the de novo ceramide synthesis inhibitor fumonisin B(1). Both fatty acids induced antioxidant-sensitive nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB after 72 h, but not after 48 h. In conclusion, we showed that fatty acids influence different aspects of HUVEC function resulting in amongst other activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. Our results indicate that the effects depend on the fatty acid type and may be related to accumulation of LCAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.12.005DOI Listing
February 2007

Functioning of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondria of high-fat diet fed rats.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2007 Mar 10;1772(3):307-16. Epub 2006 Nov 10.

Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

We proposed that inhibition of mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) by long chain acyl-CoA (LCAC) underlies the mechanism associating obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we test that after long-term exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD): (i) there is no adaptation of the mitochondrial compartment that would hinder such ANT inhibition, and (ii) ANT has significant control of the relevant aspects of oxidative phosphorylation. After 7 weeks, HFD induced a 24+/-6% increase in hepatic LCAC concentration and accumulation of the oxidative stress marker N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine. HFD did not significantly affect mitochondrial copy number, oxygen uptake, membrane potential (Deltapsi), ADP/O ratio, and the content of coenzyme Q(9), cytochromes b and a+a(3). Modular kinetic analysis showed that the kinetics of substrate oxidation, phosphorylation, proton leak, ATP-production and ATP-consumption were not influenced significantly. After HFD-feeding ANT exerted considerable control over oxygen uptake (control coefficient C=0.14) and phosphorylation fluxes (C=0.15), extra- (C=0.23) and intramitochondrial (C=-0.56) ATP/ADP ratios, and Deltapsi (C=-0.11). We conclude that although HFD induces accumulation of LCAC and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, oxidative phosphorylation does not adapt to these metabolic challenges. Furthermore, ANT retains control of fluxes and intermediates, making inhibition of this enzyme a more probable link between obesity and type 2 diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2006.10.018DOI Listing
March 2007

Metabolic control of mitochondrial properties by adenine nucleotide translocator determines palmitoyl-CoA effects. Implications for a mechanism linking obesity and type 2 diabetes.

FEBS J 2006 Dec 24;273(23):5288-302. Epub 2006 Oct 24.

Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Inhibition of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) by long-chain acyl-CoA esters has been proposed to contribute to cellular dysfunction in obesity and type 2 diabetes by increasing formation of reactive oxygen species and adenosine via effects on the coenzyme Q redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi) and cytosolic ATP concentrations. We here show that 5 microm palmitoyl-CoA increases the ratio of reduced to oxidized coenzyme Q (QH(2)/Q) by 42 +/- 9%, Deltapsi by 13 +/- 1 mV (9%), and the intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio by 352 +/- 34%, and decreases the extramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio by 63 +/- 4% in actively phosphorylating mitochondria. The latter reduction is expected to translate into a 24% higher extramitochondrial AMP concentration. Furthermore, palmitoyl-CoA induced concentration-dependent H(2)O(2) formation, which can only partly be explained by its effect on Deltapsi. Although all measured fluxes and intermediate concentrations were affected by palmitoyl-CoA, modular kinetic analysis revealed that this resulted mainly from inhibition of the ANT. Through Metabolic Control Analysis, we then determined to what extent the ANT controls the investigated mitochondrial properties. Under steady-state conditions, the ANT moderately controlled oxygen uptake (control coefficient C = 0.13) and phosphorylation (C = 0.14) flux. It controlled intramitochondrial (C = -0.70) and extramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratios (C = 0.23) more strongly, whereas the control exerted over the QH(2)/Q ratio (C = -0.04) and Deltapsi (C = -0.01) was small. Quantitative assessment of the effects of palmitoyl-CoA showed that the mitochondrial properties that were most strongly controlled by the ANT were affected the most. Our observations suggest that long-chain acyl-CoA esters may contribute to cellular dysfunction in obesity and type 2 diabetes through effects on cellular energy metabolism and production of reactive oxygen species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05523.xDOI Listing
December 2006

Modular kinetic analysis of the adenine nucleotide translocator-mediated effects of palmitoyl-CoA on the oxidative phosphorylation in isolated rat liver mitochondria.

Diabetes 2005 Apr;54(4):944-51

Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, BioCenter Amsterdam, Faculty of EarthLife Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

To test whether long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters link obesity with type 2 diabetes through inhibition of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator, we applied a system-biology approach, dual modular kinetic analysis, with mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi) and the fraction of matrix ATP as intermediates. We found that 5 mumol/l palmitoyl-CoA inhibited adenine nucleotide translocator, without direct effect on other components of oxidative phosphorylation. Indirect effects depended on how oxidative phosphorylation was regulated. When the electron donor and phosphate acceptor were in excess, and the mitochondrial "work" flux was allowed to vary, palmitoyl-CoA decreased phosphorylation flux by 38% and the fraction of ATP in the medium by 39%. Deltapsi increased by 15 mV, and the fraction of matrix ATP increased by 46%. Palmitoyl-CoA had a stronger effect when the flux through the mitochondrial electron transfer chain was maintained constant: Deltapsi increased by 27 mV, and the fraction of matrix ATP increased 2.6 times. When oxidative phosphorylation flux was kept constant by adjusting the rate using hexokinase, Deltapsi and the fraction of ATP were not affected. Palmitoyl-CoA increased the extramitochondrial AMP concentration significantly. The effects of palmitoyl-CoA in our model system support the proposed mechanism linking obesity and type 2 diabetes through an effect on adenine nucleotide translocator.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.54.4.944DOI Listing
April 2005