Publications by authors named "John R Falck"

339 Publications

Uncovering the signaling, structure and function of the 20-HETE-GPR75 pairing: Identifying CCL5 as a negative regulator of GPR75.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College School of Medicine, Valhalla, NY, 10595.

Background And Purpose: The G-protein coupled receptor GPR75 (Gq) and its ligand, the cytochrome P450-derived vasoactive eicosanoid 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), are implicated in the activation of pro-inflammatory and hypertensive signaling cascades contributing to diabetes, obesity, vascular dysfunction/remodeling, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Little is known as to how, where and with what affinity 20-HETE interacts with GPR75.

Experimental Approach: To better understand the pairing of 20-HETE and its receptor (GPR75), we employed the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to determine binding affinity/kinetics. The PRESTO-Tango receptor-ome methodology for GPR75 overexpression was coupled with FLIPR Calcium 6 assays, HTRF IP-1 and β-arrestin recruitment assays to determine receptor activation and downstream signaling events.

Key Results: SPR confirmed 20-HETE binding to GPR75 with an estimated K of 1.56x10 M. In GPR75-transfected HTLA cells, 20-HETE stimulates intracellular Ca levels, IP-1 accumulation and β-arrestin recruitment; all of which were negated by known 20-HETE functional antagonists. Computational modeling of the putative ligand-binding pocket and mutation of Thr212 within the putative 20-HETE binding site abolished 20-HETE's ability to stimulate GPR75 activation. Knockdown of GPR75 in human endothelial cells nullified 20-HETE-stimulated intracellular Ca . The chemokine CCL5, a suggested GPR75 ligand, binds to GPR75 (K of 5.85x10 M) yet fails to activate GPR75; however, it inhibited 20-HETE's ability to activate GPR75 signaling.

Conclusions And Implications: Altogether, we identified 20-HETE as a high-affinity ligand for GPR75 and CCL5 as a low-affinity negative regulator of GPR75, providing additional evidence for the deorphanization of GPR75 as a 20-HETE receptor (20HR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15525DOI Listing
May 2021

Kidney-Targeted Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid Analog, EET-F01, Reduces Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 10;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Although epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) analogs have performed well in several acute and chronic kidney disease models, targeted delivery of EET analogs to the kidney can be reasonably expected to reduce the level of drug needed to achieve a therapeutic effect and obviate possible side effects. For EET analog kidney-targeted delivery, we conjugated a stable EET analog to folic acid via a PEG-diamine linker. Next, we compared the kidney targeted EET analog, EET-F01, to a well-studied EET analog, EET-A. EET-A or EET-F01 was infused i.v. and plasma and kidney tissue collected. EET-A was detected in the plasma but was undetectable in the kidney. On the other hand, EET-F01 was detected in the plasma and kidney. Experiments were conducted to compare the efficacy of EET-F01 and EET-A for decreasing cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin was administered to WKY rats treated with vehicle, EET-A (10 mg/kg i.p.) or EET-F01 (20 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg i.p.). Cisplatin increased kidney injury markers, viz., blood urea nitrogen (BUN), N-acetyl-β-(D)-glucosaminidase (NAG), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). EET-F01 was as effective as EET-A in decreasing BUN, NAG, KIM-1, TBARS, and renal histological injury caused by cisplatin. Despite its almost 2×-greater molecular weight compared with EET-A, EET-F01 was comparably effective in decreasing renal injury at a 10-fold / lower dose. EET-F01 decreased cisplatin nephrotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation. These data demonstrate that EET-F01 targets the kidney, allows for a lower effective dose, and combats cisplatin nephrotoxicity. In conclusion, we have developed a kidney targeted EET analog, EET-F01, that demonstrates excellent potential as a therapeutic for kidney diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998941PMC
March 2021

Early Renal Vasodilator and Hypotensive Action of Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid Analog (EET-A) and 20-HETE Receptor Blocker (AAA) in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

Front Physiol 2021 28;12:622882. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Renal and Body Fluid Physiology, Mossakowski Medical Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Cytochrome P450 (CYP-450) metabolites of arachidonic acid: epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) have established role in regulation of blood pressure (BP) and kidney function. EETs deficiency and increased renal formation of 20-HETE contribute to hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We explored the effects of 14,15-EET analog (EET-A) and of 20-HETE receptor blocker (AAA) on BP and kidney function in this model. In anesthetized SHR the responses were determined of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), total renal (RBF), and cortical (CBF) and inner-medullary blood flows, glomerular filtration rate and renal excretion, to EET-A, 5 mg/kg, infused i.v. for 1 h to rats untreated or after blockade of endogenous EETs degradation with an inhibitor (-AUCB) of soluble epoxide hydrolase. Also examined were the responses to AAA (10 mg/kg/h), given alone or together with EET-A. EET-A significantly increased RBF and CBF (+30% and 26%, respectively), seen already within first 30 min of infusion. The greatest increases in RBF and CBF (by about 40%) were seen after AAA, similar when given alone or combined with EET-A. MABP decreased after EET-A or AAA but not significantly after the combination thereof. In all groups, RBF, and CBF increases preceded the decrease in MABP. We found that in SHR both EET-A and AAA induced renal vasodilation but, unexpectedly, no additive effect was seen. We suggest that both agents have a definite therapeutic potential and deserve further experimental and clinical testing aimed at introduction of novel antihypertensive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.622882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876274PMC
January 2021

Intramolecular N-Me and N-H aminoetherification for the synthesis of -unprotected 3-amino-O-heterocycles.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 01;19(3):557-560

Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6500 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

A mild Rh-catalyzed method for synthesis of cyclic unprotected N-Me and N-H 2,3-aminoethers using an olefin aziridination-aziridine ring-opening domino reaction has been developed. The method is readily applicable to the stereocontrolled synthesis of a variety of 2,3-disubstituted aminoether O-heterocyclic scaffolds, including tetrahydrofurans, tetrahydropyrans and chromanes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ob02122aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183519PMC
January 2021

20-HETE interferes with insulin signaling and contributes to obesity-driven insulin resistance.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2021 02 1;152:106485. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College School of Medicine, Valhalla, NY, United States. Electronic address:

20-HETE, a metabolite of arachidonic acid produced by Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A/4 F, has been implicated in the development of obesity-associated complications such as diabetes and insulin resistance. In this study, we examined whether the acute elevation of 20-HETE levels contributes to the development of diet-driven hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. We employed a conditional transgenic mouse model to overexpress Cyp4a12 (Cyp4a12tg), a murine 20-HETE synthase, together with high fat diet (HFD) feeding. Mice in which Cyp4a12 was induced by doxycycline (DOX) at the onset of HFD feeding gained weight at a greater rate and extent than corresponding DOX-untreated Cyp4a12 mice. Cyp4a12tg mice fed HFD + DOX displayed hyperglycemia and impaired glucose metabolism while corresponding HFD-fed Cyp4a12tg mice (no DOX) did not. Importantly, administration of a 20-HETE antagonist, 20-SOLA, to Cyp4a12tg mice fed HFD + DOX significantly attenuated weight gain and prevented the development of hyperglycemia and impaired glucose metabolism. Levels of insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation at Tyrosine 972 and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) phosphorylation at serine 307 were markedly decreased and increased, respectively, in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissues from Cyp4a12tg mice fed HFD + DOX; 20-SOLA prevented the IR and IRS1 inactivation, suggesting that 20-HETE interferes with insulin signaling. Additional studies in 3T3-1 differentiated adipocytes confirmed that 20-HETE impairs insulin signaling and that its effect may require activation of its receptor GPR75. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that 20-HETE interferes with insulin function and contributed to diet-driven insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2020.106485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855891PMC
February 2021

A Synthetic Epoxydocosapentaenoic Acid Analogue Ameliorates Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: The Involvement of the Sirtuin 3-NLRP3 Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 24;21(15). Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2026-M Katz Group Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, University of Alberta, 11361-97 Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.

While survival rates have markedly improved following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, the resulting heart damage remains an important issue. Preserving mitochondrial quality and limiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation is an approach to limit IR injury, in which the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) has a role. Recent data demonstrate cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-derived epoxy metabolites, epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs), of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), attenuate cardiac IR injury. EDPs undergo rapid removal and inactivation by enzymatic and non-enzymatic processes. The current study hypothesizes that the cardioprotective effects of the synthetic EDP surrogates AS-27, SA-26 and AA-4 against IR injury involve activation of SIRT3. Isolated hearts from wild type (WT) mice were perfused in the Langendorff mode with vehicle, AS-27, SA-26 or AA-4. Improved postischemic functional recovery, maintained cardiac ATP levels, reduced oxidative stress and attenuation of NLRP3 activation were observed in hearts perfused with the analogue SA-26. Assessment of cardiac mitochondria demonstrated SA-26 preserved SIRT3 activity and reduced acetylation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) suggesting enhanced antioxidant capacity. Together, these data demonstrate that the cardioprotective effects of the EDP analogue SA-26 against IR injury involve preservation of mitochondrial SIRT3 activity, which attenuates a detrimental innate NLRP3 inflammasome response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432620PMC
July 2020

Cu(OTf)-catalyzed Beckmann Rearrangement of Ketones Using Hydroxylaminesulfonic Acid (HOSA).

Synthesis (Stuttg) 2019 Oct;51(19):3709-3714

Department of Chemistry, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Lucknow, India.

The Beckmann Rearrangement (BKR) of ketones to secondary amides often requires harsh reaction conditions that limit its practicality and scope. Herein, we describe the Cu(OTf)-catalyzed BKR of ketones under mild reaction conditions using hydroxylaminesulfonic acid (HOSA), a commercial water soluble aminating agent. This method is compatible with most functional groups and directly provides the desired amides in good to excellent yields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1690005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367085PMC
October 2019

Combined treatment with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid antagonist provides substantial hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

J Hypertens 2020 09;38(9):1802-1810

Department of Renal and Body Fluid Physiology, M. Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: The global morbidity and mortality related to hypertension and associated disorders increases continuously and novel therapeutic strategies are still in high demand. Increasing evidence suggests the important role in blood pressure regulation of cytochrome P-450-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) induce vasodilation and natriuresis, and have renoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. 20-HETE is an arachidonic acid metabolite with both prohypertensive and antihypertensive activities. To explore the pathophysiological role of arachidonic acid metabolites in more detail, we examined the antihypertensive efficiency of EET-A, a stable analog of 14,15-EET, and of AAA, a novel antagonist of the 20-HETE receptors.

Methods: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated for 5 weeks with EET-A, AAA or the combination; age-matched untreated SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats served as controls. EET-A and AAA were administered in drinking water at 10 mg/kg/day each. SBP was measured by telemetry and urine, blood, and tissue samples were collected for relevant analyses.

Results: EET-A or AAA given alone had no significant effect on SHR blood pressure. In contrast, combined treatment with AAA and EET-A was significantly antihypertensive, causing a decrease in SBP from 180 ± 3 to 160 ± 5 mmHg (P < 0.05). Additionally, the combined treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, decreased kidney ANG II level, increased natriuresis, and increased the excretion of nitric oxide metabolites.

Conclusion: Considering the beneficial impact of the combined treatment with EET-A and AAA on SHR blood pressure and cardiovascular and renal function, we suggest that the treatment is a promising therapeutic strategy for human hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002462DOI Listing
September 2020

Picolinate-Directed Arene -C-H Amination via FeCl Catalysis.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 03 4;142(11):5266-5271. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Division of Chemistry, Departments of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, United States.

Direct C-H functionalization of aromatic compounds is a powerful tool for organic synthesis; however, differentiation among the ubiquitous and often chemically similar C-H bonds remains a significant challenge. Conflation with coordinating or directing groups incorporated into the intended substrate has helped address these limitations, although access to remote sites remains limited. Herein, we report an operationally simple and sustainable direct -selective HN amination of benzylic and related aromatic picolinates under conditions mild enough to modify polyfunctional and late-stage molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b13753DOI Listing
March 2020

GPR75 receptor mediates 20-HETE-signaling and metastatic features of androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2020 02 21;1865(2):158573. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinológicas "Dr. Cesar Bergada" (CEDIE) CONICET-FEI-División de Endocrinología, Hospital de Niños "Ricardo Gutierrez", Gallo 1330, C1425EFD Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Purpose: Recent studies have shown that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a key molecule in sustaining androgen-mediated prostate cancer cell survival. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether 20-HETE can affect the metastatic potential of androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells, and the implication of the newly described 20-HETE receptor, GPR75, in mediating these effects.

Methods: The expression of GPR75, protein phosphorylation, actin polymerization and protein distribution were assessed by western blot and/or fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, in vitro assays including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, scratch wound healing, transwell invasion and soft agar colony formation were used to evaluate the effects of 20-HETE agonists/antagonists or GPR75 gene silencing on the aggressive features of PC-3 cells.

Results: 20-HETE (0.1 nM) promoted the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype by increasing EMT, the release of MMP-2, cell migration and invasion, actin stress fiber formation and anchorage-independent growth. Also, 20-HETE augmented the expression of HIC-5, the phosphorylation of EGFR, NF-κB, AKT and p-38 and the intracellular redistribution of p-AKT and PKCα. These effects were impaired by GPR75 antagonism and/or silencing. Accordingly, the inhibition of 20-HETE formation with N-hydroxy-N'-(4-n-butyl-2-methylphenyl) formamidine (HET0016) elicited the opposite effects.

Conclusions: The present results show for the first time the involvement of the 20-HETE-GPR75 receptor in the activation of intracellular signaling known to be stimulated in cell malignant transformations leading to the differentiation of PC-3 cells towards a more aggressive phenotype. Targeting the 20-HETE/GPR75 pathway is a promising and novel approach to interfere with prostate tumor cell malignant progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.158573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957769PMC
February 2020

Development of Robust 17(),18()-Epoxyeicosatetraenoic Acid (17,18-EEQ) Analogues as Potential Clinical Antiarrhythmic Agents.

J Med Chem 2019 11 19;62(22):10124-10143. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Division of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry , University of Texas Southwestern , Dallas , Texas 75390 , United States.

17(),18()-Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (EEQ) is a cytochrome P450 metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and a powerful negative chronotrope with low nanomolar activity in a neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (NRCM) arrhythmia model. Prior studies identified oxamide as a soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) stable replacement but unsuitable for applications due to limited oral bioavailability and metabolic stability. These ADME limitations have been addressed in an improved generation of negative chronotropes, e.g., and , which were evaluated as potential clinical candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00952DOI Listing
November 2019

Eicosanoids derived from cytochrome P450 pathway of arachidonic acid and inflammatory shock.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2019 12 3;145:106377. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Center for Health Sciences, Memphis, TN, USA.

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Septic shock, the most common form of vasodilatory shock, is a subset of sepsis in which circulatory and cellular/metabolic abnormalities are severe enough to increase mortality. Inflammatory shock constitutes the hallmark of sepsis, but also a final common pathway of any form of severe long-term tissue hypoperfusion. The pathogenesis of inflammatory shock seems to be due to circulating substances released by pathogens (e.g., bacterial endotoxins) and host immuno-inflammatory responses (e.g., changes in the production of histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, nitric oxide [NO], reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, and arachidonic acid [AA]-derived eicosanoids mainly through NO synthase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 [CYP] pathways, and proinflammatory cytokine formation). Therefore, refractory hypotension to vasoconstrictors with end-organ hypoperfusion is a life threatening feature of inflammatory shock. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of eicosanoids derived from CYP pathway of AA in animal models of inflammatory shock syndromes with an emphasis on septic shock in addition to potential therapeutic strategies targeting specific CYP isoforms responsible for proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory mediator production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2019.106377DOI Listing
December 2019

19-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid analogs: Antagonism of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-induced vascular sensitization and hypertension.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2019 10 13;29(19):126616. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Division of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

19-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (19-HETE, 1), a metabolically and chemically labile cytochrome P450 eicosanoid, has diverse biological activities including antagonism of the vasoconstrictor 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE, 2). A SAR study was conducted to develop robust analogs of 1 with improved in vitro and in vivo efficacy. Analogs were screened in vitro for inhibition of 20-HETE-induced sensitization of rat renal preglomerular microvessels toward phenylephrine and demonstrated to normalize the blood pressure of male Cyp4a14(-/-) mice that display androgen-driven, 20-HETE-dependent hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2019.08.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745249PMC
October 2019

Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid Analog EET-A Blunts Development of Lupus Nephritis in Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2019 10;10:512. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder that causes life threatening renal disease and current therapies are limited with serious side-effects. CYP epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) demonstrate strong anti-inflammatory and kidney protective actions. We investigated the ability of an orally active EET analog, EET-A to prevent kidney injury in a mouse SLE model. Twenty-weeks old female NZBWF1 (SLE) and age-matched NZW/LacJ (Non SLE) were treated with vehicle or EET-A (10 mg/kg/d, p.o.) for 14 weeks and urine and kidney tissues were collected at the end of the protocol. SLE mice demonstrated marked renal chemotaxis with 30-60% higher renal mRNA expression of CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR) and CXC chemokines (CXCL) compared to Non SLE mice. In SLE mice, the elevated chemotaxis is associated with 5-15-fold increase in cytokine mRNA expression and elevated inflammatory cell infiltration in the kidney. SLE mice also had elevated BUN, serum creatinine, proteinuria, and renal fibrosis. Interestingly, EET-A treatment markedly diminished renal CXCR and CXCL renal mRNA expression in SLE mice. EET-A treatment also reduced renal TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ mRNA expression by 70-80% in SLE mice. Along with reductions in renal chemokine and cytokine mRNA expression, EET-A reduced renal immune cell infiltration, BUN, serum creatinine, proteinuria and renal fibrosis in SLE mice. Overall, we demonstrate that an orally active EET analog, EET-A prevents renal injury in a mouse model of SLE by reducing inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523399PMC
May 2019

A synthetic epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue prevents the initiation of ischemic acute kidney injury.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2019 10 2;227(2):e13297. Epub 2019 Jun 2.

Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Aim: Imbalances in cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent eicosanoid formation may play a central role in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). We reported previously that inhibition of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) action ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced AKI in rats. Now we tested the hypothesis that enhancement of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) actions may counteract the detrimental effects of 20-HETE and prevent the initiation of AKI.

Methods: Male Lewis rats underwent right nephrectomy and ischemia was induced by 45 min clamping of the left renal pedicle followed by up to 48 h of reperfusion. Circulating CYP-eicosanoid profiles were compared in patients who underwent cardiac surgery with (n = 21) and without (n = 38) developing postoperative AKI.

Results: Ischemia induced an about eightfold increase of renal 20-HETE levels, whereas free EETs were not accumulated. To compensate for this imbalance, a synthetic 14,15-EET analogue was administered by intrarenal infusion before ischemia. The EET analogue improved renal reoxygenation as monitored by in vivo parametric MRI during the initial 2 h reperfusion phase. The EET analogue improved PI3K- as well as mTORC2-dependent rephosphorylation of Akt, induced inactivation of GSK-3β, reduced the development of tubular apoptosis and attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration. The EET analogue also significantly alleviated the I/R-induced drop in creatinine clearance. Patients developing postoperative AKI featured increased preoperative 20-HETE and 8,9-EET levels.

Conclusions: Pharmacological interventions targeting the CYP-eicosanoid pathway could offer promising new options for AKI prevention. Individual differences in CYP-eicosanoid formation may contribute to the risk of developing AKI in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apha.13297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6733619PMC
October 2019

Epoxyeicosatrienoic intervention improves NAFLD in leptin receptor deficient mice by an increase in PGC1α-HO-1-PGC1α-mitochondrial signaling.

Exp Cell Res 2019 07 27;380(2):180-187. Epub 2019 Apr 27.

Department of Drug Science, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity and is considered to be an inflammatory disorder characterized by fatty acid accumulation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity. We have previously reported that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid-agonist (EET-A) has multiple beneficial effects on cardiac, renal and adipose tissue function while exhibiting both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. We hypothesized that EET-A intervention would play a central role in attenuation of obesity-induced steatosis and hepatic fibrosis that leads to NAFLD.

Methods: We studied the effect of EET-A on fatty liver using db/db mice as a model of obesity. Mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and administered EET-A twice weekly for the final 8 weeks.

Results: db/db mice fed HFD significantly increased hepatic lipid accumulation as manifested by increases in NAS scores, hepatic fibrosis, insulin resistance, and inflammation, and decreases in mitochondrial mitofusin proteins (Mfn 1/2) and anti-obesity genes Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and Cellular Repressor of E1A-Stimulated Genes 1 (CREG1). EET-A administration reversed the decrease in these genes and reduced liver fibrosis. Knockout of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) in EET-A treated mice resulted in a reversal of the beneficial effects of EET-A administration.

Conclusions: EET-A intervention diminishes fatty acid accumulation, fibrosis, and NFALD associated with an increase in HO-1-PGC1α and increased insulin receptor phosphorylation. A pharmacological strategy involving EETs may offer a potential therapeutic approach in preventing fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the development of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2019.04.029DOI Listing
July 2019

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog EET-B attenuates post-myocardial infarction remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2019 04 29;133(8):939-951. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A.

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their synthetic analogs have cardiovascular protective effects. Here, we investigated the action of a novel EET analog EET-B on the progression of post-myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult male SHR were divided into vehicle- and EET-B (10 mg/kg/day; p.o., 9 weeks)-treated groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, rats were subjected to 30-min left coronary artery occlusion or sham operation. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and echocardiography (ECHO) measurements were performed at the beginning of study, 4 days before, and 7 weeks after MI. At the end of the study, tissue samples were collected for histological and biochemical analyses. We demonstrated that EET-B treatment did not affect blood pressure and cardiac parameters in SHR prior to MI. Fractional shortening (FS) was decreased to 18.4 ± 1.0% in vehicle-treated MI rats compared with corresponding sham (30.6 ± 1.0%) 7 weeks following MI induction. In infarcted SHR hearts, EET-B treatment improved FS (23.7 ± 0.7%), markedly increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) immunopositivity in cardiomyocytes and reduced cardiac inflammation and fibrosis (by 13 and 19%, respectively). In conclusion, these findings suggest that EET analog EET-B has beneficial therapeutic actions to reduce cardiac remodeling in SHR subjected to MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20180728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6492034PMC
April 2019

CYP4A/20-HETE regulates ischemia-induced neovascularization via its actions on endothelial progenitor and preexisting endothelial cells.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2019 06 5;316(6):H1468-H1479. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York.

20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) was recently identified as a novel contributor of ischemia-induced neovascularization based on the key observation that pharmacological interferences of CYP4A/20-HETE decrease ischemic neovascularization. The objective of the present study is to examine whether the underlying cellular mechanisms involve endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and preexisting endothelial cells (ECs). We found that ischemia leads to a time-dependent increase of cyp4a12 expression and 20-HETE production, which are endothelial in origin, using immunofluorescent microscopy, Western blot analysis, and LC-MS/MS. This is accompanied by increases in the tissue stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) expressions as well as SDF-1α plasma levels, EPC mobilization from bone marrow, and subsequent homing to ischemic tissues. Pharmacological interferences of CYP4A/20-HETE with a 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor, dibromo-dodecenyl-methylsulfimide (DDMS), or a 20-HETE antagonist, -(20-hydroxyeicosa-6(), 15()-dienoyl) glycine (6, 15-20-HEDGE), significantly attenuated these increases. Importantly, we also determined that 20-HETE plays a novel role in maintaining EPC functions and increasing the expression of , , and , which are indicative of increased progenitor cell stemness. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that pharmacological interferences of CYP4A/20-HETE decrease the EPC population in culture, whereas 20-HETE increases the cultured EPC population. Furthermore, ischemia also markedly increased the proliferation, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in the preexisting EC in the hindlimb gracilis muscles. We found that these increases were markedly negated by DDMS and 6, 15-20-HEDGE. Taken together, CYP4A/20-HETE regulates ischemia-induced compensatory neovascularization via its combined actions on promoting EPC and local preexisting EC responses that are associated with increased neovascularization. CYP4A/20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) was recently discovered as a novel contributor of ischemia-induced neovascularization. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are completely unknown. Here, we show that CYP4A/20-HETE regulates the ischemic neovascularization process via its combined actions on both endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and preexisting endothelial cells. Moreover, this is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, that associates CYP4A/20-HETE with EPC differentiation and stemness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00690.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6620690PMC
June 2019

Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid-Based Therapy Attenuates the Progression of Postischemic Heart Failure in Normotensive Sprague-Dawley but Not in Hypertensive Transgenic Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2019 1;10:159. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia.

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their analogs have been identified as potent antihypertensive compounds with cardio- and renoprotective actions. Here, we examined the effect of EET-A, an orally active EET analog, and -AUCB, an inhibitor of the EETs degrading enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase, on the progression of post-myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure (HF) in normotensive Hannover Sprague-Dawley (HanSD) and in heterozygous transgenic rats (TGR) with angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. Adult male rats (12 weeks old) were subjected to 60-min left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion or sham (non-MI) operation. Animals were treated with EET-A and -AUCB (10 and 1 mg/kg/day, respectively) in drinking water, given alone or combined for 5 weeks starting 24 h after MI induction. Left ventricle (LV) function and geometry were assessed by echocardiography before MI and during the progression of HF. At the end of the study, LV function was determined by catheterization and tissue samples were collected. Ischemic mortality due to the incidence of sustained ventricular fibrillation was significantly higher in TGR than in HanSD rats (35.4 and 17.7%, respectively). MI-induced HF markedly increased LV end-diastolic pressure (P) and reduced fractional shortening (FS) and the peak rate of pressure development [+(dP/dt)] in untreated HanSD compared to sham (non-MI) group [P: 30.5 ± 3.3 vs. 9.7 ± 1.3 mmHg; FS: 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 40.8 ± 0.5%; +(dP/dt): 3890 ± 291 vs. 5947 ± 309 mmHg/s]. EET-A and -AUCB, given alone, tended to improve LV function parameters in HanSD rats. Their combination amplified the cardioprotective effect of single therapy and reached significant differences compared to untreated HanSD controls [P: 19.4 ± 2.2 mmHg; FS: 14.9 ± 1.0%; +(dP/dt): 5278 ± 255 mmHg/s]. In TGR, MI resulted in the impairment of LV function like HanSD rats. All treatments reduced the increased level of albuminuria in TGR compared to untreated MI group, but neither single nor combined EET-based therapy improved LV function. Our results indicate that EET-based therapy attenuates the progression of post-MI HF in HanSD, but not in TGR, even though they exhibited renoprotective action in TGR hypertensive rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406051PMC
March 2019

Cu(II)-Mediated N-H and N-Alkyl Aryl Amination and Olefin Aziridination.

Org Lett 2019 03 1;21(6):1926-1929. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Division of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry , University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , Dallas , Texas 75390-9038 , United States.

Cu(II)-mediated direct NH and NH alkyl aryl aminations and olefin aziridinations are described. These room-temperature, one-pot, environmentally friendly procedures replace costly Rh catalysts and, in some instances, display important differences with comparable Rh- and Fe-supported reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.9b00586DOI Listing
March 2019

The arachidonic acid monooxygenase: from biochemical curiosity to physiological/pathophysiological significance.

J Lipid Res 2018 11 28;59(11):2047-2062. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Biochemistry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390

The initial studies of the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) by the cytochrome P450 (P450) hemeproteins sought to: ) elucidate the roles for these enzymes in the metabolism of endogenous pools of the FA, ) identify the P450 isoforms involved in AA epoxidation and ω/ω-1 hydroxylation, and ) explore the biological activities of their metabolites. These early investigations provided a foundation for subsequent efforts to establish the physiological relevance of the AA monooxygenase and its contributions to the pathophysiology of, for example, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, nociception, and vascular disease. This retrospective analyzes the history of some of these efforts, with emphasis on genetic studies that identified roles for the murine and genes in renal and vascular physiology and the pathophysiology of hypertension and cancer. Wide-ranging investigations by laboratories worldwide, including the authors, have established a better appreciation of the enzymology, genetics, and physiologic roles for what is now known as the third branch of the AA cascade. Combined with the development of analytical and pharmacological tools, including robust synthetic agonists and antagonists of the major metabolites, we stand at the threshold of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of renal injury, pain, hypertension, and heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.R087882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6210905PMC
November 2018

High-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in CYP4a14 mice is mediated by 20-HETE.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2018 11 8;315(5):R934-R944. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Departments of Pharmacology, New York Medical College School of Medicine, Valhalla, New York.

20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) has been shown to positively correlate with body mass index, hyperglycemia, and plasma insulin levels. This study seeks to identify a causal relationship between 20-HETE and obesity-driven insulin resistance. Cyp4a14 male mice, a model of 20-HETE overproduction, were fed a regular or high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 wk. 20-SOLA [2,5,8,11,14,17-hexaoxanonadecan-19-yl 20-hydroxyeicosa-6( Z),15( Z)-dienoate], a 20-HETE antagonist, was administered from week 0 or week 7 of HFD. HFD-fed mice gained significant weight (16.7 ± 3.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.35 g, P < 0.05) and developed hyperglycemia (157 ± 3 vs. 121 ± 7 mg/dl, P < 0.05) and hyperinsulinemia (2.3 ± 0.4 vs. 0.5 ± 0.1 ng/ml, P < 0.05) compared with regular diet-fed mice. 20-SOLA attenuated HFD-induced weight gain (9.4 ± 1 vs. 16.7 ± 3 g, P < 0.05) and normalized the hyperglycemia (157 ± 7 vs. 102 ± 5 mg/dl, P < 0.05) and hyperinsulinemia (1.1 ± 0.1 vs. 2.3 ± 0.4 ng/ml, P < 0.05). The impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice evidenced by reduced insulin and glucose tolerance were also ameliorated by 20-SOLA. Circulatory and adipose tissue 20-HETE levels significantly increased in HFD-fed mice correlating with impaired insulin signaling, including reduction in insulin receptor tyrosine (Y972) phosphorylation and increased serine (S307) phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). 20-SOLA treatments prevented changes in insulin signaling. These findings indicate that 20-HETE contributes to HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00125.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295494PMC
November 2018

Infarct size-limiting effect of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog EET-B is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α via downregulation of prolyl hydroxylase 3.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2018 11 3;315(5):H1148-H1158. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) decrease cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury; however, the mechanism of their protective effect remains elusive. Here, we investigated the cardioprotective action of a novel EET analog, EET-B, in reperfusion and the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in such action of EET-B. Adult male rats were subjected to 30 min of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Administration of 14,15-EET (2.5 mg/kg) or EET-B (2.5 mg/kg) 5 min before reperfusion reduced infarct size expressed as a percentage of the area at risk from 64.3 ± 1.3% in control to 42.6 ± 1.9% and 46.0 ± 1.6%, respectively, and their coadministration did not provide any stronger effect. The 14,15-EET antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5( Z)-enoic acid (2.5 mg/kg) inhibited the infarct size-limiting effect of EET-B (62.5 ± 1.1%). Similarly, the HIF-1α inhibitors 2-methoxyestradiol (2.5 mg/kg) and acriflavine (2 mg/kg) completely abolished the cardioprotective effect of EET-B. In a separate set of experiments, the immunoreactivity of HIF-1α and its degrading enzyme prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 3 (PHD3) were analyzed in the ischemic areas and nonischemic septa. At the end of ischemia, the HIF-1α immunogenic signal markedly increased in the ischemic area compared with the septum (10.31 ± 0.78% vs. 0.34 ± 0.08%). After 20 min and 2 h of reperfusion, HIF-1α immunoreactivity decreased to 2.40 ± 0.48% and 1.85 ± 0.43%, respectively, in the controls. EET-B blunted the decrease of HIF-1α immunoreactivity (7.80 ± 0.69% and 6.44 ± 1.37%, respectively) and significantly reduced PHD3 immunogenic signal in ischemic tissue after reperfusion. In conclusion, EET-B provides an infarct size-limiting effect at reperfusion that is mediated by HIF-1α and downregulation of its degrading enzyme PHD3. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study shows that EET-B is an effective agonistic 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog, and its administration before reperfusion markedly reduced myocardial infarction in rats. Most importantly, we demonstrate that increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α levels play a role in cardioprotection mediated by EET-B in reperfusion likely by mechanisms including downregulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor -1α-degrading enzyme prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00726.2017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734065PMC
November 2018

20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid antagonist attenuates the development of malignant hypertension and reverses it once established: a study in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats.

Biosci Rep 2018 10 12;38(5). Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Center for Experimental Medicine, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic

We hypothesized that vascular actions of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), the product of cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-dependent ω-hydroxylase, potentiate prohypertensive actions of angiotensin II (ANG II) in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats, a model of ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension. Therefore, we evaluated the antihypertensive effectiveness of 20-HETE receptor antagonist (AAA) in this model. Malignant hypertension was induced in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats by activation of the gene using indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural xenobiotic. Treatment with AAA was started either simultaneously with induction of hypertension or 10 days later, during established hypertension. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored by radiotelemetry, indices of renal and cardiac injury, and kidney ANG II levels were determined. In I3C-induced hypertensive rats, early AAA treatment reduced SBP elevation (to 161 ± 3 compared with 199 ± 3 mmHg in untreated I3C-induced rats), reduced albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis index, and cardiac hypertrophy (<0.05 in all cases). Untreated I3C-induced rats showed augmented kidney ANG II (405 ± 14 compared with 52 ± 3 fmol/g in non-induced rats, <0.05) which was markedly lowered by AAA treatment (72 ± 6 fmol/g). Remarkably, in TGR with established hypertension, AAA also decreased SBP (from 187 ± 4 to 158 ± 4 mmHg, <0.05) and exhibited organoprotective effects in addition to marked suppression of kidney ANG II levels. In conclusion, 20-HETE antagonist attenuated the development and largely reversed the established ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension, likely via suppression of intrarenal ANG II levels. This suggests that intrarenal ANG II activation by 20-HETE is important in the pathophysiology of this hypertension form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20171496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131326PMC
October 2018

The contribution of TRPV1 channel to 20-HETE-Aggravated ischemic neuronal injury.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2018 07 6;137:63-68. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Electronic address:

20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A/4F-derived metabolite of arachidonic acid, directly contributes to ischemic neuronal injury. However, little is known about mediators of 20-HETE neurotoxicity after ischemia. Here, we focus on the role of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in 20-HETE-induced neurotoxicity. Our results showed that TRPV1 and CYP4A immunoreactivity were colocalized in neurons. TRPV1 inhibition attenuated 20-HETE mimetic 20-5,14-HEDGE-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and neuronal injury in cultured neurons and protected ischemic neurons in vitro and in vivo. TRPV1 inhibition in combination with 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor HET0016 did not produce additional protective effects. Furthermore, TRPV1 genetic inhibition and NADPH oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-dat each attenuated ROS production to a similar extent. However, combined treatment did not achieve additional reduction. Therefore, we conclude that TRPV1 channels are involved in 20-HETE's ROS generation and neurotoxicity after ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2018.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6092952PMC
July 2018

The Cytochrome P450 Slow Metabolizers CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 Directly Regulate Tumorigenesis via Reduced Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid Production.

Cancer Res 2018 09 16;78(17):4865-4877. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Increased expression of cytochrome P450 CYP2C9, together with elevated levels of its products epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EET), is associated with aggressiveness in cancer. Cytochrome P450 variants and encode proteins with reduced enzymatic activity, and individuals carrying these variants metabolize drugs more slowly than individuals with wild-type , potentially affecting their response to drugs and altering their risk of disease. Although genetic differences in CYP2C9-dependent oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) have been reported, the roles of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 in EET biosynthesis and their relevance to disease are unknown. Here, we report that CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 metabolize AA less efficiently than CYP2C9*1 and that they play a role in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) via impaired EET biosynthesis. When injected into mice, NSCLC cells expressing CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 produced lower levels of EETs and developed fewer, smaller, and less vascularized tumors than cells expressing CYP2C9*1. Moreover, endothelial cells expressing these two variants proliferated and migrated less than cells expressing CYP2C*1. Purified CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 exhibited attenuated catalytic efficiency in producing EETs, primarily due to impaired reduction of these two variants by NADPH-P450 reductase. Loss-of-function SNPs within and were associated with improved survival in female cases of NSCLC. Thus, decreased EET biosynthesis represents a novel mechanism whereby CYPC29*2 and CYP2C9*3 exert a direct protective role in NSCLC development. These findings report single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human CYP2C9 genes, and , exert a direct protective role in tumorigenesis by impairing EET biosynthesis. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-17-3977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125168PMC
September 2018

GPR40 is a low-affinity epoxyeicosatrienoic acid receptor in vascular cells.

J Biol Chem 2018 07 18;293(27):10675-10691. Epub 2018 May 18.

From the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 and

Endothelium-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have numerous vascular activities mediated by G protein-coupled receptors. Long-chain free fatty acids and EETs activate GPR40, prompting us to investigate the role of GPR40 in some vascular EET activities. 14,15-EET, 11,12-EET, arachidonic acid, and the GPR40 agonist GW9508 increase intracellular calcium concentrations in human GPR40-overexpressing HEK293 cells (EC = 0.58 ± 0.08 μm, 0.91 ± 0.08 μm, 3.9 ± 0.06 μm, and 19 ± 0.37 nm, respectively). EETs with - and -epoxides had similar activities, whereas substitution of a thiirane sulfur for the epoxide oxygen decreased the activities. 8,9-EET, 5,6-EET, and the epoxide hydrolysis products 11,12- and 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids were less active than 11,12-EET. The GPR40 antagonist GW1100 and siRNA-mediated GPR40 silencing blocked the EET- and GW9508-induced calcium increases. EETs are weak GPR120 agonists. GPR40 expression was detected in human and bovine endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells, and arteries. 11,12-EET concentration-dependently relaxed preconstricted coronary arteries; however, these relaxations were not altered by GW1100. In human ECs, 11,12-EET increased MAP kinase (MAPK)-mediated ERK phosphorylation, phosphorylation and levels of connexin-43 (Cx43), and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), all of which were inhibited by GW1100 and the MAPK inhibitor U0126. Moreover, siRNA-mediated GPR40 silencing decreased 11,12-EET-induced ERK phosphorylation. These results indicated that GPR40 is a low-affinity EET receptor in vascular cells and arteries. We conclude that epoxidation of arachidonic acid to EETs enhances GPR40 agonist activity and that 11,12-EET stimulation of GPR40 increases Cx43 and COX-2 expression in ECs via ERK phosphorylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA117.001297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6036206PMC
July 2018

Two pharmacological epoxyeicosatrienoic acid-enhancing therapies are effectively antihypertensive and reduce the severity of ischemic arrhythmias in rats with angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

J Hypertens 2018 06;36(6):1326-1341

Department of Developmental Cardiology, Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objective: We examined the effects of treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHi) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) analogue (EET-A), given alone or combined, on blood pressure (BP) and ischemia/reperfusion myocardial injury in rats with angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension.

Methods: Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR) were used as a model of ANG II-dependent hypertension and Hannover Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls. Rats were treated for 14 days with sEHi or EET-A and BP was measured by radiotelemetry. Albuminuria, cardiac hypertrophy and concentrations of ANG II and EETs were determined. Separate groups were subjected to acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the infarct size and ventricular arrhythmias were determined.

Results: Treatment of TGR with sEHi and EET-A, given alone or combined, decreased BP to a similar degree, reduced albuminuria and cardiac hypertrophy to similar extent; only treatment regimens including sEHi increased myocardial and renal tissue concentrations of EETs. sEHi and EET-A, given alone or combined, suppressed kidney ANG II levels in TGR. Remarkably, infarct size did not significantly differ between TGR and Hannover Sprague-Dawley rats, but the incidence of ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillations was higher in TGR. Application of sEHi and EET-A given alone and combined sEHi and EET-A treatment were all equally effective in reducing life-threatening ventricular fibrillation in TGR.

Conclusion: The findings indicate that chronic treatment with either sEHi or EET-A exerts distinct antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic actions in our ANG II-dependent model of hypertension whereas combined administration of sEHi and EET-A does not provide additive antihypertensive or cardioprotective effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375140PMC
June 2018

20-HETE synthesis inhibition promotes cerebral protection after intracerebral hemorrhage without inhibiting angiogenesis.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2019 08 27;39(8):1531-1543. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

1 Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

20-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite synthesized by cytochrome P450 4A, plays an important role in acute brain damage from ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage. We tested the hypothesis that 20-HETE inhibition has a protective effect after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and then investigated its effect on angiogenesis. We exposed hippocampal slice cultures to hemoglobin and induced ICH in mouse brains by intrastriatal collagenase injection to investigate the protective effect of 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor N-hydroxy-N'-(4--butyl-2-methylphenyl)-formamidine (HET0016). Hemoglobin-induced neuronal death was assessed by propidium iodide after 18 h in vitro. Lesion volume, neurologic deficits, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS), neuroinflammation, and angiogenesis were evaluated at different time points after ICH. In cultured mouse hippocampal slices, HET0016 attenuated hemoglobin-induced neuronal death and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and ROS. In vivo, HET0016 reduced brain lesion volume and neurologic deficits, and decreased neuronal death, ROS production, gelatinolytic activity, and the inflammatory response at three days after ICH. However, HET0016 did not inhibit angiogenesis, as levels of CD31, VEGF, and VEGFR2 were unchanged on day 28. We conclude that 20-HETE is involved in ICH-induced brain damage. Inhibition of 20-HETE synthesis may provide a viable means to mitigate ICH injury without inhibition of angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X18762645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681539PMC
August 2019