Publications by authors named "John R Wickman"

5 Publications

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Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty for Oncologic Reconstruction of the Proximal Humerus: A Systematic Review.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) for reconstruction of the proximal humerus after oncologic resection. However, the indications and outcomes of oncologic rTSA remain unclear.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that reported outcomes of patients who underwent rTSA for oncologic reconstruction of the proximal humerus. Extracted data included demographics, indications, operative techniques, outcomes, and complications. Weighted means were calculated according to sample size.

Results: Twelve studies were included, containing 194 patients who underwent rTSA for oncologic reconstruction of the proximal humerus. Mean patient age was 48 years, and 52% were male. Primary malignancies were present in 55% of patients, metastatic disease 30%, and benign tumors 9%. Mean humeral resection length was 12cm. Mean postoperative MSTS score was 78%, Constant score 60, and TESS score 77%. Mean complication rate was 28%, with shoulder instability accounting for 63% of complications. Revisions were performed in 16% of patients, and mean implant survival was 89% at a mean follow-up across studies of 53 months.

Conclusions: Although the existing literature is of poor study quality, with a high level of heterogeneity and risk of bias, rTSA appears to be a suitable option in appropriately selected patients undergoing oncologic resection and reconstruction of the proximal humerus. The most common complication is instability. Higher quality evidence is needed to help guide decision making on appropriate implant utilization for patients undergoing oncologic resection of the proximal humerus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.06.004DOI Listing
July 2021

Short stay after shoulder arthroplasty does not increase 90-day readmissions in Medicare patients compared with privately insured patients.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: As of January 1, 2021, total shoulder arthroplasty was removed from the Medicare inpatient-only list, reflecting a growing belief in the potential merits of same-day discharge regardless of insurance type. It is yet unknown whether Medicare populations, which frequently have more severe comorbidity burdens, would experience higher complication rates relative to privately insured patients, who are often younger with fewer comorbidities. Given the limited number of true outpatient cohorts available to study, discharge at least by postoperative day 1 may serve as a useful proxy for true same-day discharge, and we hypothesized that these Medicare patients would have increased 90-day readmission rates compared with their privately insured counterparts.

Methods: Data on 4723 total shoulder arthroplasties (anatomic in 2459 and reverse in 2264) from 2 large, geographically diverse health systems in patients having either Medicare or private insurance were collected. The unplanned 90-day readmission rate was the primary outcome, and patients were stratified into those who were discharged at least by postoperative day 1 (short inpatient stay) and those who were not. Patients with private insurance (n = 1845) were directly compared with those with Medicare (n = 2878), whereas cohorts of workers' compensation (n = 198) and Medicaid (n = 58) patients were analyzed separately. Forty preoperative variables were examined to compare overall health burden, with the χ and Wilcoxon rank sum tests used to test for statistical significance.

Results: Medicare patients undergoing short-stay shoulder arthroplasty were not significantly more likely than those with private insurance to experience an unplanned 90-day readmission (3.6% vs. 2.5%, P = .14). This similarity existed despite a substantially worse comorbidity burden in the Medicare population (P < .05 for 26 of 40 factors). Furthermore, a short inpatient stay did not result in an increased 90-day readmission rate in either Medicare patients (3.6% vs. 3.4%, P = .77) or their privately insured counterparts (2.5% vs. 2.4%, P = .92). Notably, when the analysis was restricted to a single insurance type, readmission rates were significantly higher for reverse shoulder arthroplasty compared with total shoulder arthroplasty (P < .001 for both), but when the analysis was restricted to a single procedure (anatomic or reverse), readmission rates were similar between Medicare and privately insured patients, whether undergoing a short or extended length of stay.

Conclusions: Despite a substantially more severe comorbidity profile, Medicare patients undergoing short-stay shoulder arthroplasty did not experience a significantly higher rate of unplanned 90-day readmission relative to privately insured patients. A higher incidence of reverse shoulder arthroplasty in Medicare patients does increase their overall readmission rate, but a similar increase also appears in privately-insured patients undergoing a reverse indicating that Medicare populations may be similarly appropriate for accelerated-care pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.05.013DOI Listing
June 2021

Malnutrition in elective shoulder arthroplasty: a multi-institutional retrospective study of preoperative albumin and adverse outcomes.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Malnutrition is associated with poor postoperative outcomes after knee, hip, and spine surgery. However, whether albumin labs should be part of the routine preoperative workup for shoulder arthroplasty remains understudied. This study investigated the role of preoperative albumin levels in predicting common postoperative adverse outcomes in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: All shoulder arthroplasty cases performed at 2 tertiary referral centers between July 2013 and May 2019 (institution 1) and between June 2007 and Feb 2020 (institution 2) were reviewed. A total of 421 primary and 71 revision elective shoulder arthroplasty cases had preoperative albumin levels recorded. Common demographic variables and relevant Elixhauser comorbidities were pulled. Outcomes gathered included extended (>3 days) postoperative inpatient length of stay (eLOS), 90-day readmission, and discharge to rehab or skilled nursing facility (SNF).

Results: The prevalence of malnutrition (albumin <3.5 g/dL) was higher in the revision group compared with the primary group (36.6% vs. 19.5%, P = .001). Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (P = .013) and increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists score (P = .016) were identified as independent risk factors for malnutrition in the primary group. In the revision group, liver disease was associated with malnutrition (P = .046). Malnourished primary shoulder arthroplasty patients had an increased incidence of eLOS (26.8% vs. 13.6%, P = .003) and discharge to rehab/SNF (18.3% vs. 10.3%, P = .045). On univariable analysis, low albumin had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.34 for eLOS (P = .004), which retained significance in a multivariable model including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, sex, and body mass index (OR 2.11, P = .03). On univariable analysis, low albumin had an OR of 1.94 for discharge to SNF/rehab (P = .048), but this did not reach significance in the multivariable model. Among revisions, malnourished patients had an increased incidence of eLOS (30.8% vs. 6.7%, P = .014) and discharge to rehab/SNF (26.9% vs. 4.4%, P = .010). In both the primary and revision groups, there was no difference in 90-day readmission rate between patients with low or normal albumin.

Conclusion: Malnutrition is more prevalent among revision shoulder arthroplasty patients compared with those undergoing a primary procedure. Primary shoulder arthroplasty patients with low preoperative albumin levels have an increased risk of eLOS and may have an increased need for postacute care. Low albumin was not associated with a risk of 90-day readmissions. Albumin level merits further investigation in large, prospective cohorts to clearly define its role in preoperative risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.03.143DOI Listing
April 2021

Letter to the Editor on Robot-Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty Does Not Improve Long-Term Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes.

J Arthroplasty 2020 08 17;35(8):2303-2304. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.04.002DOI Listing
August 2020

Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) correlates with American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Feb 18;29(2):363-369. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Orthopaedics, Duke Sport Science Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patient-reported outcomes continue to grow in importance. This study compared the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) score with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index score in patients before and after primary rotator cuff repair.

Methods: This study was a retrospective review of a prospectively filled database of 333 subjects who underwent primary rotator cuff repair by a single surgeon between 2010 and 2017. The database included preoperative and postoperative SANE, ASES, and WORC evaluations. The mean follow-up time was 37.5 months. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated comparing each score preoperatively and at least 1 year postoperatively.

Results: A strong correlation was found between the SANE and ASES scores of subjects in the preoperative period (r = 0.769, P < .0001) and the follow-up period of at least 1 year (r = 0.781, P < .0001). A similarly strong correlation was found between the SANE and WORC scores of subjects in the preoperative period (r = 0.757, P < .0001) and the follow-up period of at least 1 year (r = 0.813, P < .0001). On stratification analysis, correlation of SANE scores with ASES and WORC scores was found when subjects were grouped by sex, age, cuff tear size, and workers' compensation status.

Conclusion: This study shows a significant correlation between the SANE, ASES, and WORC scores of primary rotator cuff repair subjects in the preoperative and long-term follow-up periods. We recommend the SANE score as an adjunct to clinical outcome data that can be used in patients regardless of sex, cuff tear size, or workers' compensation status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2019.07.013DOI Listing
February 2020
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