Publications by authors named "John S Sproul"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Draft Genome Assemblies and Annotations of Agrypnia vestita Walker, and Hesperophylax magnus Banks Reveal Substantial Repetitive Element Expansion in Tube Case-Making Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera).

Genome Biol Evol 2021 Mar;13(3)

Department of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.

Trichoptera (caddisflies) play an essential role in freshwater ecosystems; for instance, larvae process organic material from the water and are food for a variety of predators. Knowledge on the genomic diversity of caddisflies can facilitate comparative and phylogenetic studies thereby allowing scientists to better understand the evolutionary history of caddisflies. Although Trichoptera are the most diverse aquatic insect order, they remain poorly represented in terms of genomic resources. To date, all long-read based genomes have been sequenced from individuals in the retreat-making suborder, Annulipalpia, leaving ∼275 Ma of evolution without high-quality genomic resources. Here, we report the first long-read based de novo genome assemblies of two tube case-making Trichoptera from the suborder Integripalpia, Agrypnia vestita Walker and Hesperophylax magnus Banks. We find that these tube case-making caddisflies have genome sizes that are at least 3-fold larger than those of currently sequenced annulipalpian genomes and that this pattern is at least partly driven by major expansion of repetitive elements. In H. magnus, long interspersed nuclear elements alone exceed the entire genome size of some annulipalpian counterparts suggesting that caddisflies have high potential as a model for understanding genome size evolution in diverse insect lineages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evab013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936034PMC
March 2021

RepeatProfiler: A pipeline for visualization and comparative analysis of repetitive DNA profiles.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Apr 4;21(3):969-981. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

Study of repetitive DNA elements in model organisms highlights the role of repetitive elements (REs) in many processes that drive genome evolution and phenotypic change. Because REs are much more dynamic than single-copy DNA, repetitive sequences can reveal signals of evolutionary history over short time scales that may not be evident in sequences from slower-evolving genomic regions. Many tools for studying REs are directed toward organisms with existing genomic resources, including genome assemblies and repeat libraries. However, signals in repeat variation may prove especially valuable in disentangling evolutionary histories in diverse non-model groups, for which genomic resources are limited. Here, we introduce RepeatProfiler, a tool for generating, visualizing, and comparing repetitive element DNA profiles from low-coverage, short-read sequence data. RepeatProfiler automates the generation and visualization of RE coverage depth profiles (RE profiles) and allows for statistical comparison of profile shape across samples. In addition, RepeatProfiler facilitates comparison of profiles by extracting signal from sequence variants across profiles which can then be analysed as molecular morphological characters using phylogenetic analysis. We validate RepeatProfiler with data sets from ground beetles (Bembidion), flies (Drosophila), and tomatoes (Solanum). We highlight the potential of RE profiles as a high-resolution data source for studies in species delimitation, comparative genomics, and repeat biology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954937PMC
April 2021

Repetitive DNA Profiles Reveal Evidence of Rapid Genome Evolution and Reflect Species Boundaries in Ground Beetles.

Syst Biol 2020 11;69(6):1137-1148

Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, 3029 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Genome architecture is a complex, multidimensional property of an organism defined by the content and spatial organization of the genome's component parts. Comparative study of entire genome architecture in model organisms is shedding light on mechanisms underlying genome regulation, evolution, and diversification, but such studies require costly analytical approaches which make extensive comparative study impractical for most groups. However, lower-cost methods that measure a single architectural component (e.g., distribution of one class of repeats) have potential as a new data source for evolutionary studies insofar as that measure correlates with more complex biological phenomena, and for which it could serve as part of an explanatory framework. We investigated copy number variation (CNV) profiles in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) as a simple measure reflecting the distribution of rDNA subcomponents across the genome. We find that signatures present in rDNA CNV profiles strongly correlate with species boundaries in the breve species group of Bembidion, and vary across broader taxonomic sampling in Bembidion subgenus Plataphus. Profiles of several species show evidence of re-patterning of rDNA-like sequences throughout the genome, revealing evidence of rapid genome evolution (including among sister pairs) not evident from analysis of traditional data sources such as multigene data sets. Major re-patterning of rDNA-like sequences has occurred frequently within the evolutionary history of Plataphus. We confirm that CNV profiles represent an aspect of genomic architecture (i.e., the linear distribution of rDNA components across the genome) via fluorescence in-situ hybridization. In at least one species, novel rDNA-like elements are spread throughout all chromosomes. We discuss the potential of copy number profiles of rDNA, or other repeats, as a low-cost tool for incorporating signal of genomic architecture variation in studies of species delimitation and genome evolution. [Bembidion; Carabidae; copy number variation profiles; rapid genome evolution; ribosomal DNA; species delimitation.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syaa030DOI Listing
November 2020

Dynamic Evolution of Euchromatic Satellites on the X Chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster and the simulans Clade.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 08;37(8):2241-2256

Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Satellite DNAs (satDNAs) are among the most dynamically evolving components of eukaryotic genomes and play important roles in genome regulation, genome evolution, and speciation. Despite their abundance and functional impact, we know little about the evolutionary dynamics and molecular mechanisms that shape satDNA distributions in genomes. Here, we use high-quality genome assemblies to study the evolutionary dynamics of two complex satDNAs, Rsp-like and 1.688 g/cm3, in Drosophila melanogaster and its three nearest relatives in the simulans clade. We show that large blocks of these repeats are highly dynamic in the heterochromatin, where their genomic location varies across species. We discovered that small blocks of satDNA that are abundant in X chromosome euchromatin are similarly dynamic, with repeats changing in abundance, location, and composition among species. We detail the proliferation of a rare satellite (Rsp-like) across the X chromosome in D. simulans and D. mauritiana. Rsp-like spread by inserting into existing clusters of the older, more abundant 1.688 satellite, in events likely facilitated by microhomology-mediated repair pathways. We show that Rsp-like is abundant on extrachromosomal circular DNA in D. simulans, which may have contributed to its dynamic evolution. Intralocus satDNA expansions via unequal exchange and the movement of higher order repeats also contribute to the fluidity of the repeat landscape. We find evidence that euchromatic satDNA repeats experience cycles of proliferation and diversification somewhat analogous to bursts of transposable element proliferation. Our study lays a foundation for mechanistic studies of satDNA proliferation and the functional and evolutionary consequences of satDNA movement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403614PMC
August 2020

Ultraconserved element (UCE) probe set design: Base genome and initial design parameters critical for optimization.

Ecol Evol 2019 Jun 11;9(12):6933-6948. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Kansas Lawrence Kansas.

Targeted capture and enrichment approaches have proven effective for phylogenetic study. Ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in particular have exhibited great utility for phylogenomic analyses, with the software package phyluce being among the most utilized pipelines for UCE phylogenomics, including probe design. Despite the success of UCEs, it is becoming increasing apparent that diverse lineages require probe sets tailored to focal taxa in order to improve locus recovery. However, factors affecting probe design and methods for optimizing probe sets to focal taxa remain underexplored. Here, we use newly available beetle (Coleoptera) genomic resources to investigate factors affecting UCE probe set design using phyluce. In particular, we explore the effects of stringency during initial design steps, as well as base genome choice on resulting probe sets and locus recovery. We found that both base genome choice and initial bait design stringency parameters greatly alter the number of resultant probes included in final probe sets and strongly affect the number of loci detected and recovered during in silico testing of these probe sets. In addition, we identify attributes of base genomes that correlated with high performance in probe design. Ultimately, we provide a recommended workflow for using phyluce to design an optimized UCE probe set that will work across a targeted lineage, and use our findings to develop a new, open-source UCE probe set for beetles of the suborder Adephaga.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6617817PMC
June 2019

Sequencing historical specimens: successful preparation of small specimens with low amounts of degraded DNA.

Mol Ecol Resour 2017 Nov 30;17(6):1183-1201. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, 3029 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA.

Despite advances that allow DNA sequencing of old museum specimens, sequencing small-bodied, historical specimens can be challenging and unreliable as many contain only small amounts of fragmented DNA. Dependable methods to sequence such specimens are especially critical if the specimens are unique. We attempt to sequence small-bodied (3-6 mm) historical specimens (including nomenclatural types) of beetles that have been housed, dried, in museums for 58-159 years, and for which few or no suitable replacement specimens exist. To better understand ideal approaches of sample preparation and produce preparation guidelines, we compared different library preparation protocols using low amounts of input DNA (1-10 ng). We also explored low-cost optimizations designed to improve library preparation efficiency and sequencing success of historical specimens with minimal DNA, such as enzymatic repair of DNA. We report successful sample preparation and sequencing for all historical specimens despite our low-input DNA approach. We provide a list of guidelines related to DNA repair, bead handling, reducing adapter dimers and library amplification. We present these guidelines to facilitate more economical use of valuable DNA and enable more consistent results in projects that aim to sequence challenging, irreplaceable historical specimens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.12660DOI Listing
November 2017

Successful Recovery of Nuclear Protein-Coding Genes from Small Insects in Museums Using Illumina Sequencing.

PLoS One 2015 30;10(12):e0143929. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

In this paper we explore high-throughput Illumina sequencing of nuclear protein-coding, ribosomal, and mitochondrial genes in small, dried insects stored in natural history collections. We sequenced one tenebrionid beetle and 12 carabid beetles ranging in size from 3.7 to 9.7 mm in length that have been stored in various museums for 4 to 84 years. Although we chose a number of old, small specimens for which we expected low sequence recovery, we successfully recovered at least some low-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from all specimens. For example, in one 56-year-old beetle, 4.4 mm in length, our de novo assembly recovered about 63% of approximately 41,900 nucleotides in a target suite of 67 nuclear protein-coding gene fragments, and 70% using a reference-based assembly. Even in the least successfully sequenced carabid specimen, reference-based assembly yielded fragments that were at least 50% of the target length for 34 of 67 nuclear protein-coding gene fragments. Exploration of alternative references for reference-based assembly revealed few signs of bias created by the reference. For all specimens we recovered almost complete copies of ribosomal and mitochondrial genes. We verified the general accuracy of the sequences through comparisons with sequences obtained from PCR and Sanger sequencing, including of conspecific, fresh specimens, and through phylogenetic analysis that tested the placement of sequences in predicted regions. A few possible inaccuracies in the sequences were detected, but these rarely affected the phylogenetic placement of the samples. Although our sample sizes are low, an exploratory regression study suggests that the dominant factor in predicting success at recovering nuclear protein-coding genes is a high number of Illumina reads, with success at PCR of COI and killing by immersion in ethanol being secondary factors; in analyses of only high-read samples, the primary significant explanatory variable was body length, with small beetles being more successfully sequenced.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0143929PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4696846PMC
June 2016

Climate oscillations, glacial refugia, and dispersal ability: factors influencing the genetic structure of the least salmonfly, Pteronarcella badia (Plecoptera), in Western North America.

BMC Evol Biol 2015 12 12;15:279. Epub 2015 Dec 12.

Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, 4102 Life Science Building, Provo, UT, 84602, USA.

Background: Phylogeographic studies of aquatic insects provide valuable insights into mechanisms that shape the genetic structure of communities, yet studies that include broad geographic areas are uncommon for this group. We conducted a broad scale phylogeographic analysis of the least salmonfly Pteronarcella badia (Plecoptera) across western North America. We tested hypotheses related to mode of dispersal and the influence of historic climate oscillations on population genetic structure. In order to generate a larger mitochondrial data set, we used 454 sequencing to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome in the early stages of the project.

Results: Our analysis revealed high levels of population structure with several deeply divergent clades present across the sample area. Evidence from five mitochondrial genes and one nuclear locus identified a potentially cryptic lineage in the Pacific Northwest. Gene flow estimates and geographic clade distributions suggest that overland flight during the winged adult stage is an important dispersal mechanism for this taxon. We found evidence of multiple glacial refugia across the species distribution and signs of secondary contact within and among major clades.

Conclusions: This study provides a basis for future studies of aquatic insect phylogeography at the inter-basin scale in western North America. Our findings add to an understanding of the role of historical climate isolations in shaping assemblages of aquatic insects in this region. We identified several geographic areas that may have historical importance for other aquatic organisms with similar distributions and dispersal strategies as P. badia. This work adds to the ever-growing list of studies that highlight the potential of next-generation DNA sequencing in a phylogenetic context to improve molecular data sets from understudied groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-015-0553-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4676849PMC
December 2015