Publications by authors named "Jole Mariella"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Epidemiologic case investigation on the zoonotic transmission of Staphylococcus aureus infection from goat to veterinarians.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Staphylococcus aureus infection led to a case of goat abortion, and four veterinarians contracted S. aureus infection from the goat during and after the abortion. Three veterinarians assisted a doe during the dystocic delivery of a dead foetus. Seventy-two hours after the dystocia, which ended with the goat's death, the veterinarians who assisted during the kidding and the veterinarian who performed the necropsy showed the presence of multiple, isolated, painful pustules 1-5 mm in diameter located along their forearms and knees. S. aureus was isolated from the pustules of the veterinarians, the placenta and uterus of the goat, the organs (brain, thymus gland, abomasum, liver and spleen) of the foetus, the scrotum and eye swabs of the buck, and mammary pustules of another goat from the same herd. Histological analysis revealed purulent metritis and inflammation of the placental cotyledons. Additional investigations eliminated the chances of other infections. S. aureus isolates recovered from the veterinarians, goats, foetus and buck were sensitive to the tested anti-microbials and did not encode staphylococcal enterotoxin genes (sea, ser, sep, see, seg and sei). The isolates were closely related, as indicated by the results of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and comparative whole-genome sequencing analysis. The results of this study clearly support the hypothesis that an episode of professional zoonosis was caused by S. aureus infection during the abortion and also highlight the need for bacterial subtyping in epidemiological surveys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12836DOI Listing
May 2021

Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure Associated with Oxytetracycline Administration in Two Neonatal Foals Affected by Flexural Limb Deformity.

Vet Sci 2020 Oct 22;7(4). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (DIMEVET), University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, Ozzano dell'Emilia, 40064 Bologna, Italy.

Oxytetracycline (OTC) administration has become a frequent practice in equine neonatology for the treatment of flexural limb deformity. The cause of this condition remains unclear but clinical studies revealed that following IV administration of OTC a relaxation of the metacarpophalangeal joint occurs in foals affected by flexural deformity. Studies concluded that OTC administration in neonatal foals did not adversely affect the kidneys. Other adverse effects of OTC have never been reported. This report presents two cases with different outcomes of 3-day-old foals which presented acute collapse and progressive depression after OTC administration. The clinical aspects, the increased activity of serum enzymes indicative of muscular damage, the presence of myoglobin in urine were clear diagnostic indicators of severe rhabdomyolysis, and the gross and histological findings confirmed a myopathy associated with renal damage in one case. Adverse effects on the musculoskeletal and urinary systems in healthy foals were first reported and were probably associated with multiple doses administered to foals less than 24-48 h old and/or at dosing intervals less than 24-48 h. The risk of development of rhabdomyolysis and nephrotoxicity in neonatal foals treated with OTC for flexural deformity from now on should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711985PMC
October 2020

Ultrasonographic measurement of the adrenal gland in neonatal foals: reliability of the technique and assessment of variation in healthy foals during the first five days of life.

Vet Rec 2020 Dec 6;187(12):e117. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

Background: Adrenal gland ultrasonographic measurements are useful in clinical evaluation of patients with adrenal dysfunction in several species. In human healthy neonates, the ultrasonographic size of the adrenal glands decreases during the first days of life. Ultrasonography of adrenal glands was demonstrated to be feasible in neonatal foals. The aims of this study were to describe a technique for ultrasonographic measurement of adrenal gland size to test its reliability in neonatal foals, and to assess any variation of ultrasonographic measurements during the first five days of life in healthy foals.

Methods: First, measurements of the adrenal glands were retrospectively obtained by three observers in 26 adrenal gland images of 13 healthy and sick neonatal foals. The interobserver and intraobserver agreement were tested. Later, adrenal gland ultrasonographic images and measurements were acquired by one operator in 11 healthy neonatal foals at one, three and five days of life and differences among the measurements obtained at the different time points were assessed.

Results: Interobserver agreement ranged from fair to excellent (0.48-0.92), except for cortex width (<0.4); intraobserver agreement ranged from good to excellent (0.52-0.98). No significant differences were found among the measurements obtained at one, three and five days of life.

Conclusion: Adrenal glands ultrasonographic measurements can be obtained consistently in equine neonates, and in contrast to people they do not vary during the first five days of life in healthy foals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.106027DOI Listing
December 2020

Peripartum findings and blood gas analysis in newborn foals born after spontaneous or induced parturition.

Theriogenology 2020 Dec 29;158:18-23. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Veterinary Teaching Hospital Mario Modenato, Pisa, Italy.

Induction of parturition in horses is still not well accepted due to the potential peripartum complications for mares and newborn foals. We assessed differences after spontaneous and induced parturition with low doses of oxytocin (OX) in 1) incidence of peripartum complications in mares; 2) viability, behavioral, physical, and venous blood gas analyses in foals. In this study 61 mares were included; 45/61 were enrolled in the spontaneous foaling group (SF) and 16/61 in the induced foaling group (IF). In the IF group, when the calcium in mammary secretion reached concentrations of ≥250 ppm, mares received a single injection of 2.5 IU of oxytocin IV once a day until foaling. Mares' breed, age, parity, gestational and stage II length, and peripartum complications were recorded. Foal maturity, vital (Apgar score), behavioral and physical parameters were assessed at birth, and the foal clinical condition was monitored for one week. A jugular venous blood sample was collected at birth for blood gas analysis, acid-base status, and lactate assessment. The median gestational length was within the reference interval in all the mares included and did not differ between the two groups. No statistical differences in the II stage length nor in incidence of peripartum complications were observed between the two groups. All the foals were born alive and showed no signs of prematurity/dysmaturity. No statistical differences were found in foal viability between the two groups. Time to stand and nurse from the mare, and body temperature were significantly higher in the IF compared to the SF group. Venous blood pH, SO% and BE were lower, while pCO and lactate were higher in the IF than in the SF group. All the foals in both groups remained clinically healthy during the observation period. In conclusion, at term induction of parturition with a low dose of oxytocin does not have adverse effects on peripartum in mares. Our findings suggest that at term induced foals suffer slightly greater, but not clinically significant, hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidosis than spontaneously delivered foals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2020.08.014DOI Listing
December 2020

Venous blood gas parameters, electrolytes, glucose and lactate concentration in sick neonatal foals: Direct venipuncture versus push-pull technique.

Equine Vet J 2021 May 3;53(3):488-494. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

Background: Blood collection by indwelling intravenous catheter (IVC) avoids repeated venipuncture, which could cause thrombophlebitis risk, anxiety and pain in patients.

Objectives: To compare blood gas parameters, electrolytes, glucose, lactate and haematocrit concentration obtained from venous blood samples collected via a jugular IVC by push-pull (PP) technique to those obtained by venipuncture in hospitalised foals, at the time of catheter placement (T0) and 24 hours after the beginning of intravenous therapy (T24).

Study Design: Prospective observational study.

Methods: Paired blood samples were drawn from hospitalised foals at T0 and T24. In each foal, one venous blood sample was collected via IVC by the following PP technique: 2.4 mL of blood was aspirated and immediately reinfused through the catheter three times consecutively, then 1 mL of blood was collected using a 1 mL heparinised syringe. Thereafter, another sample was collected by direct venipuncture of the contralateral jugular vein, with an identical 1 mL heparinised syringe, with a 1-inch, 20-G needle. All samples were analysed with an automated blood gas analyser within 10 minutes of collection. The agreement between the two techniques was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

Results: The level of agreement of blood gas values obtained by the two different techniques was high with very small bias and clinically acceptable ICC (>0.907 at T0; >0.794 at T24) for all variables, except for haematocrit (bias -3.52 at T0; -2.44 at T24) and PvO at T0 and T24 (ICC 0.669 and 0.733, respectively).

Main Limitations: Potential sub-clinical catheter-related complications were not investigated by ultrasound or bacterial culture of the catheter; short duration of the study.

Conclusions: PP technique appears to be acceptable for collection of blood samples for venous blood gas parameters, as well as electrolytes, glucose and lactate in sick neonatal foals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.13332DOI Listing
May 2021

Country Income Is Only One of the Tiles: The Global Journey of Antimicrobial Resistance among Humans, Animals, and Environment.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Aug 1;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Infectious Diseases Unit; Bolzano Central Hospital, 39100 Bolzano, Italy.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most complex global health challenges today: decades of overuse and misuse in human medicine, animal health, agriculture, and dispersion into the environment have produced the dire consequence of infections to become progressively untreatable. Infection control and prevention (IPC) procedures, the reduction of overuse, and the misuse of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine are the cornerstones required to prevent the spreading of resistant bacteria. Purified drinking water and strongly improved sanitation even in remote areas would prevent the pollution from inadequate treatment of industrial, residential, and farm waste, as all these situations are expanding the resistome in the environment. The One Health concept addresses the interconnected relationships between human, animal, and environmental health as a whole: several countries and international agencies have now included a One Health Approach within their action plans to address AMR. Improved antimicrobial usage, coupled with regulation and policy, as well as integrated surveillance, infection control and prevention, along with antimicrobial stewardship, sanitation, and animal husbandry should all be integrated parts of any new action plan targeted to tackle AMR on the Earth. Since AMR is found in bacteria from humans, animals, and in the environment, we briefly summarize herein the current concepts of One Health as a global challenge to enable the continued use of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9080473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460298PMC
August 2020

The First Case of Botulism in a Donkey.

Vet Sci 2019 May 15;6(2). Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (DIMEVET), University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, Ozzano dell'Emilia, 40064 Bologna, Italy.

Botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease that can affect humans, all warm-blooded animals, and some fishes, is caused by exotoxins produced by ubiquitous, obligate anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria belonging to the genus and named botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-producing clostridia. This report presents the case of a 3-year-old donkey mare referred for progressive and worsening dysphagia of four days' duration. Her voluntary effort in eating and drinking was conserved, and she was able to slow chew without swallowing. A complete neurological examination was performed, and botulism was strongly suspected. The ability to swallow feed and water returned on the tenth day of hospitalization and improved progressively. The jenny was discharged from the hospital after fifteen days. During the hospitalization, the Italian National Reference Centre for Botulism confirmed the diagnosis: mare's feces were positive for BoNT/B and type B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6631189PMC
May 2019

Heterologous Wharton's Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Application on a Large Chronic Skin Wound in a 6-Month-Old Filly.

Front Vet Sci 2019 30;6. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

A complex feedback of growth factors, secreted by a variety of cell types, is responsible for the mediation of skin healing. Despite the recent advances in wound healing management, this fails up to 50% and skin wounds can still be considered one of the main causes of morbidity, both in human and veterinary medicine. Regenerative medicine, involving mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), is nowadays a promising solution for skin wound healing. Indeed, MSCs are involved in the modulation of the inflammatory local response and cell replacing, by a paracrine mode of action. Local application of equine umbilical cord Wharton's jelly MSCs (WJMSCS) was carried out in a 6-months-old filly with a non-healing skin wound. Heterologous WJMSCs were applied four times using a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) gel, produced dissolving CMC in autologous plasma. At first application the mean wound area was 7.28 ± 0.2 cm. Four days after the last application of WJMSCs, the mean wound area was 1.90 ± 0.03 cm, and the wound regression rate was +74%. No local or systemic side effects were registered after WJMSCs application and no evident exuberant scar was observed after wound healing. At discharge, the mean wound area was 0.38 ± 0.01 cm and the total regression rate was +80%. Five days later, the wound was completely healed. In the present clinical case report, the use of WJMSCs led to promising clinical results, paving the way for possible future applications in the treatment of chronic wounds in horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363668PMC
January 2019

Molecular Detection of Bovine Papillomavirus DNA in the Placenta and Blood of Healthy Mares and Respective Foals.

Vet Sci 2019 Feb 6;6(1). Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra, 50 Ozzano Emilia, Bologna 40064, Italy.

Despite the characteristic species specificity of Papillomaviruses (PVs), the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1, 2, and-more rarely-13, can cross-infect equids, where they are involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoid neoplasms. Sarcoids are locally invasive fibroblastic skin tumors that represent the most common skin neoplasms in horses worldwide. The transmission mechanism of BPV is still controversial in horses. Thus far, direct and indirect routes have been implicated, while vertical transmission has been suggested after the detection of viral DNA in the semen of healthy stallions. Testing of the blood and placenta of non-sarcoid baring mares and their respective foals revealed that the equine placenta can harbor BPV DNA, leading us to speculate a possible prenatal vertical DNA transmission in equids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466198PMC
February 2019

A regression model including fetal orbit measurements to predict parturition in Standardbred mares with normal pregnancy.

Theriogenology 2019 Mar 10;126:153-158. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064, Ozzano Emilia, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

In the mare, foaling is a critical unpredictable event due to a wide range of gestational length and the absence of clear signs of impending parturition. To predict foaling, pH, inversion sodium potassium and increase of calcium concentration in mammary secretions are used. The aim of this study was to find how many days are left until parturition knowing mare's age (A) and parity (P) combined with ultrasonographic measurements of the fetal orbit in Standardbred mares with normal pregnancy. Eighty healthy Standardbred mares with normal pregnancy were hospitalized for attended delivery. Information about mare's age, parity and breeding date were recorded at admission. Transrectal ultrasonography were routinely performed at admission and every 10 days until parturition using a B-mode real time portable unit equipped with a 5-7.5 MHz linear transducer. The images of the fetal orbit were acquired when cornea, anterior and posterior chamber, vitreous body, lens and optic nerve were visible. Longitudinal diameter (LD) was considered as the distance between the two ocular poles, within the vitreous body; transverse diameter (TD), perpendicular to LD and bisecting the lens, was measured as the distance between cornea and retina. At delivery, length of pregnancy and gestational age at each exam were registered. For each ultrasound examination, days before parturition (DBP) were calculated. Seventy-eight Standardbred mares with normal pregnancies were included in the study. Mares' mean age was 9 ± 5 years old (range 4-20 years) and mean gestation length was 341 ± 7 days (range 327-366 days). Thirty-three mares were primiparous and 45 mares were multiparous. Data were analyzed using a regression tree: P, A, LD and TD were used as covariates. DBP was used as the variable of interest. Nine terminal nodes were identified based on the selected covariates. The first split is produced by the TD: fetuses with TD greater or equal than 2.97 cm are further split according to LD, with a threshold of 3.28 cm. The next split is dictated by A; after a further split on LD, the first terminal node is built, containing 34 fetuses with average DBP equal to 10 days. If the A is ≥ 9.5 years a further split is on P: when mares are multiparous, the TD built two different nodes. Since prediction of mare's foaling date is an important factor in stud farm management, the regression model developed may help the veterinarian to estimate the DBP in Standardbred mares with normal pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.12.020DOI Listing
March 2019

Macroscopic characteristics of the umbilical cord in Standardbred, Thoroughbred and Warmblood horses.

Theriogenology 2018 Jun 7;113:166-170. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064, Ozzano Emilia, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

The umbilical cord (UC), the connection between mother and fetus via the umbilical vessels, carries nutrients and oxygenated blood to the fetus through the umbilical vein and removes deoxygenated blood and waste products via the umbilical arteries. It is designed to protect blood flow to the fetus during pregnancy. In equine medicine, only a few studies have described the UC, and most of these involved Thoroughbreds. The present study describes and compares the macroscopic features of the equine umbilical cord in three different breeds and in relation to the foal's gender. In addition, a possible correlation between UC features and maternal and perinatal factors is investigated. One hundred and twenty four healthy mares with normal pregnancies were enrolled in the study and were divided into three groups according to their breed: 70 Standardbreds (STB), 38 Thoroughbreds (THB) and 16 Warmbloods (WAB). The following data were recorded: mare's age and parity, gestation length, placental weight, presence of fetal membrane alterations, UC length and number of coils in the amniotic and allantoic portions, and the Umbilical Coiling Index (UCI), which is the ratio between total coils and total UC length. The UCI has not been investigated previously in veterinary medicine. Furthermore, immediately after foaling, APGAR score, foal's weight and sex were recorded. All the STB and WAB were housed in Italy and the THB were housed in New Zealand. Mares' mean age was higher in WAB than in THB and STB; the latter had a significantly shorter gestation length. The foal's weight was positively correlated with placental weight in all breeds; and in STB, foal weight was positively related to parity and gestation length. Mean total UC length was comparable to previous reports in THB, STB and WAB. The lengths of the two UC portions were statistically different between STB and THB, where the amniotic portion was longer than the allantoic one. In each breed, total UC length was correlated with total number of coils (THB and STB = 5 ± 1; WAB = 6 ± 1), the UC amniotic length was positively correlated with the number of amniotic coils and the allantoic length was positively correlated with the number of allantoic coils. The UCI values were 0.09 in STB and THB and 0.1 in WAB. This study provides reference values for UCI that could be included in the gross placental evaluation if its clinical importance were demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.03.004DOI Listing
June 2018

Hematologic and biochemical profiles in Standardbred mares during peripartum.

Theriogenology 2014 Mar 9;81(4):526-34. Epub 2013 Nov 9.

Department of Medical Veterinary Sciences, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Bologna, Italy.

The purposes of this study were to determine physiological changes occurring in hematologic and biochemical parameters in mares between the last month of gestation and the first week after parturition. If a significant change was observed with respect to the reference interval of an adult horse, a further aim of the study was to establish different reference intervals. Blood samples were collected from 62 healthy pregnant Standardbred mares. Seventeen nonpregnant and nonlactating mares were used as a control group. In pregnant mares, blood sampling was conducted every three days from 1 month before the expected foaling date (335 days after the last mating), at parturition, and 7 days after foaling. The barren mares in the control group were sampled once. Results from samples collected 20 and 10 days before parturition, at parturition, and 7 days after were considered in the statistical analysis. A parametric method for all the parameters studied was used to establish reference intervals. Results were compared by repeated measures ANOVA. When significant differences were observed in relation to sampling time, a post hoc analysis was performed (Tukey test). The one-way ANOVA test followed by Dunnett's test was performed to evaluate the presence of a significant difference between each sampling time and the control group. Any significant difference in the blood count parameters at different sampling times was observed by repeated measure ANOVA. Hemoglobin (P < 0.01) and hematocrit (P < 0.01) 7 days after parturition and white blood cell count (P < 0.01) at parturition were significantly different from the control group. Erythrocyte indices and platelet count were within the normal reference intervals as established in the control group. In the biochemical panel, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, glucose, biliar acids, total protein, albumin-to-globulin ratio, and calcium were significantly different at different sampling times. Moreover, serum concentration of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, albumin-to-globulin ratio, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, potassium, and total, direct, and indirect bilirubin was different from that of the control group. Remarkable changes were not observed in alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride, and fibrinogen concentrations. Temporal changes in the hematologic and biochemical parameters observed in the present study in the peripartum and the differences with reference intervals made up for nonpregnant and nonlactating mares could be used to better evaluate the conditions of periparturient mares.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2013.11.001DOI Listing
March 2014

Expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and interferon-γ in blood samples obtained from healthy and sick neonatal foals.

Am J Vet Res 2012 Sep;73(9):1418-27

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bologna, 40064 Ozzano Emilia, Bologna, Italy.

Objective: To evaluate and compare the gene expression of interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-8, and interferon-γ during the first 72 hours after birth in healthy foals and during the first 72 hours after hospitalization in sick neonatal foals and investigate correlations of clinicopathologic variables with cytokine expressions in healthy and sick neonatal foals.

Animals: 33 foals < 7 days old (10 healthy foals, 7 foals with sepsis, 6 foals with peripartum asphyxia syndrome, and 12 foals with other diseases [2 with failure of passive transfer of immunity only were not further evaluated]).

Procedures: A blood sample (15 mL) was collected from each foal immediately after birth or hospital admission (0 hours) and at 24 and 72 hours later. Clinicopathologic variables were evaluated, and cytokine gene expression in WBCs was measured with an absolute quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay.

Results: At all time points, gene expression of interferon-γ was low in all groups. No time-dependent changes in cytokine expressions were detected in healthy or sick foals. Foals with sepsis had significantly higher IL-1β gene expression than did healthy foals, foals with peripartum asphyxia syndrome, or foals with other diseases. At 0 hours, IL-1β expression was correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentration in healthy foals and with the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in foals with sepsis; IL-8 expression was correlated with monocyte count in foals with sepsis and with arterial pH, plasma fibrinogen concentration, and plasma lactate concentration in foals with peripartum asphyxia syndrome.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Data have suggested that evaluation of IL-1β expression in sick neonatal foals could help identify those with sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.73.9.1418DOI Listing
September 2012