Publications by authors named "John Taylor"

909 Publications

Transforming care for people with intellectual disabilities and autism in England.

Authors:
John L Taylor

Lancet Psychiatry 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE7 7XA, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00349-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Keep your friends close: Host compartmentalisation of microbial communities facilitates decoupling from effects of habitat fragmentation.

Ecol Lett 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.

Root-associated fungal communities modify the climatic niches and even the competitive ability of their hosts, yet how the different components of the root microbiome are modified by habitat loss remains a key knowledge gap. Using principles of landscape ecology, we tested how free-living versus host-associated microbes differ in their response to landscape heterogeneity. Further, we explore how compartmentalisation of microbes into specialised root structures filters for key fungal symbionts. Our study demonstrates that free-living fungal community structure correlates with landscape heterogeneity, but that host-associated fungal communities depart from these patterns. Specifically, biotic filtering in roots, especially via compartmentalisation within specialised root structures, decouples the biogeographic patterns of host-associated fungal communities from the soil community. In this way, even as habitat loss and fragmentation threaten fungal diversity in the soils, plant hosts exert biotic controls to ensure associations with critical mutualists, helping to preserve the root mycobiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13886DOI Listing
September 2021

Influence of age on surgical treatment and postoperative outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark and Yorkshire, England.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Leeds Institute of Medical Research at St James's, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Aim: Denmark and Yorkshire are demographically similar and both have undergone changes in their management of colorectal cancer to improve outcomes. The differential provision of surgical treatment, especially in the older age groups, may contribute to the magnitude of improved survival rates. This study aimed to identify differences in the management of colorectal cancer surgery and postoperative outcomes according to patient age between Denmark and Yorkshire.

Method: This was a retrospective population-based study of colorectal cancer patients diagnosed in Denmark and Yorkshire between 2005 and 2016. Proportions of patients undergoing major surgical resection, postoperative mortality and relative survival were compared between Denmark and Yorkshire across several age groups (18-59, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥80 years) and over time.

Results: The use of major surgical resection was higher in Denmark than in Yorkshire, especially for patients aged ≥80 years (70.5% versus 50.5% for colon cancer, 49.3% versus 38.1% for rectal cancer). Thirty-day postoperative mortality for Danish patients aged ≥80 years was significantly higher than that for Yorkshire patients with colonic cancer [OR (95% CI) = 1.22 (1.07, 1.38)] but not for rectal cancer or for 1-year postoperative mortality. Relative survival significantly increased in all patients aged ≥80 years except for Yorkshire patients with colonic cancer.

Conclusion: This study suggests that there are major differences between the management of elderly patients with colorectal cancer between the two populations. Improved selection for surgery and better peri- and postoperative care in these patients appears to improve long-term outcomes, but may come at the cost of a higher 30-day mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.15910DOI Listing
September 2021

Identifying the lungs as a susceptible site for allele-specific regulatory changes associated with type 1 diabetes risk.

Commun Biol 2021 09 14;4(1):1072. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) etiology is complex. We developed a machine learning approach that ranked the tissue-specific transcription regulatory effects for T1D SNPs and estimated their relative contributions to conversion to T1D by integrating case and control genotypes (Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium and UK Biobank) with tissue-specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data. Here we show an eQTL (rs6679677) associated with changes to AP4B1-AS1 transcript levels in lung tissue makes the largest gene regulatory contribution to the risk of T1D development. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed allele-specific enhancer activity for the rs6679677 tagged locus in lung epithelial cells (i.e. A549 cells; C > A reduces expression, p = 0.005). Our results identify tissue-specific eQTLs for SNPs associated with T1D. The strongest tissue-specific eQTL effects were in the lung and may help explain associations between respiratory infections and risk of islet autoantibody seroconversion in young children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02594-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440780PMC
September 2021

Levels of myeloid-related proteins in saliva for screening and monitoring of periodontal disease.

J Clin Periodontol 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Division of Oral Diagnostics and Rehabilitation, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.

Aim: To evaluate the salivary levels of myeloid-related markers in relation to periodontal disease and their potential screening capability, as well as the effects of periodontal treatment on these markers in periodontitis patients.

Materials And Methods: Participants with a healthy periodontium (n = 60) and with gingivitis (n = 63) and periodontitis (n = 72) were recruited. Periodontitis patients received non-surgical treatment and were re-examined after 3 and 6 months. Unstimulated saliva was collected at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after therapy for the periodontitis patients. Levels of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), interleukin-34 (IL-34), S100A8/A9, S100A12, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) were analysed by immunoassays.

Results: CSF-1, S100A8/A9, S100A12, IL-1β, MMP-8, and HGF were significantly elevated in saliva from periodontitis and gingivitis patients in comparison to healthy individuals, whereas IL-34 was significantly lower in periodontitis compared to both healthy individuals and gingivitis patients. IL-34 increased significantly 3 months after treatment, while IL-1β and MMP-8 decreased 1 month after therapy. Additionally, periodontitis patients clustered in high and low levels of S100A8/A9, whereby those with high levels had more bleeding, deeper pockets, and higher S100A12.

Conclusions: Salivary levels of myeloid-related markers are altered in periodontitis and are partially modulated by periodontal treatment. Measuring S100A8/A9 in saliva may identify distinct groups of periodontitis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.13534DOI Listing
August 2021

Descriptive sensory analysis of instant porridge from stored wholegrain and decorticated pearl millet flour cooked, stabilized and improved by using a low-cost extruder.

J Food Sci 2021 Sep 4;86(9):3824-3838. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Consumer and Food Sciences and Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Pearl millet flour, particularly wholegrain flour, is highly susceptible to development of rancid aromas and flavors during storage. Grain decortication and extrusion cooking using a friction-heated single-screw extruder were investigated as potential flour stabilization processes. Raw and extruded wholegrain and decorticated grain pearl millet flours were stored at ambient (25°C) and elevated (40°C) temperatures for 6 months. A trained descriptive sensory panel developed a lexicon of 44 attributes to profile the aroma, flavor, and texture of porridges prepared from the flours. Grain decortication alone did not show an effect on the aroma and flavor profile of porridge. Extrusion cooking of both wholegrain and decorticated flours increased cereal-like aromas (branny, canned sweetcorn, sweet, and wheaty) and flavor (starchy), as well as stiffness and cohesiveness of the porridges. The porridges from the extruded pearl millet flours stored for up to 6 months at ambient and elevated temperatures did not show any indications of rancidity. In contrast, rancidity-associated aromas (chemical, painty, and soapy) and flavor (chemical) increased in porridges from the raw flours stored for 4 weeks and longer. These results indicate that grain decortication did not sufficiently reduce fat content to prevent oxidation, while extrusion cooking stabilized the pearl millet flours. In addition, intensified "cereal-like" aromas and flavors were probably due to Maillard reactions occurring during extrusion cooking. Resulting aroma compounds could have been immobilized in the extruded matrix and not released during flour storage. The application of extrusion cooking with a simple friction-heated single-screw extruder is a viable process for both precooking and extending the shelf life of pearl millet flours. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study demonstrates the potential of extrusion cooking to precook wholegrain pearl millet while preventing fat rancidity in wholegrain pearl millet flour, thereby improving the sensory quality and stability of pearl millet food products. The extensive sensory characterization of pearl millet porridge-type foods can serve as a guidance tool for development, improvement, and quality control of pearl millet foods. Furthermore, it establishes the efficacy of simple friction-heated, single-screw extruders for commercial manufacture of ready-to-eat wholegrain pearl millet food products by small and medium scale entrepreneurs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15862DOI Listing
September 2021

Coefficient Omega.

Authors:
John M Taylor

J Nurs Educ 2021 Aug 1;60(8):429-430. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

This article raises the concern that nursing education research may be unduly subject to several limitations inherited from an overreliance on Cronbach's α. Consequently, researchers are encouraged to make greater use of coefficient omega since it is expected to perform just as well as or better than Cronbach's α, especially when tau-equivalence goes unmet. Several resources are noted that may help researchers estimate omega for composite measurements. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20210722-02DOI Listing
August 2021

Retention of duplicated genes in evolution.

Trends Genet 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, 160 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E1; RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, Japan, 351-0198.

Gene duplication is a prevalent phenomenon across the tree of life. The processes that lead to the retention of duplicated genes are not well understood. Functional genomics approaches in model organisms, such as yeast, provide useful tools to test the mechanisms underlying retention with functional redundancy and divergence of duplicated genes, including fates associated with neofunctionalization, subfunctionalization, back-up compensation, and dosage amplification. Duplicated genes may also be retained as a consequence of structural and functional entanglement. Advances in human gene editing have enabled the interrogation of duplicated genes in the human genome, providing new tools to evaluate the relative contributions of each of these factors to duplicate gene retention and the evolution of genome structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2021.06.016DOI Listing
July 2021

Does Gender Matter: A Multi-Institutional Analysis of Viscoelastic Profiles for 1565 Trauma Patients With Severe Hemorrhage.

Am Surg 2021 Jul 15:31348211033542. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Surgery, 12255Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: Viscoelastic tests including thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) are being used in patients with severe hemorrhage at trauma centers to guide resuscitation. Several recent studies demonstrated hypercoagulability in female trauma patients that was associated with a survival advantage. The objective of our study was to elucidate the effects of gender differences in TEG/ROTEM values on survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage.

Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive adult patients receiving massive transfusion protocol (MTP) at 7 Level I trauma centers was performed from 2013 to 2018. Data were stratified by gender and then further examined by TEG or ROTEM parameters. Results were analyzed using univariate and multi-variate analyses.

Results: A total of 1565 patients were included with 70.9% male gender (n = 1110/1565). Female trauma patients were older than male patients (43.5 ± .9 vs 41.1 ± .6 years, = .01). On TEG, females had longer reaction times (6.1 ± .9 min vs 4.8 ± .2 min, = .03), increased alpha angle (68.6 ± .8 vs 65.7 ± .4, < .001), and higher maximum amplitude (59.8 ± .8 vs 56.3 ± .4, < .001). On ROTEM, females had significantly longer clot time (99.2 ± 13.7 vs 75.1 ± 2.6 sec, = .09) and clot formation time (153.6 ± 10.6 sec vs 106.9 ± 3.8 sec, < .001). When comparing by gender, no difference for in-hospital mortality was found for patients in the TEG or ROTEM group ( > .05). Multivariate analysis showed no survival difference for female patients (OR 1.11, 95% CI .83-1.50, = .48).

Conclusions: Although a difference between male and females was found on TEG/ROTEM for certain clotting parameters, no difference in mortality was observed. Prospective multi-institutional studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00031348211033542DOI Listing
July 2021

COVID-19 Impact on Medical Practice in Sub-Saharan Africa; The Need to Guard Against Medical Negligence: A Case Report in a Health Care Facility in Kumasi, Ghana.

Clin Pathol 2021 Jan-Dec;14:2632010X211025308. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

With the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still in pandemic mode, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the African continent has experienced continued growth in the total tally. According to the Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the virus has spread to almost all 54 recognized African countries. Figures from the CDC indicate that the highly affected countries include South Africa, Egypt, Nigeria, Algeria, Morocco, and Ghana (with more than 55 000 cases and 400 deaths as of the time of writing). The WHO and the United Nations have projected the ongoing pandemic could push medical practitioners toward high rates of clinical misdiagnosis. So far, the coronavirus pandemic has been more devastating and life-threatening than the usual seasonal flu. As of the time of writing, here is presently no proven vaccine or treatment for the disease, with the vaccines still under development; hence, a timely and accurate diagnosis could prove critical. Patients can also receive supportive care earlier if they are diagnosed early. Considering the fact that the coronavirus infection mimics the signs and symptoms of normal flu and other respiratory infections, a problem now emerges, where these symptoms are treated as manifestations of the deadly virus. This has caused a diagnostic dilemma in the absence of laboratory tests with new cases adding to the pool daily. In Ghana, many patients on suspicion of flu-like symptoms are sometimes denied the care so deserved due to the stigma associated with the disease, often in cases where laboratory tests are absent. This study is a postmortem report of a client who died while on admission at a private medical facility. It was an unconfirmed case of COVID-19, and the client was left unattended to and died, having spent 8 days on the ward. His test report was not done initially, but the diagnosis was purely based on suspicion. Nasopharyngeal swabs conducted on the fifth day of admission proved negative. Results became available on the day of the client's demise. Postmortem findings established the actual cause of death, and it was not COVID-19 related.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2632010X211025308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246488PMC
June 2021

A modified fluorescent sensor for reporting glucose concentration in the airway lumen.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(7):e0254248. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom.

We have modified the periplasmic Escherichia coli glucose/galactose binding protein (GBP) and labelled with environmentally sensitive fluorophores to further explore its potential as a sensor for the evaluation of glucose concentration in airway surface liquid (ASL). We identified E149C/A213R GBP labelled with N,N'-Dimethyl-N-(iodoacetyl)-N'-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)ethylenediamine (IANBD, emission wavelength maximum 536nm) with a Kd for D-glucose of 1.02mM and a fluorescence dynamic range of 5.8. This sensor was specific for D-glucose and exhibited fluorescence stability in experiments for several hours. The use of E149C/A213R GBP-IANBD in the ASL of airway cells grown at air-liquid-interface (ALI) detected an increase in glucose concentration 10 minutes after raising basolateral glucose from 5 to 15mM. This sensor also reported a greater change in ASL glucose concentration in response to increased basolateral glucose in H441 airway cells compared to human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and there was less variability with HBEC data than that of H441 indicating that HBEC more effectively regulate glucose movement into the ASL. The sensor detected glucose in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) from diabetic db/db mice but not normoglycaemic wildtype mice, indicating limited sensitivity of the sensor at glucose concentrations <50μM. Using nasal inhalation of the sensor and spectral unmixing to generate images, E149C/A213R GBP-IANBD fluorescence was detected in luminal regions of cryosections of the murine distal lung that was greater in db/db than wildtype mice. In conclusion, this sensor provides a useful tool for further development to measure luminal glucose concentration in models of lung/airway to explore how this may change in disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254248PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270177PMC
July 2021

Isolated from Bats Captured in Mexico Form a Sister Group to North American Class 2 Clade.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Jun 30;7(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Unidad de Micología, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico.

is a dimorphic fungus associated with respiratory and systemic infections in mammalian hosts that have inhaled infective mycelial propagules. A phylogenetic reconstruction of this pathogen, using partial sequences of , , , and protein-coding genes, proposed that has at least 11 phylogenetic species, highlighting a clade (BAC1) comprising three isolates from infected bats captured in Mexico. Here, relationships for each individual locus and the concatenated coding regions of these genes were inferred using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Coalescent-based analyses, a concatenated sequence-types (CSTs) network, and nucleotide diversities were also evaluated. The results suggest that six isolates from the migratory bat together with one isolate from a bat support a NAm 3 clade, replacing the formerly reported BAC1 clade. In addition, three isolates from were classified as lineages. The concatenated sequence analyses and the CSTs network validate these findings, suggesting that NAm 3 is related to the North American class 2 clade and that both clades could share a recent common ancestor. Our results provide original information on the geographic distribution, genetic diversity, and host specificity of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7070529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305335PMC
June 2021

Intensive preoperative ostomy education for the radical cystectomy patient.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University of Kansas Medical Center - Department of Urology, 2000 Olathe Blvd. Kansas City, KS 66160. Electronic address:

Objectives: Patients undergoing radical cystectomy with ileal conduit formation usually receive training on the use of their stoma during their initial hospitalization - while actively recovering from surgery - often with little follow-up or reinforcement. Many of these patients are not equipped to deal with these significant body changes, which can lead to additional clinic visits, stoma-related complications, and decreased patient satisfaction/health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In an effort to improve patient education, we sought to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a preoperative comprehensive stoma education session termed the "stoma bootcamp" for patients scheduled for a radical cystectomy and ileal conduit (RCIC). We tracked patient related outcomes to determine its impact.

Methods: We performed a longitudinal, quality-improvement feasibility study at the University of Kansas Health System. All patients who were scheduled to undergo a RCIC for bladder cancer were offered enrollment into the study at their preoperative clinic visit. The "stoma boot camp" consisted of a 3-hour group session within 2 weeks of the surgery date. Patients were given a short presentation by residents and advanced practice providers regarding the operation, recovery, and expectations for their post-operative care. Ostomy nurses then demonstrated basic urostomy care - pouching, sizing, emptying - along with trouble-shooting tips for common ostomy problems. Measurements of HRQOL questionnaires were completed at the initial visit, after "boot camp," and at defined time points after surgery for 12 weeks. This included using an ostomy adjustment score. Length of stay, unplanned stoma-related interventions, and re-admissions within 30 days were also tracked.

Results: In this initial pilot program, 51 patients participated in the stoma bootcamp. The patients had an average ostomy adjustment score (OAS) of 150.4 (95% CI 142.0, 158.8) at discharge from the hospital, and these high OAS levels persisted throughout the 12 weeks of follow-up data without any significant decline. Short-form 36 (SF-36) scores demonstrated numerical improvements in each individual category at the 6-week mark above baseline. These improvements persisted at the 12-week mark.

Conclusions: In this study we were able to establish the feasibility of implementing a preoperative comprehensive stoma education session for patients scheduled for a RCIC. Additionally, we were able to document favorable HRQOL data and improved ostomy adjustment scores surrounding the education session.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.04.025DOI Listing
June 2021

Fosciclopirox suppresses growth of high-grade urothelial cancer by targeting the γ-secretase complex.

Cell Death Dis 2021 05 31;12(6):562. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Cancer Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

Ciclopirox (CPX) is an FDA-approved topical antifungal agent that has demonstrated preclinical anticancer activity in a number of solid and hematologic malignancies. Its clinical utility as an oral anticancer agent, however, is limited by poor oral bioavailability and gastrointestinal toxicity. Fosciclopirox, the phosphoryloxymethyl ester of CPX (Ciclopirox Prodrug, CPX-POM), selectively delivers the active metabolite, CPX, to the entire urinary tract following parenteral administration. We characterized the activity of CPX-POM and its major metabolites in in vitro and in vivo preclinical models of high-grade urothelial cancer. CPX inhibited cell proliferation, clonogenicity and spheroid formation, and increased cell cycle arrest at S and G0/G1 phases. Mechanistically, CPX suppressed activation of Notch signaling. Molecular modeling and cellular thermal shift assays demonstrated CPX binding to γ-secretase complex proteins Presenilin 1 and Nicastrin, which are essential for Notch activation. To establish in vivo preclinical proof of principle, we tested fosciclopirox in the validated N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) mouse bladder cancer model. Once-daily intraperitoneal administration of CPX-POM for four weeks at doses of 235 mg/kg and 470 mg/kg significantly decreased bladder weight, a surrogate for tumor volume, and resulted in a migration to lower stage tumors in CPX-POM treated animals. This was coupled with a reduction in the proliferation index. Additionally, there was a reduction in Presenilin 1 and Hes-1 expression in the bladder tissues of CPX-POM treated animals. Following the completion of the first-in-human Phase 1 trial (NCT03348514), the pharmacologic activity of fosciclopirox is currently being characterized in a Phase 1 expansion cohort study of muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients scheduled for cystectomy (NCT04608045) as well as a Phase 2 trial of newly diagnosed and recurrent urothelial cancer patients scheduled for transurethral resection of bladder tumors (NCT04525131).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03836-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166826PMC
May 2021

Genome-resolved metagenomics reveals role of iron metabolism in drought-induced rhizosphere microbiome dynamics.

Nat Commun 2021 05 28;12(1):3209. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Recent studies have demonstrated that drought leads to dramatic, highly conserved shifts in the root microbiome. At present, the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses remain largely uncharacterized. Here we employ genome-resolved metagenomics and comparative genomics to demonstrate that carbohydrate and secondary metabolite transport functionalities are overrepresented within drought-enriched taxa. These data also reveal that bacterial iron transport and metabolism functionality is highly correlated with drought enrichment. Using time-series root RNA-Seq data, we demonstrate that iron homeostasis within the root is impacted by drought stress, and that loss of a plant phytosiderophore iron transporter impacts microbial community composition, leading to significant increases in the drought-enriched lineage, Actinobacteria. Finally, we show that exogenous application of iron disrupts the drought-induced enrichment of Actinobacteria, as well as their improvement in host phenotype during drought stress. Collectively, our findings implicate iron metabolism in the root microbiome's response to drought and may inform efforts to improve plant drought tolerance to increase food security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23553-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163885PMC
May 2021

Cystic Hygroma in a Dental Hygienist Reporting With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Case Report.

J Chiropr Med 2021 Mar 12;20(1):30-36. Epub 2021 May 12.

Chiropractic Department, D'Youville College, Buffalo, New York.

Objective: This purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient who presented with symptoms of hand neuropathy.

Clinical Features: A 35-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of numbness and tingling in the first and second digits of the right hand. Visual inspection revealed a large golf ball-like mass in the patient's right lower neck region. Orthopedic assessment revealed a Tinel's sign at the right carpal tunnel, positive Allen's maneuver, present flick sign, and diminished right radial pulse strength. Advanced diagnostic imaging had been taken previously at the ages of 11 and 24 years, and showed the presence of cystic hygroma in the patient's right axilla and lower neck region.

Intervention And Outcome: The patient was treated using manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine, myofascial release therapy, and therapeutic ultrasound over the right carpal tunnel. Active home care included postural relief exercises and education about work-related ergonomics. Several functional and subjective improvements were seen within the first 2 weeks of treatment. Symptoms of right-hand numbness resolved after 8 treatments.

Conclusion: In this case, the chiropractor originally thought the patient's hand numbness was due to a cystic hygroma; however, this was later considered an incidental finding. The patient's symptoms seemed to respond to chiropractic management and reduced within 1 month.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2021.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134865PMC
March 2021

Development of video animations to encourage patient-driven deprescribing: A Team Alice Study.

Patient Educ Couns 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Primary Care Research Institute, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA.

Objective: Patient-driven deprescribing initiatives aim to increase patient knowledge and strengthen self-advocacy skills. This article describes the development of three animated videos designed to educate older adults about unsafe prescribing and medication harm, based on the actionable lessons from the death, by polypharmacy, of an older adult in our community.

Methods: Using a community based participatory research approach (CBPR), members of three senior centers (n = 53) and the Deprescribing Partnership of Western New York (n = 30) were recruited and participated in two rounds of focus groups to guide the video development.

Results: Stakeholder input led to changes in content, wording, and visual presentation. The final versions of the videos emphasize the following messages (1) "New medications and what you should know about the risks", (2) "What you should do when a doctor tells you never to take a certain medication", (3) "What you should know about medications when you are in the hospital."

Conclusion: The study highlights the successful process of using CBPR to develop a series of videos designed to provide information on the risks of polypharmacy, and empower older adults to advocate for themselves.

Practice Implications: Animated educational videos are a novel strategy to address medication harm in older adults. This research is a critical first step to increasing patient-led discussions that reduce the incidence of medication harm and inappropriate medication use among older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2021.03.041DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of vacuum packaging storage of minimally processed cassava roots at various temperatures on microflora, tissue structure, starch extraction by wet milling and granule quality.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Consumer and Food Sciences and Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Vacuum package storage is commonly applied to reduce postharvest deterioration in minimally processed cassava roots. However, the influence of vacuum packaging conditions on root end-use quality is poorly understood. Hence, the effects of vacuum packaged storage at ambient, refrigerated and freezing temperatures on microflora, cassava tissue structure and starch extraction by wet milling were studied.

Results: Vacuum packaged storage temperature strongly affected cassava root quality. Minimal adverse effects were obtained with frozen storage. With refrigerated storage, there was negligible microbial growth but some disruption of the parenchyma cell wall structure suggestive of chilling injury. With ambient temperature storage, there was considerable Lactobacilli dominated fermentation. This caused substantial cell degradation, probably due to the production of extracellular cellulolytic and other cell wall degrading enzymes. A benefit of this cell wall breakdown was that it substantially improved starch extraction with wet milling from the stored cassava pieces; by 18% with pieces that had been ambient vacuum packaged and wet milled using a 2000 μm opening screen. However, ambient temperature storage resulted in some starch granule pitting due to the action of extracellular amylases from the fermenting microorganisms.

Conclusion: The best vacuum packaging storage conditions for minimally processed cassava depends on application and cost. For short-term storage, refrigeration would be best for vegetable-type products. For several months storage, freezing is best. For wet milling applications, this could be combined with subsequent short-term ambient temperature storage as it improves starch extraction efficiency and could reduce distribution energy costs. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11305DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular analysis of black coatings and anointing fluids from ancient Egyptian coffins, mummy cases, and funerary objects.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(18)

Scientific Research, British Museum, WC1B 3DG London, United Kingdom.

Black organic coatings and ritual deposits on ancient Egyptian coffins and cartonnage cases are important and understudied sources of evidence about the rituals of funerary practice. Sometimes, the coatings were applied extensively over the surface of the coffin, resembling paint; in other cases, they were poured over the mummy case or wrapped body, presumably as part of a funerary ritual. For this study, multiple samples of black coatings and ritual liquids were taken from 20 Egyptian funerary items dating to a specific time period (c. 943 to 716 BC). Multiple sampling from each object enabled several comparisons to be made: the variability of the black coating within one application, the variability between two applications on one object, and the variability from object to object. All samples were analyzed for lipids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 51 samples from across the 20 items were further analyzed for the presence of bitumen using solid phase separation followed by selected ion monitoring GC-MS. The majority of the black substances were found to comprise a complex mixture of organic materials, including bitumen from the Dead Sea, conifer resin, and resin, providing evidence for a continuation in international trade between Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean after the Late Bronze Age. Both the coating and the anointing liquid are very similar to mummification balms, pointing to parallels with Egyptian embalming rituals and raising questions about the practical aspects of Egyptian funerary practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2100885118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106298PMC
May 2021

Measures of resting state EEG rhythms for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations of an expert panel.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 09 15;17(9):1528-1553. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

The Electrophysiology Professional Interest Area (EPIA) and Global Brain Consortium endorsed recommendations on candidate electroencephalography (EEG) measures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. The Panel reviewed the field literature. As most consistent findings, AD patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia showed abnormalities in peak frequency, power, and "interrelatedness" at posterior alpha (8-12 Hz) and widespread delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms in relation to disease progression and interventions. The following consensus statements were subscribed: (1) Standardization of instructions to patients, resting state EEG (rsEEG) recording methods, and selection of artifact-free rsEEG periods are needed; (2) power density and "interrelatedness" rsEEG measures (e.g., directed transfer function, phase lag index, linear lagged connectivity, etc.) at delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands may be use for stratification of AD patients and monitoring of disease progression and intervention; and (3) international multisectoral initiatives are mandatory for regulatory purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12311DOI Listing
September 2021

Potential of moringa leaf and baobab fruit food-to-food fortification of wholegrain maize porridge to improve iron and zinc bioaccessibility.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Consumer and Food Sciences and Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Food-to-food fortification (FtFF) with moringa leaf (iron source) and/or baobab fruit (citric acid and ascorbic acid source) (each 13-15 g/100 g porridge dry basis (db)) was studied to improve iron and zinc nutritive quality in African-type wholegrain maize-based porridges using dialysability assay. Moringa FtFF decreased percentage and total bioaccessible iron and zinc, by up to 84% and 45%, respectively. Moringa was very high in calcium, approximately 3% db and calcium-iron-phytate complexes inhibit iron bioavailability. Baobab FtFF increased percentage and total bioaccessible iron and zinc, especially in porridges containing carrot + mango (β-carotene source) and conventionally fortified with FeSO, by up to 111% and 60%, respectively. The effects were similar to those when ascorbic and citric acids were added as mineral absorption enhancers. While moringa FtFF could be inhibitory to iron and zinc bioavailability in cereal-based porridges, baobab fruit FtFF could improve their bioavailability, especially in combination with conventional iron fortification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2021.1911962DOI Listing
April 2021

Community Perceptions of the Determinants of Diabetes in Peri-Urban Vanuatu.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2021 Sep 2;33(6-7):734-739. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Health promotion is a core component of the Pacific region's response to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) prevention and control. However, while health promotion should build on and be informed by contextually specific norms and social discourse, there remains a paucity in research that seeks to understand how people in the Pacific region comprehend chronic conditions and their determinants. Based in peri-urban Vanuatu, this codesigned study utilized an open-ended survey to investigate community perceptions of factors contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. Results demonstrate a complex picture of diabetes-specific health literacy, with 22 distinct causes identified by 308 respondents. Dietary factors were commonly acknowledged; however, dietary complexity was not well understood. Limited recognition of the role of tobacco and alcohol consumption in disease development was also noted. Overall, findings demonstrate mixed successes in NCD-related health promotion. Moving away from more universalized approaches commonly advocated by donors, this research identifies the need for locally designed and driven health promotion that focuses on more nuanced, culturally sensitive, and contextually grounded messaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10105395211005924DOI Listing
September 2021

New musical interfaces for older adults in residential care: assessing a user-centred design approach.

Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2021 Mar 30:1-13. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

The MARCS Institute for Brain, Behaviour and Development, Western Sydney University - Bankstown Campus, Milperra, Australia.

For older adults in aged-care, group music-making can bring numerous physical and psychological benefits, ultimately improving their quality of life. However, personalising music-making to optimise these benefits is often difficult given their diverse ages, experiences, abilities, cognitive and motor skills, and their experience with music technology.In this study, we conducted a 10-week group music-making intervention with twenty participants in an aged-care home, using a prototype digital musical instrument that we iteratively refined by following a user-centred design approach from direct resident feedback. The prototype instrument adopted a novel method for errorless learning in music-making settings, which we also refined, by increasing the difficulty level of the instrument's operation. We also assessed the residents' engagement with the sessions by obtaining feedback from caregivers and facilitators.Results show that residents' enjoyment decreased as the complexity (difficulty) of our errorless learning implementation increased. We also found that resident engagement increased when changes to the prototype digital musical instrument were provided, but not when residents were giving feedback. Results also found that participation over the course of the intervention, and the number of songs played during each session also enhanced engagement. Overall, our results show the intervention was beneficial to residents, although we note some areas of enhancement for further interventions in designing prototype musical instruments for group music-making in aged-care settings. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONOlder adults positively engage with novel music technology, and do so increasingly over subsequent sessions. Repeated sessions may have the potential to enhance longer-term adoption of technologies as well as any rehabilitative effects of the group music-making activity.There is significant potential for residents with different abilities to all make music together, although to maximise the sustainability of the devices, the sessions, and the subsequent rehabilitative benefits, residents must be given the right adaptation for individual interfaces that balances ambition and ability.Rapid DMI prototyping positively enhances engagement among older adults, suggesting that in the case of a custom DMI, an upgrade schedule should be aligned with key rehabilitative milestones. Similarly, in the case of pre-developed digital music systems, resident exposure to new features or functionality should be strategically introduced, so as to maximise engagement for key phases of resident rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17483107.2021.1881172DOI Listing
March 2021

Implications for mental health workforce strategy, professional training and supervision of more widespread adoption of the multi-professional Responsible Clinician role: Results of a qualitative inquiry.

Int J Law Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun;76:101696. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.

Within mental health legislation in England and Wales the Responsible Clinician for specific patients should be the Approved Clinician with the most appropriate expertise to meet their primary assessment and treatment needs. The study aimed to explore nurse and psychologist perspectives on becoming a Responsible Clinician in the context of their limited uptake of the role and calls for an increase in advanced practice roles within mental health. It comprised a qualitative inquiry in the form of a thematic analysis of 12 semi-structured interviews. Four sub-themes emerged under the theme of 'becoming a Responsible Clinician'. They were: (i) the Responsible Clinician amongst other roles; (ii) developing in the role; (iii) working with psychiatrist colleagues; and (iv) organisational context. Responsible Clinicians were juggling the role with other senior clinical responsibilities, often without a coherent programme of ongoing educational development or organisational support structures. If mental health service provider organisations adopt this extended role more widely then role-specific support and supervision arrangements should be in place as part of a coherent workforce strategy. This is particularly important given the legal and ethical responsibilities of the Responsible Clinician.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2021.101696DOI Listing
March 2021

Holo-omics for deciphering plant-microbiome interactions.

Microbiome 2021 03 24;9(1):69. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Host-microbiome interactions are recognized for their importance to host health. An improved understanding of the molecular underpinnings of host-microbiome relationships will advance our capacity to accurately predict host fitness and manipulate interaction outcomes. Within the plant microbiome research field, unlocking the functional relationships between plants and their microbial partners is the next step to effectively using the microbiome to improve plant fitness. We propose that strategies that pair host and microbial datasets-referred to here as holo-omics-provide a powerful approach for hypothesis development and advancement in this area. We discuss several experimental design considerations and present a case study to highlight the potential for holo-omics to generate a more holistic perspective of molecular networks within the plant microbiome system. In addition, we discuss the biggest challenges for conducting holo-omics studies; specifically, the lack of vetted analytical frameworks, publicly available tools, and required technical expertise to process and integrate heterogeneous data. Finally, we conclude with a perspective on appropriate use-cases for holo-omics studies, the need for downstream validation, and new experimental techniques that hold promise for the plant microbiome research field. We argue that utilizing a holo-omics approach to characterize host-microbiome interactions can provide important opportunities for broadening system-level understandings and significantly inform microbial approaches to improving host health and fitness. Video abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01014-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988928PMC
March 2021

Coccidioidomycosis and COVID-19 Co-Infection, United States, 2020.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 23;27(5):1266-1273. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

We review the interaction between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and coccidioidomycosis, a respiratory infection caused by inhalation of Coccidioides fungal spores in dust. We examine risk for co-infection among construction and agricultural workers, incarcerated persons, Black and Latino populations, and persons living in high dust areas. We further identify common risk factors for co-infection, including older age, diabetes, immunosuppression, racial or ethnic minority status, and smoking. Because these diseases cause similar symptoms, the COVID-19 pandemic might exacerbate delays in coccidioidomycosis diagnosis, potentially interfering with prompt administration of antifungal therapies. Finally, we examine the clinical implications of co-infection, including severe COVID-19 and reactivation of latent coccidioidomycosis. Physicians should consider coccidioidomycosis as a possible diagnosis when treating patients with respiratory symptoms. Preventive measures such as wearing face masks might mitigate exposure to dust and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, thereby protecting against both infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2705.204661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084485PMC
June 2021

Development of the Canadian COVID-19 Emergency Department Rapid Response Network population-based registry: a methodology study.

CMAJ Open 2021 Jan-Mar;9(1):E261-E270. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine (Hohl, Taylor, Andolfatto, Ting, Brar, Stachura), University of British Columbia; Centre for Clinical Epidemiology & Evaluation (Hohl), Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC; Department of Pediatrics (Rosychuk), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Department of Emergency Medicine (McRae), Foothills Medical Center, Calgary, Alta.; Department of Emergency Medicine (Brooks), School of Medicine, Queen's University; Kingston Health Sciences Centre (Brooks), Kingston, Ont.; Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine (Archambault), Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval; VITAM (Centre de recherche en santé durable) (Archambault, Mercier), Québec, Que.; Division of EMS (Fok, Dahn, Wiemer), Department of Emergency Medicine, Dalhousie University; Charles V. Keating Emergency and Trauma Centre (Fok, Dahn, Wiemer), QEII Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS; Department of Emergency Medicine (Davis), College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask.; Department of Emergency Medicine (Jelic), Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man.; Emergency Department (Turner), Jewish General Hospital; Department of Emergency Medicine (Turner), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, McGill University, Montréal, Que.; Department of Emergency Medicine (Rowe, Hayward, Khangura), Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, and School of Public Health (Rowe), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Centre de recherche (Mercier), CHU de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, Que.; Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Cheng, Atzema); Division of Emergency Medicine (Cheng, Landes, Vaillancourt, Morrison), Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Emergency Department (Taylor), Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, BC; Départements de médecine de famille et de médecine d'urgence (Daoust), Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal; Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur-de-Montréal (Daoust), CIUSSS Nord-de-l'ile-de-Montréal, Montréal, Que.; Department of Emergency Medicine (Ohle), Health Sciences North; Northern Ontario School of Medicine (Ohle), Sudbury, Ont.; Lions Gate Hospital (Andolfatto, Stachura), North Vancouver, BC; ICES Central (Atzema); University Health Network (Landes), Toronto, Ont.; Department of Emergency Medicine (Lang), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary; Rockyview General Hospital (Lang), Calgary, Alta.; Department of Family Practice (Martin), Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Abbotsford Regional Hospital & Cancer Agency (Martin), Abbotsford, BC; Department of Emergency Medicine (Mohindra), North York General Hospital, North York, Ont.; Department of Emergency Medicine (Vaillancourt, Morrison), St. Michael's Hospital, Unity Health Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Division of Emergency Medicine (Welsford), Department of Medicine, McMaster University; Hamilton Health Sciences (Welsford), Hamilton, Ont.; Surrey Memorial Hospital (Brar), Surrey, BC; Department of Emergency Medicine (Yadav, Perry), University of Ottawa; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (Yadav, Perry), Ottawa, Ont.; Division of Emergency Medicine (Yan), Department of Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre; Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry (Yan), Western University, London, Ont.; BC SUPPORT Unit (McGavin), Vancouver, BC.

Background: Emergency physicians lack high-quality evidence for many diagnostic and treatment decisions made for patients with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our objective is to describe the methods used to collect and ensure the data quality of a multicentre registry of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.

Methods: This methodology study describes a population-based registry that has been enrolling consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 since Mar. 1, 2020. Most data are collected from retrospective chart review. Phone follow-up with patients at 30 days captures the World Health Organization clinical improvement scale and contextual, social and cultural variables. Phone follow-up also captures patient-reported quality of life using the Veterans Rand 12-Item Health Survey at 30 days, 60 days, 6 months and 12 months. Fifty participating emergency departments from 8 provinces in Canada currently enrol patients into the registry.

Interpretation: Data from the registry of the Canadian COVID-19 Emergency Department Rapid Response Network will be used to derive and validate clinical decision rules to inform clinical decision-making, describe the natural history of the disease, evaluate COVID-19 diagnostic tests and establish the real-world effectiveness of treatments and vaccines, including in populations that are excluded or underrepresented in clinical trials. This registry has the potential to generate scientific evidence to inform our pandemic response, and to serve as a model for the rapid implementation of population-based data collection protocols for future public health emergencies.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, no. NCT04702945.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20200290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096396PMC
March 2021

Parental Status and Biological Functioning: Findings from the Nashville Stress and Health Study.

Popul Res Policy Rev 2020 Apr 12;39(2):365-373. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University.

Does childrearing affect the biological functioning of parents? To address this question, we analyze cross-sectional survey and biomarker data from Vanderbilt University's Nashville Stress and Health Study, a probability sample of non-Hispanic white and black working-age adults from Davidson County, Tennessee (2011-2014; n = 1,252). Multivariable regression analyses reveal a linear dose-response relationship between the number of children living in a respondent's home and (a) increased allostatic load, and (b) decreased leukocyte telomere length. We found no differences in biological functioning between childless respondents and empty-nest parents. These findings also withstood controls for a battery of socioeconomic factors. The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11113-019-09534-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954218PMC
April 2020

Bi-allelic MCM10 variants associated with immune dysfunction and cardiomyopathy cause telomere shortening.

Nat Commun 2021 03 12;12(1):1626. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (MCM10) is essential for eukaryotic DNA replication. Here, we describe compound heterozygous MCM10 variants in patients with distinctive, but overlapping, clinical phenotypes: natural killer (NK) cell deficiency (NKD) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) with hypoplasia of the spleen and thymus. To understand the mechanism of MCM10-associated disease, we modeled these variants in human cell lines. MCM10 deficiency causes chronic replication stress that reduces cell viability due to increased genomic instability and telomere erosion. Our data suggest that loss of MCM10 function constrains telomerase activity by accumulating abnormal replication fork structures enriched with single-stranded DNA. Terminally-arrested replication forks in MCM10-deficient cells require endonucleolytic processing by MUS81, as MCM10:MUS81 double mutants display decreased viability and accelerated telomere shortening. We propose that these bi-allelic variants in MCM10 predispose specific cardiac and immune cell lineages to prematurely arrest during differentiation, causing the clinical phenotypes observed in both NKD and RCM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21878-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955084PMC
March 2021
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