Publications by authors named "Joke Beuten"

33 Publications

Whole-Exome Sequencing, Proteome Landscape, and Immune Cell Migration Patterns in a Clinical Context of Menkes Disease.

Genes (Basel) 2021 05 14;12(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Histology, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Medicina, Monterrey 64460, Mexico.

Menkes disease (MD) is a rare and often lethal X-linked recessive syndrome, characterized by generalized alterations in copper transport and metabolism, linked to mutations in the ATPase copper transporting α () gene. Our objective was to identify genomic alterations and circulating proteomic profiles related to MD assessing their potential roles in the clinical features of the disease. We describe the case of a male patient of 8 months of age with silvery hair, tan skin color, hypotonia, alterations in neurodevelopment, presence of seizures, and low values of plasma ceruloplasmin. Trio-whole-exome sequencing (Trio-WES) analysis, plasma proteome screening, and blood cell migration assays were carried out. Trio-WES revealed a hemizygous change c.4190C > T (p.S1397F) in exon 22 of the gene. Compared with his parents and with child controls, 11 plasma proteins were upregulated and 59 downregulated in the patient. According to their biological processes, 42 (71.2%) of downregulated proteins had a participation in cellular transport. The immune system process was represented by 35 (59.3%) downregulated proteins ( = 9.44 × 10). Additional studies are necessary to validate these findings as hallmarks of MD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12050744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156642PMC
May 2021

Phenotypic expansion in - a common cause of intellectual disability in females.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2018 Oct 15;5(10):1277-1285. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Molecular and Human Genetics Baylor College of Medicine Houston Texas.

De variants in account for 1-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases and are amongst the most common causes of ID especially in females. Forty-seven patients (44 females, 3 males) have been described. We identified 31 additional individuals carrying 29 unique variants, including 30 postnatal individuals with complex clinical presentations of developmental delay or ID, and one fetus with abnormal ultrasound findings. Rare or novel phenotypes observed include respiratory problems, congenital heart disease, skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA depletion, and late-onset neurologic decline. Our findings expand the spectrum of DNA variants and phenotypes associated with disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186933PMC
October 2018

Clinical and molecular characterization of de novo loss of function variants in HNRNPU.

Am J Med Genet A 2017 Oct 16;173(10):2680-2689. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

DNA alterations in the 1q43-q44 region are associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, microcephaly, seizures, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. HNRNPU is located within the 1q43-q44 region and mutations in the gene have been reported in patients with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Here, we report on the clinical presentation of four patients with de novo heterozygous HNRNPU loss-of-function mutations detected by clinical whole exome sequencing: c.651_660del (p.Gly218Alafs*118), c.1089G>A (p.Trp363*), c.1714C>T (p.Arg572*), and c.2270_2271del (p.Pro757Argfs*7). All patients shared similar clinical features as previously reported including seizures, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, variable neurologic regression, behavior issues, and dysmorphic facial features. Features including heart defects and kidney abnormalities were not reported in our patients. These findings expands the clinical spectrum of HNRNPU-related disorder and shows that HNRNPU contributes to a subset of the clinical phenotypes associated with the contiguous 1q43-q44 deletion syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38388DOI Listing
October 2017

De Novo Mutations in CHD4, an ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeler Gene, Cause an Intellectual Disability Syndrome with Distinctive Dysmorphisms.

Am J Hum Genet 2016 Oct 8;99(4):934-941. Epub 2016 Sep 8.

Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler involved in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. Also known as Mi2β, CHD4 is an integral subunit of a well-characterized histone deacetylase complex. Here we report five individuals with de novo missense substitutions in CHD4 identified through whole-exome sequencing and web-based gene matching. These individuals have overlapping phenotypes including developmental delay, intellectual disability, hearing loss, macrocephaly, distinct facial dysmorphisms, palatal abnormalities, ventriculomegaly, and hypogonadism as well as additional findings such as bone fusions. The variants, c.3380G>A (p.Arg1127Gln), c.3443G>T (p.Trp1148Leu), c.3518G>T (p.Arg1173Leu), and c.3008G>A, (p.Gly1003Asp) (GenBank: NM_001273.3), affect evolutionarily highly conserved residues and are predicted to be deleterious. Previous studies in yeast showed the equivalent Arg1127 and Trp1148 residues to be crucial for SNF2 function. Furthermore, mutations in the same positions were reported in malignant tumors, and a de novo missense substitution in an equivalent arginine residue in the C-terminal helicase domain of SMARCA4 is associated with Coffin Siris syndrome. Cell-based studies of the p.Arg1127Gln and p.Arg1173Leu mutants demonstrate normal localization to the nucleus and HDAC1 interaction. Based on these findings, the mutations potentially alter the complex activity but not its formation. This report provides evidence for the role of CHD4 in human development and expands an increasingly recognized group of Mendelian disorders involving chromatin remodeling and modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5065651PMC
October 2016

Increased bone turnover, osteoporosis, progressive tibial bowing, fractures, and scoliosis in a patient with a final-exon SATB2 frameshift mutation.

Am J Med Genet A 2016 11 13;170(11):3028-3032. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine.

Haploinsufficiency of SATB2 causes cleft palate, intellectual disability with deficient speech, facial and dental abnormalities, and other variable features known collectively as SATB2-associated syndrome. This phenotype was accompanied by osteoporosis, fractures, and tibial bowing in two previously reported adult patients; each possessed SATB2 mutations either predicted or demonstrated to escape nonsense-mediated decay, suggesting that the additional bone defects result from a dominant negative effect and/or age-dependent penetrance. These hypotheses remain to be confirmed, as do the specific downstream defects causing bone abnormalities. We report a SATB2 mutation (c.2018dupA; p.(H673fs)) in a 15-year-old patient whose SATB2-associated syndrome phenotype is accompanied by osteoporosis, fractures, progressive tibial bowing, and scoliosis. As this homeodomain-disrupting and predicted truncating mutation resides within the final exon of SATB2, escape from nonsense-mediated decay is likely. Thus, we provide further evidence of bone phenotypes beyond those typically associated with SATB2-associated syndrome in individuals with potential dominant-negative SATB2 alleles, as well as evidence for age-dependence of bone features. Elevations in alkaline phosphatase, urinary N-telopeptide/creatinine ratio, and osteocalcin in the patient indicate increased bone turnover. We propose surveillance and treatment with osteoclast inhibitors to prevent fractures and to slow progressive bone deformities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37847DOI Listing
November 2016

Mutation Screening and Association Study of the Folylpolyglutamate Synthetase (FPGS) Gene with Susceptibility to Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(11):4727-32

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand E-mail :

Background: Folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an important enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway, plays a central role in intracellular accumulation of folate and antifolate in several mammalian cell types. Loss of FPGS activity results in decreased cellular levels of antifolates and consequently to polyglutamatable antifolates in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Materials And Methods: During May 1997 and December 2003, 134 children diagnosed with ALL were recruited from one hospital in Thailand. We performed a mutation analysis in the coding regions of the FPGS gene and the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within FPGS in a case-control sample of childhood ALL patients. Mutation screening was conducted by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and subsequently with direct sequencing (n=72). Association analysis between common FPGS variants and ALL risk was done in 98 childhood ALL cases and 95 healthy volunteers recruited as controls.

Results: Seven SNPs in the FPGS coding region were identified by mutation analysis, 3 of which (IVS13+55C>T, g.1297T>G, and g.1508C>T) were recognized as novel SNPs. Association analysis revealed 3 of 6 SNPs to confer significant increase in ALL risk these being rs7039798 (p= 0.014, OR=2.14), rs1544105 (p=0.010, OR= 2.24), and rs10106 (p=0.026, OR= 1.99).

Conclusions: These findings suggested that common genetic polymorphisms in the FPGS coding region including rs7039789, rs1544105, and rs10106 are significantly associated with increased ALL risk in Thai children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.11.4727DOI Listing
April 2016

Molecular findings among patients referred for clinical whole-exome sequencing.

JAMA 2014 Nov;312(18):1870-9

Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Importance: Clinical whole-exome sequencing is increasingly used for diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected genetic disorders.

Objective: To perform clinical whole-exome sequencing and report (1) the rate of molecular diagnosis among phenotypic groups, (2) the spectrum of genetic alterations contributing to disease, and (3) the prevalence of medically actionable incidental findings such as FBN1 mutations causing Marfan syndrome.

Design, Setting, And Patients: Observational study of 2000 consecutive patients with clinical whole-exome sequencing analyzed between June 2012 and August 2014. Whole-exome sequencing tests were performed at a clinical genetics laboratory in the United States. Results were reported by clinical molecular geneticists certified by the American Board of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Tests were ordered by the patient's physician. The patients were primarily pediatric (1756 [88%]; mean age, 6 years; 888 females [44%], 1101 males [55%], and 11 fetuses [1% gender unknown]), demonstrating diverse clinical manifestations most often including nervous system dysfunction such as developmental delay.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Whole-exome sequencing diagnosis rate overall and by phenotypic category, mode of inheritance, spectrum of genetic events, and reporting of incidental findings.

Results: A molecular diagnosis was reported for 504 patients (25.2%) with 58% of the diagnostic mutations not previously reported. Molecular diagnosis rates for each phenotypic category were 143/526 (27.2%; 95% CI, 23.5%-31.2%) for the neurological group, 282/1147 (24.6%; 95% CI, 22.1%-27.2%) for the neurological plus other organ systems group, 30/83 (36.1%; 95% CI, 26.1%-47.5%) for the specific neurological group, and 49/244 (20.1%; 95% CI, 15.6%-25.8%) for the nonneurological group. The Mendelian disease patterns of the 527 molecular diagnoses included 280 (53.1%) autosomal dominant, 181 (34.3%) autosomal recessive (including 5 with uniparental disomy), 65 (12.3%) X-linked, and 1 (0.2%) mitochondrial. Of 504 patients with a molecular diagnosis, 23 (4.6%) had blended phenotypes resulting from 2 single gene defects. About 30% of the positive cases harbored mutations in disease genes reported since 2011. There were 95 medically actionable incidental findings in genes unrelated to the phenotype but with immediate implications for management in 92 patients (4.6%), including 59 patients (3%) with mutations in genes recommended for reporting by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

Conclusions And Relevance: Whole-exome sequencing provided a potential molecular diagnosis for 25% of a large cohort of patients referred for evaluation of suspected genetic conditions, including detection of rare genetic events and new mutations contributing to disease. The yield of whole-exome sequencing may offer advantages over traditional molecular diagnostic approaches in certain patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.14601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326249PMC
November 2014

Heterozygous de novo and inherited mutations in the smooth muscle actin (ACTG2) gene underlie megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.

PLoS Genet 2014 Mar 27;10(3):e1004258. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America; Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare disorder of enteric smooth muscle function affecting the intestine and bladder. Patients with this severe phenotype are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. The cause of this syndrome has remained a mystery since Berdon's initial description in 1976. No genes have been clearly linked to MMIHS. We used whole-exome sequencing for gene discovery followed by targeted Sanger sequencing in a cohort of patients with MMIHS and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We identified heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants in 15 unrelated subjects, ten being apparent de novo mutations. Ten unique variants were detected, of which six affected CpG dinucleotides and resulted in missense mutations at arginine residues, perhaps related to biased usage of CpG containing codons within actin genes. We also found some of the same heterozygous mutations that we observed as apparent de novo mutations in MMIHS segregating in families with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, suggesting that ACTG2 is responsible for a spectrum of smooth muscle disease. ACTG2 encodes γ2 enteric actin and is the first gene to be clearly associated with MMIHS, suggesting an important role for contractile proteins in enteric smooth muscle disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3967950PMC
March 2014

Clinical whole-exome sequencing for the diagnosis of mendelian disorders.

N Engl J Med 2013 Oct 2;369(16):1502-11. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Background: Whole-exome sequencing is a diagnostic approach for the identification of molecular defects in patients with suspected genetic disorders.

Methods: We developed technical, bioinformatic, interpretive, and validation pipelines for whole-exome sequencing in a certified clinical laboratory to identify sequence variants underlying disease phenotypes in patients.

Results: We present data on the first 250 probands for whom referring physicians ordered whole-exome sequencing. Patients presented with a range of phenotypes suggesting potential genetic causes. Approximately 80% were children with neurologic phenotypes. Insurance coverage was similar to that for established genetic tests. We identified 86 mutated alleles that were highly likely to be causative in 62 of the 250 patients, achieving a 25% molecular diagnostic rate (95% confidence interval, 20 to 31). Among the 62 patients, 33 had autosomal dominant disease, 16 had autosomal recessive disease, and 9 had X-linked disease. A total of 4 probands received two nonoverlapping molecular diagnoses, which potentially challenged the clinical diagnosis that had been made on the basis of history and physical examination. A total of 83% of the autosomal dominant mutant alleles and 40% of the X-linked mutant alleles occurred de novo. Recurrent clinical phenotypes occurred in patients with mutations that were highly likely to be causative in the same genes and in different genes responsible for genetically heterogeneous disorders.

Conclusions: Whole-exome sequencing identified the underlying genetic defect in 25% of consecutive patients referred for evaluation of a possible genetic condition. (Funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1306555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211433PMC
October 2013

Candidate gene association analysis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies new susceptibility locus at 11p15 (LMO1).

Carcinogenesis 2011 Sep 21;32(9):1349-53. Epub 2011 May 21.

Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

To determine the contribution of susceptibility loci in explaining the genetic basis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we genotyped 29 high-potential candidate genes with 672 tagged single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample (163 cases and 251 healthy controls) of Caucasian children. Fifty SNPs in 15 genes were significantly associated with ALL risk at the P < 0.05 level. After correction for multiple testing, rs442264 within the LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) gene at 11p15 remained significant [odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, P = 3 × 10(-5)]. In addition, a major haplotype within LMO1 comprising 14 SNPs with individual risk associations was found to significantly increase ALL risk (OR = 1.79, P = 0.0006). A stratified analysis on subtype indicated that risk associations of LMO1 variants are significant in children with precursor B-cell leukemia. These data show that genetic variants within LMO1 are associated with ALL and identify this gene as a strong candidate for precursor B-cell leukemogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgr091DOI Listing
September 2011

Wide disparity in genetic admixture among Mexican Americans from San Antonio, TX.

Ann Hum Genet 2011 Jul 18;75(4):529-38. Epub 2011 May 18.

Department of Pediatrics Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

We studied 706 participants of the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study (SAFDS) and 586 male samples from the San Antonio Center for Biomarkers of Risk of Prostate Cancer (SABOR) and used 64 ancestry informative markers to compare admixture proportions between both groups. Existence of population substructure was demonstrated by the excess association of unlinked markers. In the SAFDS sample, ancestral proportions were estimated at 50.2 ± 0.6% European, 46.4 ± 0.6% Native American, and 3.1 ± 0.2% West African. For the SABOR sample, the proportions were 58.9 ± 0.7%, 38.2 ± 0.7%, and 2.9 ± 0.2%, respectively. Additionally, in the SAFDS subjects a highly significant negative correlation was found between individual Native American ancestry and skin reflectance (R(2) = 0.07, P= 0.00006). The correlation was stronger in males than in females but clearly showed that ancestry only accounts for a small percentage of the variation in skin color and, conversely, that skin reflectance is not a robust surrogate for genetic admixture. Furthermore, a substantial difference in substructure is present in the two cohorts of Mexican American subjects from the San Antonio area in Texas, which emphasizes that genetic admixture estimates should be accounted for in association studies, even for geographically related subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00655.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3115480PMC
July 2011

Polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and ethnic-specific susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011 Jul 17;20(7):1537-42. Epub 2011 May 17.

Department of Pediatrics and Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. The U.S. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry reports that Hispanic children have the highest incidence of ALL, however, it is unclear if this is due to genetic factors, unique environmental exposures, or both. Previous reports have shown an association between CYP1A1 variants and ALL.

Methods: To explore the contribution of CYP1A1 polymorphisms to ALL susceptibility in different ethnic groups, we conducted a case-control analysis in Caucasian, Hispanic, and African-American children.

Results: Increased risk of developing ALL was found in the whole sample group for homozygosity of variant alleles at CYP1A1*2C (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.18-5.33, P = 0.016) and CYP1A1*2B (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.43-7.34, P = 0.005). Stratified analyses showed increased risks in the Hispanic group (CYP1A1*2A, OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.27-5.74, P = 0.010; CYP1A1*2C, OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.13-5.38, P = 0.023; and CYP1A1*2B, OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.40-7.69, P = 0.006) but not for the other ethnic groups. Hispanic control subjects were significantly more likely to be carriers of variant alleles as compared to Caucasians (P < 0.0001) and African Americans (P = 0.005).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that polymorphisms in CYP1A1 may contribute to the increased risk of ALL in Hispanic children due to both their impact on leukemia susceptibility and the increased prevalence of the at-risk alleles in the Hispanic population.

Impact: Our study provides a novel and specific link between CYP1A1 polymorphisms and ethnic influence on ALL risk that may help explain varying susceptibilities across groups to environmental toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-1265DOI Listing
July 2011

SIGLEC12, a human-specific segregating (pseudo)gene, encodes a signaling molecule expressed in prostate carcinomas.

J Biol Chem 2011 Jul 9;286(26):23003-11. Epub 2011 May 9.

Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

The primate SIGLEC12 gene encodes one of the CD33-related Siglec family of signaling molecules in immune cells. We had previously reported that this gene harbors a human-specific missense mutation of the codon for an Arg residue required for sialic acid recognition. Here we show that this R122C mutation of the Siglec-XII protein is fixed in the human population, i.e. it occurred prior to the origin of modern humans. Additional mutations have since completely inactivated the SIGLEC12 gene in some but not all humans. The most common inactivating mutation with a global allele frequency of 58% is a single nucleotide frameshift that markedly shortens the open reading frame. Unlike other CD33-related Siglecs that are primarily found on immune cells, we found that Siglec-XII protein is expressed not only on some macrophages but also on various epithelial cell surfaces in humans and chimpanzees. We also found expression on certain human prostate epithelial carcinomas and carcinoma cell lines. This expression correlates with the presence of the nonframeshifted, intact SIGLEC12 allele. Although SIGLEC12 allele status did not predict prostate carcinoma incidence, restoration of expression in a prostate carcinoma cell line homozygous for the frameshift mutation induced altered regulation of several genes associated with carcinoma progression. These stably transfected Siglec-XII-expressing prostate cancer cells also showed enhanced growth in nude mice. Finally, monoclonal antibodies against the protein were internalized by Siglec-XII-expressing prostate carcinoma cells, allowing targeting of a toxin to such cells. Polymorphic expression of Siglec-XII in humans thus has implications for prostate cancer biology and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.244152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123068PMC
July 2011

Multilocus association of genetic variants in MLL, CREBBP, EP300, and TOP2A with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Hispanics from Texas.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011 Jun 14;20(6):1204-12. Epub 2011 Apr 14.

Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA.

Background: Hispanic children have both a higher incidence and a poorer outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Moreover, a higher incidence for therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with 11q23 translocations after treatment with topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitors has been observed in Hispanic children with ALL. We sought to determine the potential role of genetic variants within the topoisomerase IIα gene (TOP2A), within the mixed lineage leukemia gene (MLL) and two of its translocation partners, cyclin AMP response element-binding protein gene (CREBBP) and E1A binding protein gene (EP300) in the increased sensitivity of Hispanic children with ALL to topo II inhibitors.

Methods: Fifty-two tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) covering the four genes were genotyped in 241 samples (66 children with ALL and 175 age matched controls) of self-identified Hispanic origin.

Results: Two SNPs within MLL (rs525549 and rs6589664) and three SNPs within EP300 (rs5758222, rs7286979, and rs20551) were significantly associated with ALL (P = 0.001-0.04). A significant gene-dosage effect for increasing numbers of potential high-risk genotypes (OR = 16.66; P = 2 × 10(-5)) and a major haplotype significantly associated with ALL (OR = 5.68; P = 2 × 10(-6)) were found. Replication in a sample of 137 affected White children and 239 controls showed that only rs6589664 (MLL) was significantly associated in this ethnic group.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the association between ALL and common genetic variants within MLL and EP300 is population specific.

Impact: Replication of our findings in independent Hispanic populations is warranted to elucidate the role of these variants in ALL susceptibility and define their importance in the ethnic specific differences in ALL risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0059DOI Listing
June 2011

Identification of viral infections in the prostate and evaluation of their association with cancer.

BMC Cancer 2010 Jun 24;10:326. Epub 2010 Jun 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University Hospital Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey 64460, Mexico.

Background: Several viruses with known oncogenic potential infect prostate tissue, among these are the polyomaviruses BKV, JCV, and SV40; human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Recently, the Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related gammaretrovirus (XMRV) was identified in prostate tissue with a high prevalence observed in prostate cancer (PC) patients homozygous for the glutamine variant of the RNASEL protein (462Q/Q). Association studies with the R462Q allele and non-XMRV viruses have not been reported. We assessed associations between prostate cancer, prostate viral infections, and the RNASEL 462Q allele in Mexican cancer patients and controls.

Methods: 130 subjects (55 prostate cancer cases and 75 controls) were enrolled in the study. DNA and RNA isolated from prostate tissues were screened for the presence of viral genomes. Genotyping of the RNASEL R462Q variant was performed by Taqman method.

Results: R/R, R/Q, and Q/Q frequencies for R462Q were 0.62, 0.38, and 0.0 for PC cases and 0.69, 0.24, and 0.07 for controls, respectively. HPV sequences were detected in 11 (20.0%) cases and 4 (5.3%) controls. XMRV and HCMV infections were detected in one and six control samples, respectively. The risk of PC was significantly increased (Odds Ratio = 3.98; 95% CI: 1.17-13.56, p = 0.027) by infection of the prostatic tissue with HPV. BKV, JCV, and SV40 sequences were not detected in any of the tissue samples examined.

Conclusions: We report a positive association between PC and HPV infection. The 462Q/Q RNASEL genotype was not represented in our PC cases; thus, its interaction with prostate viral infections and cancer could not be evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2912861PMC
June 2010

Single and multivariate associations of MSR1, ELAC2, and RNASEL with prostate cancer in an ethnic diverse cohort of men.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010 Feb 19;19(2):588-99. Epub 2010 Jan 19.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

Three genes, namely, ELAC2 (HPC2 locus) on chromosome 17p11, 2'-5'-oligoisoadenlyate-synthetase-dependent ribonuclease L (RNASEL, HPC1 locus), and macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) within a region of linkage on chromosome 8p, have been identified as hereditary tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer. We genotyped 41 tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the three genes in a case-control cohort, which included 1,436 Caucasians, 648 Hispanics, and 270 African Americans. SNPs within MSR1, ELAC2, and RNASEL were significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer albeit with differences among the three ethnic groups (P = 0.043-1.0 x 10(-5)). In Caucasians, variants within MSR1 and ELAC2 are most likely to confer prostate cancer risk, and rs11545302 (ELAC2) showed a main effect independent of other significant SNPs (P = 2.03 x 10(-5)). A major haplotype G-A-C-G-C-G combining five SNPs within MSR1 was further shown to increase prostate cancer risk significantly in this study group. Variants in RNASEL had the strongest effects on prostate cancer risk estimates in Hispanics and also showed an interaction effect of family history. In African Americans, single SNPs within MSR1 were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk. A major risk haplotype C-G-G-C-G of five SNPs within ELAC2 was found in this group. Combining high-risk genotypes of MSR1 and ELAC2 in Caucasians and of RNASEL and MSR1 in Hispanics showed synergistic effects and suggest that an interaction between both genes in each ethnicity is likely to confer prostate cancer risk. Our findings corroborate the involvement of ELAC2, MSR1, and RNASEL in the etiology of prostate cancer even in individuals without a family history.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5034730PMC
February 2010

Semaphorin 3B and 3F single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with prostate cancer risk and poor prognosis.

J Urol 2009 Oct 15;182(4):1614-20. Epub 2009 Aug 15.

Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA.

Purpose: SEMA3B and SEMA3F are 2 closely related genes lying 80 kb apart on chromosome 3 that have been shown to suppress tumor formation in vivo and in vitro. Each gene has a single nucleotide polymorphism that results in a nonsynonymous coding change, rs2071203 (SEMA3B) and rs1046956 (SEMA3F), as well as noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms.

Materials And Methods: We performed a case-control study of 789 prostate cancer cases and 907 controls from 3 races/ethnicities to determine possible associations of 10 variants with prostate cancer risk or prognosis.

Results: The risk of prostate cancer increased more than 2-fold in Hispanic men with TT alleles at rs2071203 in SEMA3B and with CC alleles for rs2072054 at the 5' end of SEMA3F (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.12-4.04, p = 0.02 and OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.34-4.84, p = 0.0045, respectively). These 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms were also associated with a poor prognosis in Hispanic men (2.71 and 3.48-fold increased risk). A frequent G-C-G-G-A-T-C-C-T-G haplotype encompassing 10 SNPs was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and poor prognosis in Hispanic samples (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.20-6.12, p = 0.016 and OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.21-9.10, p = 0.02). In nonHispanic white men the T-C-G-A-A-T-C-C haplotype was associated with a high Gleason score (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.96, p = 0.021).

Conclusions: These data indicate that polymorphisms in SEMA3B and SEMA3F are associated with prostate cancer risk and poor prognosis in Hispanic and nonHispanic white men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2009.06.016DOI Listing
October 2009

Ancestry informative markers and admixture proportions in northeastern Mexico.

J Hum Genet 2009 Sep 14;54(9):504-9. Epub 2009 Aug 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Mexico.

To investigate the ancestral admixture in the Mestizo population in northeastern Mexico, we genotyped 74 ancestral informative markers (AIMs) and 15 Y-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) in 100 individuals. The Native American contribution is 56% (range: 27.4-81.2%), the European contribution is 38% (range: 16.7-70.5%) and the West African contribution is 6%. The results show a higher European contribution than was reported in other similar studies in the country, albeit with a predominant Native American ancestry. No remarkable differences in the ancestry proportions were observed using subgroups of 74, 54, 34 and 24 AIMs. The paternal lineage calculated by genotyping of 15 Y-SNPs, shows a major component of European and Eurasian ancestry markers ( approximately 78%), compared with Amerindian ( approximately 12%) and African markers (10%). This information will set a reference for future determinations of admixture proportions in the Mestizo population from Mexico and for population-based association studies of complex diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2009.65DOI Listing
September 2009

Association of chromosome 8q variants with prostate cancer risk in Caucasian and Hispanic men.

Carcinogenesis 2009 Aug 15;30(8):1372-9. Epub 2009 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

Genotyping of a 615 kb region within 8q24 with 49 haplotype-tagged single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2109 samples (797 cases and 1312 controls) of two ethnic/racial groups found SNPs that are significantly associated with the risk for prostate cancer (PCa). The highest significance in Caucasian men was found for rs6983267; the AA genotype reduced the risk for PCa [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.35-0.65, P = 2.74 x 10(-6)]. This SNP also had a significant independent effect from other SNPs in the region in this group. In Hispanic men, rs7837328 and rs921146 showed independent effects (OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.51-4.31, P = 4.33 x 10(-4), OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.40-3.12, P = 3.13 x 10(-4), respectively). Significant synergist effects for increasing numbers of high-risk alleles were found in both ethnicities. Haplotype analysis revealed major haplotypes, containing the non-risk alleles, conferred protection against PCa. We found high linkage disequilibrium between significant SNPs within the region and SNPs within the CUB and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 gene (CSMD1), on the short arm of chromosome 8 in both ethnicities. These data suggest that multiple interacting SNPs within 8q24, as well as different regions on chromosome 8 far beyond this 8q24 candidate region, may confer increased risk of PCa. This is the first report to investigate the involvement of 8q24 variants in the susceptibility for PCa in Hispanic men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgp148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2718079PMC
August 2009

Single and multigenic analysis of the association between variants in 12 steroid hormone metabolism genes and risk of prostate cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009 Jun;18(6):1869-80

Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA.

To estimate the prostate cancer risk conferred by individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), SNP-SNP interactions, and/or cumulative SNP effects, we evaluated the association between prostate cancer risk and the genetic variants of 12 key genes within the steroid hormone pathway (CYP17, HSD17B3, ESR1, SRD5A2, HSD3B1, HSD3B2, CYP19, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1). A total of 116 tagged SNPs covering the group of genes were analyzed in 2,452 samples (886 cases and 1,566 controls) in three ethnic/racial groups. Several SNPs within CYP19 were significantly associated with prostate cancer in all three ethnicities (P = 0.001-0.009). Genetic variants within HSD3B2 and CYP24A1 conferred increased risk of prostate cancer in non-Hispanic or Hispanic Caucasians. A significant gene-dosage effect for increasing numbers of potential high-risk genotypes was found in non-Hispanic and Hispanic Caucasians. Higher-order interactions showed a seven-SNP interaction involving HSD17B3, CYP19, and CYP24A1 in Hispanic Caucasians (P = 0.001). In African Americans, a 10-locus model, with SNPs located within SRD5A2, HSD17B3, CYP17, CYP27B1, CYP19, and CYP24A1, showed a significant interaction (P = 0.014). In non-Hispanic Caucasians, an interaction of four SNPs in HSD3B2, HSD17B3, and CYP19 was found (P < 0.001). These data are consistent with a polygenic model of prostate cancer, indicating that multiple interacting genes of the steroid hormone pathway confer increased risk of prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0076DOI Listing
June 2009

CYP1B1 variants are associated with prostate cancer in non-Hispanic and Hispanic Caucasians.

Carcinogenesis 2008 Sep 9;29(9):1751-7. Epub 2008 Jun 9.

Department of Cellular and Structural Biology.

Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of many carcinogens and in the metabolism of steroid hormones. We compared allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP1B1 among non-Hispanic Caucasians (496 cases and 498 controls) and Hispanic Caucasians (153 cases and 240 controls). In the Hispanic Caucasians, the GG genotype for rs1056836 decreased the risk for prostate cancer (PCa) when compared with the CC genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, P = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.96]. Among non-Hispanic Caucasian men with more aggressive PCa, the prevalence of several SNPs (rs2567206, rs2551188, rs2617266, rs10012 and rs1056836) was significantly associated with the disease status. A common C-G-C-C-G-A haplotype for rs2567206-rs2551188-rs2617266-rs10012-rs1056836-rs1800440 showed an inverse association with PCa risk in Hispanic Caucasians (OR = 0.19, P = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.04-0.95) and with aggressive disease status (i.e. Gleason score >or=7) in non-Hispanic Caucasian cases (OR = 0.64, P = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.47-0.89). In the non-Hispanic Caucasian cases, a second major haplotype T-A-T-G-C-A was positively associated with the high-grade disease status (OR = 1.77, P = 0.002, 95% CI = 1.24-2.53). Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 may modify the risk for PCa and support the role of CYP1B1 as a candidate gene for PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgm300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2527647PMC
September 2008

VDR and SRD5A2 polymorphisms combine to increase risk for prostate cancer in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic White men.

Clin Cancer Res 2008 May;14(10):3223-9

Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.

Purpose: Vitamin D and dihydrotestosterone pathways interact to promote the growth of prostatic tissue. The nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) moderates the actions of vitamin D. 5alpha-Reductase type II (SRD5A2) codes for the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in the prostate. This study tested the interactions of VDR (CDX2, FokI) and SRD5A2 (V89L, A49T) polymorphisms, and their associations with prostate cancer.

Experimental Design: This genetic association study included 932 non-Hispanic White (NHW) men and 414 Hispanic White (HW) men from South Texas. Cases had biopsy-confirmed cancer; controls had normal digital rectal exams and serum prostate-specific antigen levels of <2.5 ng/mL.

Results: Using logistic regression analyses to test associations with prostate cancer, only the V89L polymorphism (VV genotype compared with LL/LV) in HW men was statistically significant [odds ratios (OR), 0.64; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 0.41-0.99]. The interaction terms for FokI and V89L in NHW men and CDX2 and V89L in HW men in the logistic model were significant (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). When stratified by V89L genotype, the FokI polymorphism (TT/TC versus CC) was significantly associated with prostate cancer in NHW men with the V89L VV genotype (FokI OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.23). The CDX2 polymorphism (GG versus AG/AA) was significantly associated with prostate cancer only in HW men with the V89L VV genotype (CDX2 OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.39-7.19; interaction term P = 0.02).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that the SRD5A2 V89L VV genotype interacts with VDR FokI TT/CT genotypes in NHW men and VDR CDX2 GG genotypes in HW men to increase the risk for prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4894DOI Listing
May 2008

Significant association of ANKK1 and detection of a functional polymorphism with nicotine dependence in an African-American sample.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2009 Jan 19;34(2):319-30. Epub 2008 Mar 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22911, USA.

The dopaminergic system in the brain plays a critical role in nicotine addiction. Genetic variants in the dopaminergic system, including those in dopamine receptor genes, represent plausible candidates for the genetic study of nicotine dependence (ND). We investigated various polymorphisms in the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2) and its neighboring ankyrin repeats and kinase domain containing 1 gene (ANKK1) to determine whether they were associated with ND. We examined 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at DRD2 and 7 SNPs at ANKK1 in our Mid-South Tobacco Family cohort, which consisted of 2037 participants representing two distinct American populations. Several SNPs (rs7131056, rs4274224, rs4648318, and rs6278) in DRD2, along with the Taq IA polymorphism (rs1800497) in ANKK1, revealed initial significant associations with ND in European Americans, but not after correction for multiple testing, indicating a weak association of DRD2 with ND. In contrast, associations for ANKK1 with ND in the African-American and pooled samples, specifically for SNP rs2734849, remained significant after correction. With a non-synonymous G to A transition, rs2734849 produces an amino-acid change (arginine to histidine) in C-terminal ankyrin repeat domain of ANKK1. Using the luciferase reporter assay, we further demonstrated that the variant alters expression level of NF-kappaB-regulated genes. Since DRD2 expression is regulated by transcription factor NF-kappaB, we suspect that rs2734849 may indirectly affect dopamine D(2) receptor density. We conclude that ANKK1 is associated with ND and polymorphism rs2734849 in ANKK1 represents a functional causative variant for ND in African-American smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2008.37DOI Listing
January 2009

Significant association of DRD1 with nicotine dependence.

Hum Genet 2008 Mar 19;123(2):133-40. Epub 2007 Dec 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, Section of Neurobiology, University of Virginia, 1670 Discovery Drive, Suite 125, Charlottesville, VA 22911, USA.

Epidemiologic studies have strongly implicated genetics in smoking behavior. Genes in the dopaminergic system, which mediates the reinforcing and dependence-producing properties of nicotine, are plausible candidates for roles in nicotine dependence (ND). In this study, we examined five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within or near the dopamine D(1) receptor gene (DRD1) for their association with ND, which was assessed by smoking quantity (SQ), the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), and the Fagerström Test for ND (FTND). The samples were obtained from 2,037 participants representing 200 European American (EA) and 402 African American (AA) families. Although we found significant associations of SNPs rs265973, rs686, and rs4532 in the AA sample; of rs4532 in the EA sample; and of rs265975, rs686, and rs4532 in the pooled sample with various ND measures, only the association of rs686 in the AA sample and of rs686 and rs4532 in the pooled sample remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that haplotype C-T-A, formed by rs265973, rs265975, and rs686, was significantly associated with all three ND measures in both the AA and the pooled sample. Another haplotype, T-A-T, formed by rs265975, rs686, and rs4532, showed a significant association with FTND in the pooled sample. Furthermore, in a luciferase reporter assay, rs686, located in the 3' untranslated region, caused differential luciferase activities, indicating that rs686 is a functional polymorphism affecting expression of DRD1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-007-0453-9DOI Listing
March 2008

Association of RNASEL variants with prostate cancer risk in Hispanic Caucasians and African Americans.

Clin Cancer Res 2007 Oct;13(19):5959-64

Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA.

Purpose: The RNASEL gene at 1q25 has been identified as a hereditary prostate cancer susceptibility gene, but to date, no study has investigated the role of RNASEL variants in Hispanic Caucasian men with prostate cancer.

Experimental Design: Two RNASEL common variants, located at amino acids 462 and 541, were genotyped in non-Hispanic Caucasian, Hispanic Caucasian, and African American prostate cancer cases and controls.

Results: The RNASEL 462 AA genotype was found to increase prostate cancer risk over 4-fold in Hispanic Caucasians [odds ratio (OR), 4.43; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.68-11.68; P = 0.003] and over 10-fold in African Americans (OR, 10.41; 95% CI, 2.62-41.40; P = 0.001) when compared with the GG genotype. Analysis of the RNASEL 541 variant showed that Hispanic Caucasian patients with the GG genotype had a statistically significant increase in their risk for developing prostate cancer when compared with the TT and GT genotypes (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.16-3.14; P = 0.01). A common G-T haplotype for the combination of the RNASEL 462 and 541 variants was found to occur more frequently in controls compared with cases in African Americans (P = 0.04) but not in non-Hispanic Caucasians or Hispanic Caucasians.

Conclusions: This is the first study that investigates the association of prostate cancer risk with RNASEL variants in Hispanic men. Our data support the role of RNASEL as a predisposition gene for prostate cancer and showed a significant association between the RNASEL 462 variant and prostate cancer risk in African Americans and Hispanic Caucasians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-0702DOI Listing
October 2007

Association analysis of the protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 1B (PPP1R1B) gene with nicotine dependence in European- and African-American smokers.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2007 Apr;144B(3):285-90

Department of Psychiatric Medicine, The University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22911, USA.

The protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 1B gene (PPP1R1B; also known as dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein; DARPP32) is a target for the actions of dopamine. Because the mesolimbic dopaminergic system is implicated in the reinforcing effects of many drugs, including nicotine, PPP1R1B is considered a plausible candidate for involvement in the development of vulnerability to nicotine dependence (ND). Further, this gene is located within a region on chromosome 17 that demonstrated "suggestive linkage" to ND in our previous genome-wide scan. In the present study, we analyzed six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within PPP1R1B for association with three ND measures: smoking quantity (SQ), the heaviness of smoking index (HSI), and the Fagerström Test for ND (FTND) score. Our sample consisted of 602 nuclear families of African-American (AA) or European-American (EA) origin. No significant associations were found for single SNPs after correction for multiple testing. However, haplotype analysis indicated that in the EA sample, the C-T-G-C haplotype formed by rs2271309-rs907094-rs3764352-rs3817160 with a frequency of 32.0% was significantly associated with SQ (Z = 2.50; P = 0.01), even after Bonferroni correction. No significant associations with haplotypes were found in the AA sample. In summary, our findings provide the first evidence for the potential involvement of PPP1R1B in the etiology of ND and further investigation is thus warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30399DOI Listing
April 2007

Gene-based analysis suggests association of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta1 subunit (CHRNB1) and M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM1) with vulnerability for nicotine dependence.

Hum Genet 2006 Oct 28;120(3):381-9. Epub 2006 Jul 28.

Department of Psychiatric Medicine, University of Virginia, 1670 Discovery Drive, Suite 101, Charlottesville, VA 22911, USA.

Based on our previously identified linkage regions for nicotine dependence (ND), we selected six and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtype M1 (CHRM1) and nicotinic cholinergic receptor beta1 (CHRNB1), respectively, to determine the association of the two genes with ND in a total of 2,037 subjects from 602 nuclear families of either African-American (AA) or European-American (EA) origin. Individual SNP- and/or haplotype-based analyses indicated that the CHRNB1 was significantly associated with ND, which was assessed by smoking quantity (SQ), the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), and the Fagerström Test for ND (FTND), in both ethnic samples. The association of rs2302763 in the CHRNB1 was significant with adjusted SQ in the EA sample after correction for multiple testing (P=0.013). Haplotype A-T-A formed by SNPs rs2302765, rs2302762, and rs9217 in the CHRNB1 was significantly associated with the high risk allele for all the three ND measures (minimum P=0.009, 0.006, and 0.008 for SQ, HSI and FTND, respectively) in the AA sample while haplotype A-T-A formed by rs2302765, rs2302763, and rs9217 was significantly positively associated with ND (minimum P=0.005, 0.016, and 0.016 for SQ, HSI and FTND, respectively) in the EA sample. The CHRM1 exhibited significant protective associations of haplotype C-C-A-T-G-G formed by all six SNPs of this gene with at least one ND measure in the AA sample after Bonferroni correction (minimum P=0.008, 0.013, and 0.009 for SQ, HSI and FTND, respectively), but no significant association was found in the EA sample. The significant associations, together with their location of linked region to ND, suggest that the CHRNB1 and CHRM1 are likely candidates for further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-006-0229-7DOI Listing
October 2006

Association of specific haplotypes of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 2 gene (NTRK2) with vulnerability to nicotine dependence in African-Americans and European-Americans.

Biol Psychiatry 2007 Jan 19;61(1):48-55. Epub 2006 May 19.

Department of Psychiatric Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22911, USA.

Background: The gene encoding neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 2 (NTRK2) has been localized to a region on chromosome 9q22-q23 that showed a "suggestive" linkage to nicotine dependence (ND) in our previous linkage analyses. However, no association of NTRK2 with ND has been identified.

Methods: Family-based association analyses of 2037 participants (1366 African Americans [AA], 671 European Americans [EA]) representing 602 nuclear families were performed to evaluate association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within NTRK2 with ND.

Results: Individual SNP-based association analysis indicated that in the EA sample, SNPs rs1659400 and rs1187272 were significantly associated with at least one adjusted ND measure. Haplotype analysis revealed that even after Bonferroni correction, the haplotype T-T-A of rs1659400-rs1187272-rs1122530 had a highly significant positive association, with adjusted ND measures in the EA sample (max Z = 3.78; p = .0001, frequency 59.9%). We further identified a major haplotype, T-G-C-A-A (26%), formed by rs993315-rs736744-rs920776-rs4075274-rs729560, which showed a significant positive association (max Z = 2.97, p = .003) with adjusted ND measures in the AA sample.

Conclusions: These results strongly suggest that NTRK2 is a susceptibility gene for ND. These findings imply that NTRK2 plays a role in the etiology of ND and represents an important biological candidate for further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.02.023DOI Listing
January 2007

Significant association of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) haplotypes with nicotine dependence in male and female smokers of two ethnic populations.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2006 Mar;31(3):675-84

Program in Genomics and Bioinformatics on Drug Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.

The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene plays a prominent role in dopaminergic circuits central to drug reward. Allelic variants within the COMT gene are therefore potential candidates for examining interindividual differences in vulnerability to nicotine dependence (ND). We analyzed five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including the Val/Met variant (rs4680), which results in a three- to four-fold difference in enzyme activity within COMT, for association with the three ND measures, SQ, HSI, and FTND, in 602 nuclear families of African-American (AA) or European-American (EA) origin. The Val/Met variant showed a significant association with the three ND measures in the pooled and EA samples and with FTND in the AA sample. Haplotype analysis revealed a major protective A-G-T haplotype (frequency 23.6%) for rs740603-rs4680-rs174699 in the AA sample (minimum Z=-3.35; P=0.0005 for FTND), a major protective T-G-T haplotype (frequency 15.2%; minimum Z=-2.92; P=0.003 for FTND) in the EA sample, and a high-risk C-A-T haplotype (frequency 16.9%; minimum Z=3.16; P=0.002 for SQ) in the AA sample for rs933271-rs4680-rs174699. Furthermore, we found that the significant haplotypes within COMT were gender-specific and the significantly associated A-G-T is protective in AA females only, whereas T-G-T is protective in EA males only. Moreover, we found a major high-risk T-A-T haplotype (frequency 56.7%) that showed significant association with the three ND measures in EA males. Further examination of two protective haplotypes, A-G-T in AAs and T-G-T in EAs, indicated that the low COMT enzyme activity Met allele is protective to become nicotine dependent. In summary, our results provide evidence for a role of COMT in the susceptibility to ND and further confirm that its effect is ethnic and gender specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300997DOI Listing
March 2006

Significant association of BDNF haplotypes in European-American male smokers but not in European-American female or African-American smokers.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2005 Nov;139B(1):73-80

Program in Genomics and Bioinformatics on Drug Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influences dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission in the brain, both of which are involved in the reward system of addiction. The BDNF gene is located in a genomic region on chromosome 11p where we and others have found 'significant' linkage to nicotine dependence (ND). We tested the potential role of variants within BDNF in vulnerability to ND, which was assessed by Smoking Quantity (SQ), the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), and the Fagerström Test for ND (FTND). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BDNF were analyzed in an extensively phenotyped cohort of 602 nuclear families with smokers and non-smokers of African-American (AA) or European-American (EA) ancestry. Individual SNP analysis revealed that two SNPs in the pooled male and three SNPs in the EA male samples were significantly associated with at least one adjusted ND measure. However, none of these associations remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Haplotype analysis of rs6484320-rs988748-rs2030324-rs7934165 revealed that a major T-C-T-G haplotype was significantly associated, even after Bonferroni correction, with the three ND measures in the pooled and EA male samples (maximum Z = 3.00, P = 0.002 and maximum Z = 3.13, P = 0.0009 for SQ, respectively). No significant association of a major haplotype with ND was found in the AA or EA female smokers. The significant association of BDNF variants with ND implies that this gene plays a role in the etiology of ND in EAs and that its involvement is gender specific. BDNF may warrant further investigation in ND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30231DOI Listing
November 2005
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