Publications by authors named "John Wang"

578 Publications

Association of Aripiprazole With Reduced Hippocampal Atrophy During Maintenance Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

From the Department of Psychiatry, NYU Langone Health, New York Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg Division of Biostatistics, Department of Population Health, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Program in Public Health, Department of Family, Population, and Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook School of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Stony Brook, NY Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Department of Psychiatry, Qingdao Mental Health Center, Qingdao National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Mental Health Institute, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China Department of Psychiatry, UMass Memorial Healthcare/University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY.

Purpose/background: Hippocampal volume loss in early schizophrenia has been linked with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and with less response of negative symptoms. Aripiprazole has been reported to preserve hippocampal volume and to reduce inflammation.

Methods/procedures: Study 1 was a 12-month multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial of citalopram added to clinician-determined second-generation antipsychotic medication in 95 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), 19 of whom received aripiprazole. We compared participants taking aripiprazole with those on other antipsychotics to determine whether those on aripiprazole had less hippocampal volume loss. We also examined peripheral biomarker data from medication-naive patients with schizophrenia receiving 8 weeks of antipsychotic treatment (n = 24) to see whether markers of inflammation and oxidative stress that previously predicted hippocampal volume differed between aripiprazole (n = 9) and other antipsychotics (study 2).

Findings/results: Aripiprazole was associated with a mean increase in hippocampal volume of 0.35% (SD, 0.80%) compared with a 0.53% decrease (SD, 1.2%) with other antipsychotics during the first year of maintenance treatment in patients with FES. This difference was significant after adjusting for age, sex, citalopram treatment, and baseline Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score (B = 0.0079, P = 0.03). Aripiprazole was also associated with reduced concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor (P < 0.01) during the first 8 weeks of treatment in medication-naive patients with FES.

Implications/conclusions: These results suggest that aripiprazole may protect against hippocampal atrophy via an anti-inflammatory mechanism, but these results require replication in larger, randomized trials, and the clinical relevance of hippocampal volume loss is not established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000001391DOI Listing
March 2021

Light-Induced Histidine Adducts to an IgG1 Molecule Via Oxidized Histidine Residue and the Potential Impact of Polysorbate-20 Concentration.

Pharm Res 2021 Mar 5;38(3):491-501. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, Kansas, 66047, USA.

Purpose: Histidine (His) undergoes light-induced reactions such as oxidation, crosslinking and addition. These reactions are initiated by singlet oxygen (O) to generate His photo-oxidation products, which are subject to nucleophilic attack by a non-oxidized His residue from another protein or by nucleophilic buffer components such as Tris and His. This report aims to identify light-induced His-adducts to a monoclonal antibody (mAb-1) due to the reaction of His molecules in the buffer with the photooxidized His residues under ICH light conditions. Since polysorbate-20 (PS-20) is a commonly used excipient in biotherapeutics formulation, it is also important to study the impact of PS-20 concentration on protein photostability.

Results: We identified and characterized light-induced His-adducts of mAb-1 by LC-MS/MS. We showed that the levels of light-induced His-adducts generally correlate with the solvent accessibility of His residues in the protein. In addition, the presence of PS-20 at concentrations commonly used in protein drug formulations can significantly increase the levels of light-induced His-adducts.

Conclusions: Since His residues are present in a conserved region in the Fc domain, and may be present in the complementarity-determining region (CDR), the impact on the biological functions of the His-adducts observed here should be further studied to evaluate the risk of their presence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-021-03010-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Direct Pyrolysis of a Manganese-Triazolate Metal-Organic Framework into Air-Stable Manganese Nitride Nanoparticles.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Feb 4;8(4):2003212. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering National University of Singapore 9 Engineering Drive 1 Singapore 117574 Singapore.

Although metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are being widely used to derive functional nanomaterials through pyrolysis, the actual mechanisms involved remain unclear. In the limited studies to date, elemental metallic species are found to be the initial products, which limits the variety of MOF-derived nanomaterials. Here, the pyrolysis of a manganese triazolate MOF is examined carefully in terms of phase transformation, reaction pathways, and morphology evolution in different conditions. Surprisingly, the formation of metal is not detected when manganese triazolate is pyrolyzed in an oxygen-free environment. Instead, a direct transformation into nanoparticles of manganese nitride, MnN embedded in N-doped graphitic carbon took place. The electrically conductive MnN nanoparticles show much better air stability than bulk samples and exhibit promising electrocatalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction. The findings on pyrolysis mechanisms expand the potential of MOF as a precursor to derive more functional nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202003212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887590PMC
February 2021

E7766, a Macrocycle-Bridged Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) Agonist with Potent Pan-Genotypic Activity.

ChemMedChem 2021 Jan 31. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Eisai Inc., 35 Cambridgepark Drive, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA.

A strategy for creating potent and pan-genotypic stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonists is described. Locking a bioactive U-shaped conformation of cyclic dinucleotides by introducing a transannular macrocyclic bridge between the nucleic acid bases leads to a topologically novel macrocycle-bridged STING agonist (MBSA). In addition to substantially enhanced potency, the newly designed MBSAs, exemplified by clinical candidate E7766, exhibit broad pan-genotypic activity in all major human STING variants. E7766 is shown to have potent antitumor activity with long lasting immune memory response in a mouse liver metastatic tumor model. Two complementary stereoselective synthetic routes to E7766 are also described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.202100068DOI Listing
January 2021

Characteristics, Outcomes, and Trends of Patients With COVID-19-Related Critical Illness at a Learning Health System in the United States.

Ann Intern Med 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (G.L.A., J.J., M.O.H., J.H.A., J.B., C.B., P.J.B., C.L.C., L.M.C., M.F.C., J.M.C., J.D.C., T.C., K.R.C., B.D.F., E.G., J.C.G., S.G., A.H., C.W.H., M.H., P.K., Z.N.K., G.B.K., M.L., N.D.M., M.E.M., D.N., J.L.P., M.B.P., S.C.P., Z.A.Q., J.P.R., J.S., W.D.S., M.J.S., M.G.S., C.P.S., J.K.W., W.W., A.A.W., B.J.A., J.T.G.).

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to surge in the United States and globally.

Objective: To describe the epidemiology of COVID-19-related critical illness, including trends in outcomes and care delivery.

Design: Single-health system, multihospital retrospective cohort study.

Setting: 5 hospitals within the University of Pennsylvania Health System.

Patients: Adults with COVID-19-related critical illness who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with acute respiratory failure or shock during the initial surge of the pandemic.

Measurements: The primary exposure for outcomes and care delivery trend analyses was longitudinal time during the pandemic. The primary outcome was all-cause 28-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were all-cause death at any time, receipt of mechanical ventilation (MV), and readmissions.

Results: Among 468 patients with COVID-19-related critical illness, 319 (68.2%) were treated with MV and 121 (25.9%) with vasopressors. Outcomes were notable for an all-cause 28-day in-hospital mortality rate of 29.9%, a median ICU stay of 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 17 days), a median hospital stay of 13 days (IQR, 7 to 25 days), and an all-cause 30-day readmission rate (among nonhospice survivors) of 10.8%. Mortality decreased over time, from 43.5% (95% CI, 31.3% to 53.8%) to 19.2% (CI, 11.6% to 26.7%) between the first and last 15-day periods in the core adjusted model, whereas patient acuity and other factors did not change.

Limitation: Single-health system study; use of, or highly dynamic trends in, other clinical interventions were not evaluated, nor were complications.

Conclusion: Among patients with COVID-19-related critical illness admitted to ICUs of a learning health system in the United States, mortality seemed to decrease over time despite stable patient characteristics. Further studies are necessary to confirm this result and to investigate causal mechanisms.

Primary Funding Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M20-5327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901669PMC
January 2021

Increased infiltration of regulatory T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma of patients with hepatitis B virus pre-S2 mutant.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1136. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Organ Transplantation Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent and deadly human cancer worldwide that is intimately associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Pre-S2 mutant is a HBV oncoprotein that plays important roles in HCC development and is linked to poor prognosis in HCC patients. However, the profiles of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in HCC tissues of pre-S2 mutant-positive patients remain unknown. In this study, we performed fluorescent immunohistochemistry staining to detect the infiltration of 'anti-tumor' cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and 'pro-tumor' regulatory T cells (Tregs) in pre-S2 mutant-positive and -negative HCC patients. We showed that pre-S2 mutant-positive patients had a significantly higher infiltration of CD4CD25 cells and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-expressing cells but similar CTLs and lower granzyme B-expressing cells in HCC tissues compared with pre-S2 mutant-negative patients. Moreover, the percentage of pre-S2 plus pre-S1 + pre-S2 deletion (pre-S2 mutant) was positively correlated with the density of CD4CD25 cells and Foxp3-expressing cells but negatively with granzyme B-expressing cells in HCC tissues. Considering that increased intratumoral Tregs have been shown to promote tumor immune evasion, our data may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of HBV pre-S2 mutant-induced HCC and suggest that therapeutics targeting Tregs may be a promising strategy for treating pre-S2 mutant-positive high-risk patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80935-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807072PMC
January 2021

Technical Report: A New Device Attached to a Smartphone for Objective Vision Screening.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 Jan;98(1):18-23

Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zheniang, China.

Significance: A new device attached to a smartphone was created for objective vision screening of young children including infants and newborns. The device is compact, lightweight, portable, cost-effective, and easy to operate. Therefore, it is suitable for screening large numbers of children in clinical settings, schools, and communities.

Purpose: This article introduces a new device attached to a smartphone for objective vision screening. It can detect and categorize significant refractive errors, anisometropia, strabismus, cloudy ocular media, and ptosis that may cause amblyopia.

Methods: The new device applies the same principles as conventional streak retinoscopy but examines both eyes simultaneously and records the results electronically. The device comprises optical elements that produce a precise streak light beam and move it across a child's both eyes. The smartphone's video camera catches and records the motion of retinal reflex inside the child's pupils. By observing the direction of motion of the retinal reflex relative to the light beam motion, as well as its speed, width, and brightness, the examiner is able to assess the individual and comparative refractive status, ocular alignment, and other conditions.

Results: Vision screening with this device does not require any subjective response from children. The examination can be performed and analyzed by nonprofessionals after a short learning period of time. Because the examination results are electronically recorded by the smartphone, they can be stored in the child's files and sent out for professional consultations.

Conclusions: The new device will provide the same functions as conventional streak retinoscopy but examines a child's both eyes simultaneously, so that, in addition to categorizing refractive errors and assessing clarity of refractive media of the eyes, it can also detect anisometropia, strabismus, and anisocoria. In addition to showing the examination results on the smartphone's screen, the device can also store the results electronically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0000000000001621DOI Listing
January 2021

Unravelling VO Diffusion Pathways CO Modification for High-Performance Zinc Ion Battery Cathode.

ACS Nano 2021 Jan 4;15(1):1273-1281. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Material Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E3A #03-14, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574, Singapore.

Vanadium-based oxide is widely investigated as a zinc ion battery (ZIB) cathode due to its ability to react reversibly with Zn. Despite its successful demonstration, modification with simple molecules has shown some promise in enhancing the performance of ZIBs. Thus, this presents an immense opportunity to explore simple molecules that can dramatically improve the electrochemical performance of electrodes. Thus, the effect of CO modification is studied in this work by decomposing oxalic acid within a hydrated VO framework. Based on the collective results, the presence of CO drastically lowers the relative energy of Zn diffusion through the pathways by forming weak electrostatic interactions between O and Zn. This leads to an enlarged diffusion contribution, which consequently results in enhanced stability and better rate performance. The as-synthesized CO-VO electrode delivers one of the highest specific capacities reported for vanadium-based oxides of . 471 mAh g. Furthermore, an excellent cyclic stability of 80% capacity retention after 4000 cycles at 2 A g is recorded for CO-VO, which suggests the importance of simple molecules in the material framework toward the enhancement of ZIB cathode performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c08432DOI Listing
January 2021

Complementation of Splicing Activity by a Galectin-3 - U1 snRNP Complex on Beads.

J Vis Exp 2020 12 9(166). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University;

Classic depletion-reconstitution experiments indicate that galectin-3 is a required splicing factor in nuclear extracts. The mechanism of incorporation of galectin-3 into the splicing pathway is addressed in this paper. Sedimentation of HeLa cell nuclear extracts on 12%-32% glycerol gradients yields fractions enriched in an endogenous ~10S particle that contains galectin-3 and U1 snRNP. We now describe a protocol to deplete nuclear extracts of U1 snRNP with concomitant loss of splicing activity. Splicing activity in the U1-depleted extract can be reconstituted by the galectin-3 - U1 snRNP particle trapped on agarose beads covalently coupled with anti-galectin-3 antibodies. The results indicate that the galectin-3 - U1 snRNP - pre-mRNA ternary complex is a functional E complex leading to intermediates and products of the splicing reaction and that galectin-3 enters the splicing pathway through its association with U1 snRNP. The scheme of using complexes affinity- or immuno-selected on beads to reconstitute splicing activity in extracts depleted of a specific splicing factor may be generally applicable to other systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61990DOI Listing
December 2020

Increased Expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma of Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Pre-S2 Mutant.

J Hepatocell Carcinoma 2020 17;7:385-401. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Organ Transplantation Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Purpose: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The HCC patients who harbor HBV pre-S2 mutant, an oncoprotein that plays key roles in HCC development, have been closely associated with a worse prognosis after curative surgical resection, suggesting an urgent need for alternative therapeutic options to improve their survival. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression profiles of programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), two of the most well-studied immune checkpoint molecules that promote tumor immune evasion, in tumor of the pre-S2 mutant-positive/high HCC patients.

Methods: We classified 40 HBV-related HCC patients into the pre-S2-positive/high and -negative/low groups by a next-generation sequencing-based approach. The fluorescent immunohistochemistry staining was performed to detect the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in HCC tissues of patients.

Results: We showed that patients with either deletion spanning pre-S2 gene segment or high percentage of pre-S2 plus pre-S1+pre-S2 deletion (the pre-S2 mutant-positive/high group) exhibited a significantly higher density of PD-L1-positive cells in HCC tissues than those without. Moreover, the percentage of pre-S2 plus pre-S1+pre-S2 deletion displayed a high positive correlation with the density of PD-L1-positive cells in HCC tissues.

Conclusion: The increased expression of PD-L1 in tumor tissues of the pre-S2 mutant-positive HCC patients suggest that pre-S2 mutant may play a potential role in dysregulation of tumor immune microenvironment in the progression of HBV-related HCC, implicating for the development of future therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JHC.S282818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751729PMC
December 2020

Efficient Hydrogen Evolution of Oxidized Ni-N Defective Sites for Alkaline Freshwater and Seawater Electrolysis.

Adv Mater 2021 Feb 22;33(8):e2003846. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117574, Singapore.

For mass production of high-purity hydrogen fuel by electrochemical water splitting, seawater electrolysis is an attractive alternative to the traditional freshwater electrolysis due to the abundance and low cost of seawater in nature. However, the undesirable chlorine ion oxidation reactions occurring simultaneously with seawater electrolysis greatly hinder the overall performance of seawater electrolysis. To tackle this problem, electrocatalysts of high activity and selectivity with purposely modulated coordination and an alkaline environment are urgently required. Herein, it is demonstrated that atomically dispersed Ni with triple nitrogen coordination (Ni-N ) can achieve efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance in alkaline media. The atomically dispersed Ni electrocatalysts exhibit overpotentials as low as 102 and 139 mV at 10 mA cm in alkaline freshwater and seawater electrolytes, respectively, which compare favorably with those previously reported. They also deliver large current densities beyond 200 mA cm at lower overpotentials than Pt/C, as well as show negligible current attenuation over 14 h. The X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experimental analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations verify that the Ni-N coordination, which exhibits a lower coordination number than Ni-N , facilitates water dissociation and hydrogen adsorption, and hence enhances the HER activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202003846DOI Listing
February 2021

Risk of Coronary Obstruction and Feasibility of Coronary Access After Repeat Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With the Self-Expanding Evolut Valve: A Computed Tomography Simulation Study.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2020 Dec 4;13(12):e009496. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Section of Interventional Cardiology (B.J.F., B.C.C., C.Y., C.S., C.Z., I.B.-D., T.D., S.A., L.F.S., J.M.K., R.W., T.R.), MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC.

Background: The supra-annular leaflet position and tall stent frame of the self-expanding Evolut PRO or Evolut PRO+ transcatheter heart valves (THVs) may cause coronary occlusion during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)-in-TAVR and present challenges for future coronary access. We sought to evaluate the risk of TAVR-in-TAVR with Evolut PRO or Evolut PRO+ THVs and the feasibility of future coronary access.

Methods: The CoreValve Evolut PRO Prospective Registry (EPROMPT; NCT03423459) prospectively enrolled patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis to undergo TAVR using a commercially available latest generation self-expanding THV at 2 centers in the United States. Computed tomography was performed 30 days after TAVR, which we used to simulate TAVR-in-TAVR with a second Evolut PRO or Evolut PRO+ THV and evaluate for risk of coronary obstruction and feasibility of future coronary access.

Results: Eighty-one patients enrolled with interpretable computed tomography are reported herein. Computed tomography simulation predicted sinus of Valsalva sequestration and resultant coronary obstruction during future TAVR-in-TAVR in up to 23% of patients. Computed tomography simulation predicted that the position of the pinned THV leaflets would hinder future coronary access in up to 78% of patients after TAVR-in-TAVR.

Conclusions: Further THV design improvements and leaflet modification strategies are needed to mitigate the risk of coronary obstruction during TAVR-in-TAVR with self-expanding THVs and to facilitate future coronary access. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03423459.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.009496DOI Listing
December 2020

Population Genetic and Social Structure Survey of in Thailand.

Zool Stud 2020 2;59:e22. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Nankang 115, Taipei, Taiwan. E-mail: (Wang).

Fire ants have long been known to be a major pest and have recently attracted renewed widespread attention due to the invasion of species, especially , into many countries in Asia and Australia. Here, we surveyed fire ant specimens in Thailand with the aims of studying their colony biology and population structure. We sampled 38 colonies distributed in agricultural and urban areas throughout Thailand for species identification and found that all were . We further genotyped 13 microsatellite loci from 576 workers from 23 of these colonies. Analysis of these genetic data revealed that all colonies were polygynous with only a few queens. Queens from the same colonies were highly genetically related. Population structure was partitioned into two clusters. Pairwise values revealed very high genetic differentiation between colonies suggesting low gene flow among populations. This result suggests that queens were locally mated and founded colonies by a budding strategy. Isolation-by-distance among local populations was not significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6620/ZS.2020.59-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688402PMC
July 2020

Successful treatment of metastatic pancreatoblastoma in an adult with autologous hematopoietic cell transplant.

Pancreatology 2021 Jan 2;21(1):188-191. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

University of Virginia, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Charlottesville, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Pancreatoblastoma is a rare pediatric malignant neoplasm characterized by its histological resemblance to fetal pancreatic tissue and poor clinical outcomes. Preoperative diagnosis of the neoplasm is difficult due to its rarity, variable clinical presentation, and its lack of distinct laboratory markers. Current mainstay of treatment is surgical resection of the tumor, although a standard of care has not yet been established.

Methods: Data were collected on one patient admitted to the University of Virginia Hospital System. Radiology, hematopoietic cell transplant, and biopsy data were collected according to the best clinical practice.

Results: Herein, we describe the case of an adult patient with pancreatoblastoma treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic cell transplantation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented successful treatment of pancreatoblastoma using autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in the United States, and the first successful treatment in an adult patient worldwide.

Conclusions: While it is difficult to draw conclusions based on a single case, we would like to highlight the success of this treatment modality in the management of our patient with a 51-month remission and open further discussion into exploring the use of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for pancreatoblastoma. Our patient is currently living 57 months after diagnosis despite the average survival rate being less than 18 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.10.049DOI Listing
January 2021

Use of actigraphy and sleep diaries to assess sleep and academic performance in pharmacy students.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn 2021 Jan 30;13(1):57-62. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Touro University California, College of Pharmacy, 1310 Club Drive, Vallejo, CA 94592, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: Sleep parameters have been shown to correlate with academic performance. Current studies assessing sleep in doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students rely on self-reported sleep parameters and academic performance. The objectives of this study were to describe and compare sleep parameters in pharmacy students using actigraphy and sleep diaries and to assess the correlation of sleep parameters with academic performance.

Methods: This prospective cohort study with convenience sampling assessed sleep parameters in pharmacy students. Thirty-five students completing the second year of a PharmD program participated in the study. Participants wore actigraph watches and maintained sleep diaries for seven consecutive days during the spring and fall semesters, while classes were in session, except for one week prior to exams and the week of exams. Academic performance was tracked during fall and spring semesters.

Results: Actigraphy and sleep diaries showed significant differences in sleep latency (SL), actual sleep time (AST), wake bouts, and sleep efficiency (SE). Actigraphy results indicated that the participants fell asleep faster (SL), slept a shorter duration (AST), had more wake bouts, and lower SE than results reported in the sleep diaries. SE and SL from the sleep diaries positively correlated with the fall semester pharmaceutical sciences course and overall spring semester academic performance. Actigraphy recorded AST correlated with performance in both semesters' clinical sciences courses.

Conclusions: The results of actigraphy differed from the sleep diaries. More studies are needed to assess differences in detection of sleep parameters using sleep diaries and actigraphs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2020.08.009DOI Listing
January 2021

BIOLUX P-III Passeo-18 Lux All-Comers Registry: 24-Month Results in Below-the-Knee Arteries.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2021 Jan 22;44(1):10-18. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Division of Angiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.

Purpose: The BIOLUX P-III registry was initiated to further assess the safety and efficacy of the Passeo-18 Lux drug-coated balloon (DCB) in infrainguinal lesions in a real-world environment and in prespecified risk groups.

Materials And Methods: BIOLUX P-III is a prospective, global, all-comers registry with patients treated under real-world conditions. We herein report 24-month results of the prespecified subgroup of 151 patients with 185 below-the-knee (BTK) lesions. The primary safety and efficacy endpoints were freedom from major adverse events (a composite of freedom from device and procedure mortality through 30 days, major target limb amputation and clinically driven target lesion revascularization) at 6 months and freedom from clinically driven target lesion revascularization (FfTLR) at 12 months.

Results: At baseline, 76.0% of patients had critical limb ischemia and 48.9% of lesions were TASC C or D lesions. Technical success was achieved in 97.8%, and bailout stenting was required in 1.1%. Freedom from major adverse events was 86.2% [95% CI 79.4; 90.8] at 6 months, and FfTLR was 90.9% [95% CI 85.2; 94.4] at 12 months. At 24 months, FfTLR was 90.9% [95% CI 85.2; 94.4], freedom from major amputation was 90.1% [95% CI 83.9, 94.0], and overall survival was 79.2% [70.7, 85.5]. There was a significant clinical improvement (mean Rutherford class improvement of - 2.9 ± 1.9, p < 0.0001) and an improvement in pain (mean improvement on Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale of - 2.7 ± 2.9, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: In this real-world DCB registry, 24-month outcomes of Passeo-18 Lux demonstrated safety and efficacy in BTK lesions with high patency rates and sustained clinical improvements at 24 months.

Trial Registration: NCT02276313.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-020-02586-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Real-World Experience With a Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon in Critical Limb Ischemia: 24-Month Subgroup Outcomes of BIOLUX P-III.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 10 16;13(19):2289-2299. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Rosenheim, Rosenheim, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of the BIOLUX P-III (A Prospective, International, Multi-Centre, Post-Market All-Comers Registry to Assess the Clinical Performance of the Passeo-18 Lux Paclitaxel Releasing Balloon Catheter in Infrainguinal Arteries - III) registry was to collect real-world data on the Passeo-18 Lux paclitaxel-coated balloon.

Background: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. Prospective data are needed to provide further insights on drug-eluting devices.

Methods: BIOLUX P-III is a prospective, post-market, all-comers registry assessing the safety and performance of the Passeo-18 Lux. Clinical information was collected at 6, 12, and 24 months. The authors report 24-month outcomes of the CLI subgroup with patients in Rutherford classes 4 to 6.

Results: The CLI subgroup included 328 patients with 422 lesions. Patients were 71.1 ± 10.5 years of age, and 61.0% had diabetes. Femoropopliteal lesions were present in 53.8% (n = 227), below-the-knee lesions were present in 27.0% (n = 114), and lesions were moderate or heavily calcified in 45.0% (n = 190). Major adverse events, defined as 30-day device- or procedure-related mortality, major target limb amputation, and clinically driven target lesion revascularization, occurred in 9.8% of patients through 6 months, in 14.9% through 12 months, and in 19.4% through 24 months. Clinically driven target lesion revascularization occurred in 4.4%, 8.5%, and 12.1%, major amputation in 4.9%, 5.2%, and 6.1%, and mortality in 8.1%, 11.1%, and 20.1%, respectively. Predictors of mortality were age ≥75 years and higher Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus Document on Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease class, and higher Rutherford class was associated with increased mortality and amputation rates.

Conclusions: In a large, multimorbid patient population with complex lesions and CLI, the safety and performance of the Passeo-18 Lux paclitaxel-coated balloon has been confirmed, with low rates of major amputation and target lesion revascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.06.059DOI Listing
October 2020

Fiber-in-tube and particle-in-tube hierarchical nanostructures enable high energy density of MnO-based asymmetric supercapacitors.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jan 20;582(Pt B):543-551. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Nanomaterials & Devices, College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, PR China. Electronic address:

Manganese dioxide (MnO) promises for high-performance asymmetric suprecapacitors, owing to its high theoretical capacity, abundant source, and low cost. However, insufficient practically-achievable capacity and relatively narrow voltage window in alkaline electrolyte are blocking high energy density of MnO-based supercapacitors, where strategies for activating its capacitive performance and widening voltage window are the top priorities to solve the bottleneck problems. Herein, both the fiber-in-tube (NCCM-FiT) and particle-in-tube (NCCM-PiT) nanostructures coulping active NiCoO nanoparticles and conductive carbon with MnO tubes have been purposely fabricated, using the electrospun nickel cobalt oxides/carbon nanofibers (NCO/CNFs) as the self-template agents for enhanced energy density of MnO-based supercapacitors. These hierarchical hollow nanotubes with gradient pores and unique compositions yield excellent capacitive properties, in terms of a competitive capacity (431.7 F g or 431.7 C g, 0.5 A g), which is 2.7 times that of the MnO nanotubes-based electrodes. A maximum energy density of 46.4 Wh kg is obtained at the power density of 400 W kg for the asymmetric device assembled with the NCCM-PiT-based positive electrode and the electrospun CNFs-based negative electrode. The remarkable energy density demonstrated by these hierarchical hollow nanotubes exemplifies a novel and effective design in electrode materials for the asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) with superior performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.08.066DOI Listing
January 2021

Costs Associated with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection, Ontario, Canada, 2001-2012.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 09;26(9):2097-2107

To determine incidence-based healthcare costs attributable to nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease (PD) and NTM pulmonary isolation (PI), from the healthcare payer perspective, we conducted a population-based matched cohort study in Ontario, Canada. We established cohorts of patients with incident NTM-PD and NTM-PI during 2001-2012 by using individually linked laboratory data and health administrative data, matched to unexposed persons from the general population. To estimate attributable costs for acute and long-term illness, we used a phase-of-care approach. Costs were stratified by age, sex, and healthcare resource, and reported in 2018 Canadian dollars (CAD) and US dollars (USD), standardized to 10 days. Costs were highest during the before-death phase (NTM-PD CAD $1,352 [USD $1,044]; NTM-PI CAD $731 [USD $565]). The cumulative mean attributable 1-year costs were CAD $14,953 (USD $11,541) for NTM-PD and CAD $8,729 (USD $6,737) for NTM-PI. Costs for patients with NTM-PD and NTM-PI were higher than those for unexposed persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2609.190524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7454113PMC
September 2020

Anomalous Origin of the Right Coronary Artery From the Mid-Portion of the Left Anterior Descending Artery.

Cureus 2020 Jun 24;12(6):e8794. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Cardiology, MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, USA.

Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) are rare findings and usually diagnosed incidentally on coronary angiograms for other cardiac conditions in most cases. However, coronary anomalies are being increasingly reported with the invention of more advanced cardiac imaging techniques. The CT of the heart structure is the best modality to diagnose and track the exact course of the anomalous artery and to guide in proper management. Anomalous course of the right coronary artery (RCA) between the aorta and pulmonary artery may cause compression and require surgical intervention given the risk of myocardial ischemia and sudden death. In this report, we discuss the case of a 69-year-old female with no prior cardiac comorbidities. The patient had been referred from the primary care office for cardiac clearance to undergo bilateral knee replacement surgery. On further inquiry, she reported a history of murmur and stated that she had been having dyspnea on exertion over the last six months. Precordial examination revealed a 2/6 ejection systolic murmur. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe aortic stenosis. For further evaluation, she underwent a coronary angiogram, which showed right dominant coronary system, normal left main with no stenosis, a large septal branch that had anomalously originated from left main and coursing all the way to the apex, and the RCA originating from the mid-portion of the left descending artery. The cardiac CT scan showed the exact course of the anomalous origin of the RCA from the mid-left anterior descending artery (LAD). The RCA coursed anteriorly to the main pulmonary artery/right ventricular outflow tract to reach the right atrioventricular groove. The patient underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and was discharged in stable condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7381875PMC
June 2020

Electrochemiluminescence Detection of Sunset Yellow by Graphene Quantum Dots.

Front Chem 2020 30;8:505. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pony Testing International Group, Tianjin, China.

Use of food additives, such as colorants and preservatives, is highly regulated because of their potential health risks to humans. Therefore, it is important to detect these compounds effectively to ensure conformance with industrial standards and to mitigate risk. In this paper, we describe the preparation and performance of an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor for detecting a key food additive, sunset yellow. The sensor uses graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as the luminescent agent and potassium persulfate as the co-reactant. Strong and sensitive ECL signals are generated in response to trace amounts of added sunset yellow. A detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 7.6 nM and a wide linear range from 2.5 nM to 25 μM are demonstrated. A further advantage of the method is that the luminescent reagents can be recycled, indicating that the method is sustainable, in addition to being simple and highly sensitive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344220PMC
June 2020

Synergizing Mo Single Atoms and Mo C Nanoparticles on CNTs Synchronizes Selectivity and Activity of Electrocatalytic N Reduction to Ammonia.

Adv Mater 2020 Aug 6;32(33):e2002177. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117574, Singapore.

Previous research of molybdenum-based electrocatalysts for nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) has been largely considered on either isolated Mo single atoms (MoSAs) or Mo carbide particles (e.g., Mo C) separately, while an integrated synergy (MoSAs-Mo C) of the two has never been considered. The theoretical calculations show that the Mo single atoms and Mo C nanoparticles exhibit, respectively, different catalytic hydrogen evolution reaction and NRR selectivity. Therefore, a new role-playing synergistic mechanism can be well enabled for the multistep NRR, when the two are combined on the same N-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs). This hypothesis is confirmed experimentally, where the MoSAs-Mo C assembled on NCNTs (MoSAs-Mo C/NCNTs) yields an ammonia formation rate of 16.1 µg h cm at -0.25 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, which is about four times that by the Mo C alone (Mo C/NCNTs) and 4.5 times that by the MoSAs alone (MoSAs/NCNTs). Moreover, the Faradic efficiency of the MoSAs-Mo C/NCNTs is raised up to twofold and sevenfold of the Mo C/NCNTs and MoSAs/NCNTs, respectively. The MoSAs-Mo C/NCNTs also demonstrate outstanding stability by the almost unchanged catalytic performance over 10 h of the chronoamperometric test. The present study provides a promising new prototype of synchronizing the selectivity and activity for the multistep catalytic reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002177DOI Listing
August 2020

Development of a Novel Tool for the Retrieval and Analysis of Hormone Receptor Expression Characteristics in Metastatic Breast Cancer via Data Mining on Pathology Reports.

Biomed Res Int 2020 23;2020:2654815. Epub 2020 May 23.

Institute of Genomics and Bioinformatics, National Chung Hsing University, 145 Xingda Rd., South Dist., Taichung City 402, Taiwan.

Information about the expression status of hormone receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her-2 is crucial in the management and prognosis of breast cancer. Therefore, the retrieval and analysis of hormone receptor expression characteristics in metastatic breast cancer may be valuable in breast cancer study. Herein, we report a text mining tool based on word/phrase matching that retrieves hormone receptor expression data of regional or distant metastatic breast cancer from pathology reports. It was tested on pathology reports at the China Medical University Hospital from 2013 to 2018. The tool showed specificities of 91.6% and 63.3% for the detection of regional lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, respectively. Sensitivity in immunohistochemical study result extraction in these cases was 98.6% for distant metastasis and 78.3% for regional lymph node metastasis. Statistical analysis on these retrieved data showed significant difference s in PR and Her-2 expressions between regional and metastatic breast cancer, which is compatible with previous studies. In conclusion, our study shows that metastatic breast cancer hormone receptor expression characteristics can be retrieved by text mining. The algorithm designed in this study may be useful in future studies about text mining in pathology reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2654815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273481PMC
March 2021

Enhanced postoperative recovery with minimally invasive cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancies of gastrointestinal origin.

Surg Oncol 2020 Jun 19;33:38-42. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Northwell Health Cancer Institute, Lake Success, NY, USA.

Background: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) are the treatment of choice for select patients with peritoneal surface malignancies; however, the traditional open approach may be associated with significant morbidity. We evaluated postoperative outcomes with minimally invasive (MI) CRS and HIPEC.

Methods: Review of our institutional database identified 47 patients who underwent optimal cytoreduction (CC0 or CC1). Those with a PCI ≤ 15 and primary malignancy of gastrointestinal origin were then selected for subgroup analysis. Multivariable regression was performed to identify factors impacting postoperative outcomes.

Results: Demographic data did not significantly differ between open (n = 24) and minimally invasive (n = 9) groups. The MI group had a mean age of 57.34 ± 14.92, BMI of 27.03 ± 4.27, Charlson comorbidity score of 1.78 ± 1.72, and PCI of 5.56 ± 5.08. Mean time to flatus (days) was 2.78 in the MI group and 5.04 in the open group (p < 0.001), and mean length of IV analgesic use (days) was 3.11 in the MI group compared to 6.00 in the open group (p = 0.006). Mean length of stay (days) was 5.11 in the MI group and 8.67 in the open group (p = 0.033). Surgical approach (p = 0.037) and BMI (p = 0.039) were the only factors impacting length of stay.

Conclusions: Minimally invasive CRS and HIPEC is an excellent option for low volume peritoneal disease of gastrointestinal origin. A minimally invasive approach yields faster return of bowel function, reduced postoperative analgesia requirements, and shorter hospital stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2019.12.006DOI Listing
June 2020

Detection of hepatitis B virus pre-S mutants in plasma by a next-generation sequencing-based platform determines their patterns in liver tissues.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(6):e0234773. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Organ Transplantation Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S mutants in liver tissues or blood have been regarded as a high-risk population for HCC development and recurrence. Detection of pre-S mutants in clinical specimens is thus important for early diagnosis and prognosis of HCC to improve patient survival. Recently, we have developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based platform that can quantitatively detect pre-S mutants in patient plasma with superior sensitivity and accuracy. In this study, we compared the pre-S genotyping results from plasma by the NGS-based analysis with those from liver tissues by the immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based analysis in 30 HBV-related HCC patients. We demonstrated that the detection rate of pre-S mutants was significantly higher by NGS- than by IHC-based analysis. There was a moderate to good agreement between both analyses in detection of pre-S mutants. Compared with the IHC, the NGS-based detection of pre-S mutants in patient plasma could determine the patterns of pre-S mutants in liver tissues more efficiently in a noninvasive manner. Our data suggest that the NGS-based platform may represent a promising approach for detection of pre-S mutants as biomarkers of HBV-related HCC in clinical practice.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234773PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304603PMC
September 2020

Key issues facing electrospun carbon nanofibers in energy applications: on-going approaches and challenges.

Nanoscale 2020 Jul;12(25):13225-13248

Industrial Research Institute of Nonwovens & Technical Textiles, College of Textiles and Clothing, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266071, P. R. China.

Electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNFs), with one-dimensional (1D) morphology, tunable size, mechanical flexibility, and functionalities by themselves and those that can be added onto them, have witnessed the intensive development and extensive applications in energy storage and conversion, such as supercapacitors, batteries, and fuel cells. However, conventional solid CNFs often suffer from a rather poor electrical conductivity and low specific surface area, compared with the graphene and carbon nanotube counterparts. A well-engineered porous structure in CNFs increases their surface areas and reactivity, but there is a delicate balance between the level and type of pores and mechanical robustness. In addition, CNFs by themselves often show unsatisfactory electrochemical performance in energy storage and conversion, where, to endow them with high and durable activity, one effective approach is to dope CNFs with certain heteroatoms. Up to now, various activation strategies have been proposed and some of them have demonstrated great success in addressing these key issues. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the issue-oriented schemes for activating the electrospun CNFs in terms of enhancing the conductivity, modulating pore configuration, doping with heteroatoms, and reinforcing mechanical strength, in close reference to their applications in supercapacitors. The basic scientific principles involved in these activation processes and their effectiveness in boosting the electrochemical performance of CNFs are examined. Finally, some of the on-going challenges and future perspectives in engineering CNFs for better performance are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr03425hDOI Listing
July 2020

Primer for intensive care unit (ICU) redeployment of the noncritical care surgeon: Insights from the epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Surgery 2020 08 23;168(2):215-217. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Surgery, Northwell Health, New Hyde Park, NY; Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/ Northwell, Hempstead, NY; Department of Pediatrics, Northwell Health, New Hyde Park, NY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245208PMC
August 2020

Tritium Atom Exchange May Be Responsible for Activity Decrease in Plastic Liquid Scintillation Vials.

Health Phys 2020 09;119(3):375-380

1618 Campus Delivery, Colorado State Univeristy, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Detection and measurement of low-energy beta particles is commonly achieved by liquid scintillation counting, in particular for low-level tritium samples. When samples are contained in plastic scintillation vials for long-term storage, the tritium activity in the vials has been found to decrease faster than expected from its natural radioactive decay. Different explanations for this observation have attributed some of these tritium activity losses to diffusion of the sample, degradation of the LSC cocktail, and the potential long-term changes in quenching effects of the LSC cocktail. An alternative explanation may also be that the tritium organically binds to the carbon chains in the plastic bottle through direct H and H atom exchange. A study was designed and performed to test this latter hypothesis of H and H atom exchange in plastic. Deionized water was introduced in a plastic vial that previously contained tritiated water to assess any increase in tritium activity from the reverse atom exchange between the vial material and the deionized water. A greater loss in activity concentration is observed in plastic vials compared to glass vials as a function of storage time for the tritiated water. Furthermore, the tritium activity concentration in the deionized water increased when storage occurred in plastic vials, an effect that is not observed for storage in glass vials. The study results indicate that hydrogen atom exchange may possibly take place in plastic vials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001289DOI Listing
September 2020

Autophagy prevents hippocampal α-synuclein oligomerization and early cognitive dysfunction after anesthesia/surgery in aged rats.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 04 26;12(8):7262-7281. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

Stress-induced α-synuclein aggregation, especially the most toxic species (oligomers), may precede synaptic and cognitive dysfunction. Under pathological conditions, α-synuclein is degraded primarily through the autophagic/lysosomal pathway. We assessed the involvement of autophagy in α-synuclein aggregation and cognitive impairment following general anesthesia and surgical stress. Autophagy was found to be suppressed in the aged rat hippocampus after either 4-h propofol anesthesia alone or 2-h propofol anesthesia during a laparotomy surgery. This inhibition of autophagy was accompanied by profound α-synuclein oligomer aggregation and neurotransmitter imbalances in the hippocampus, along with hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits. These events were not observed 18 weeks after propofol exposure with or without surgical stress. The pharmacological induction of autophagy using rapamycin markedly suppressed α-synuclein oligomerization, restored neurotransmitter equilibrium, and improved cognitive behavior after prolonged anesthesia or anesthesia combined with surgery. Thus, both prolonged propofol anesthesia alone and propofol anesthesia during surgery impaired autophagy, which may have induced abnormal hippocampal α-synuclein aggregation and neurobehavioral deficits in aged rats. These findings suggest that the activation of autophagy and the clearance of pathological α-synuclein oligomers may be novel strategies to ameliorate the common occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202547PMC
April 2020

Single atom catalysts: a surface heterocompound perspective.

Nanoscale Horiz 2020 May 30;5(5):757-764. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117574 Singapore, Singapore.

The concept of single atom catalysts (SACs) originated from reducing the amount of noble metals used, by steadily refining the particle size loaded on a substrate surface. It has been rapidly moving to non-noble elements and their compounds in recent years, notably transition metals and even non-metals. They are of heterogeneous types, where the active species are refined to atomic dispersion scales on the surfaces/sub-surfaces of the solid support. The catalytic performance is governed by both the type and population of accessible active sites, and their bond and coordination environment, largely as a result of the interactions with the substrate surface. Unlike the internal structure within a crystalline solid, there is a large spatial variation in the bond and coordination environment of different atoms on the solid surface across different length scales, and in particular with the unsaturated surface, where there are various defects. They can also be dramatically altered during both the catalyst synthesis and actual catalysis process. In a way, they form a "surface heterocompound", where the local bonds for each metal atom are of a compound type, while there can be a large variation from one to another. Herein, we will look into the evolution from traditional heterogeneous catalysts to SACs, from the surface heterocompound perspective. Discussion will then be made on the on-going strategies and challenges in manipulating and identifying the local bond and coordination environment on the hetero-surfaces, in an attempt to develop efficient catalysts for the targeted applications, where both synthesis techniques and analytical tools are critically important, and computational studies can provide the key guiding principles. With selected paradigm studies, we will briefly examine the future perspectives for this newly emerging catalysis frontier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nh00088dDOI Listing
May 2020