Publications by authors named "John Loughlin-Presnal"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A multiple levels of analysis examination of the performance goal model of depression vulnerability in preadolescent children.

Dev Psychopathol 2020 Sep 14:1-21. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

If performance goals (i.e., motivation to prove ability) increase children's vulnerability to depression (Dykman, 1998), why are they overlooked in the psychopathology literature? Evidence has relied on self-report or observational methods and has yet to articulate how this vulnerability unfolds across levels of analysis implicated in stress-depression linkages; for example, hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis (HPA), sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Utilizing a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach (Cicchetti, 2010), this experimental study tested Dykman's goal orientation model of depression vulnerability in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 121, Mage = 10.60 years, Range = 9.08-12.00 years, 51.6% male). Self-reports of performance goals, attachment security, and subjective experience of internalizing difficulties were obtained in addition to objective behavioral (i.e., task persistence) and physiologic arousal (i.e., salivary cortisol, skin conductance level) responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and two randomly assigned coping conditions: avoidance, distraction. Children with performance goals reported greater internalizing difficulties and exhibited more dysregulated TSST physiologic responses (i.e., HPA hyperreactivity, SNS protracted recovery), yet unexpectedly displayed greater TSST task persistence and more efficient physiologic recovery during avoidance relative to distraction. These associations were stronger and nonsignificant in the context of insecure and secure attachment, respectively. Findings illustrate a complex matrix of in-the-moment, integrative psychobiological relationships linking performance goals to depression vulnerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579420000851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956127PMC
September 2020

How a Preschool Parent Intervention Produced Later Benefits: A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis.

J Appl Dev Psychol 2019 Jul-Sep;64. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Pennsylvania State University.

Preschool parent interventions may produce downstream benefits if initial intervention gains are sustained and improve later socialization experiences. This study explored associations between initial effects of the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program and later benefits. A randomized trial involving 200 Head Start children (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, M = 4.45 years) produced kindergarten gains in parenting and child skills. Four years later, sustained effects were evident in areas of academic performance and social-emotional competence at school and new benefits emerged at home. Initial gains in child academic and social-emotional domains mediated sustained gains within the same domains. In addition, initial gains in parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations, and child social-emotional skills mediated later reductions in parenting stress and child problems at home. Parent-focused preschool interventions may not only promote sustained improvements in child school adjustment but may also foster better family functioning over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2019.101058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994180PMC
August 2019

Co-activation of SAM and HPA responses to acute stress: A review of the literature and test of differential associations with preadolescents' internalizing and externalizing.

Dev Psychobiol 2019 11 18;61(7):1079-1093. Epub 2019 May 18.

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Understanding co-activation patterns of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and sympathetic adrenal medullary (SAM) during early adolescence may illuminate risk for development of internalizing and externalizing problems. The present study advances empirical work on the topic by examining SAM-HPA co-activation during both the reactivity and recovery phases of the stress response following acute stress exposure. Fourth and fifth grade boys and girls (N = 149) provided cortisol and alpha-amylase via saliva at seven times throughout a 95-min assessment in which they were administered the modified Trier Social Stress Test. Parents reported on adolescents' life stress, pubertal development, medication use, and externalizing problems. Adolescents reported their own internalizing symptoms. Multiple linear regressions tested both direct and interactive effects of SAM and HPA reactivity and recovery on internalizing and externalizing problems. Results from these analyses showed that whereas SAM and HPA reactivity interacted to predict internalizing symptoms, it was their interaction during the recovery phase that predicted externalizing. Concurrent high SAM and HPA reactivity scores predicted high levels of internalizing and concurrently low SAM and HPA recovery scores predicted high levels of externalizing. Implications of the findings for further study and clinical application are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.21866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823107PMC
November 2019

Promoting parent academic expectations predicts improved school outcomes for low-income children entering kindergarten.

J Sch Psychol 2017 06 13;62:67-80. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

The Pennsylvania State University, United States.

This study explored patterns of change in the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P), designed to help parents support child learning at the transition into kindergarten. Participants were 200 prekindergarten children attending Head Start (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, M=4.45years, SD=0.29) and their primary caregivers, who were randomized to a 16-session home-visiting intervention (REDI-P) or a control group. Extending beyond a prior study documenting intervention effects on parenting behaviors and child kindergarten outcomes, this study assessed the impact of REDI-P on parent academic expectations, and then explored the degree to which intervention gains in three areas of parenting (parent-child interactive reading, parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations) predicted child outcomes in kindergarten (controlling for baseline values and a set of child and family characteristics). Results showed that REDI-P promoted significant gains in parent academic expectations, which in turn mediated intervention gains in child emergent literacy skills and self-directed learning. Results suggest a need to attend to the beliefs parents hold about their child's academic potential, as well as their behavioral support for child learning, when designing interventions to enhance the school success of children in low-income families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2017.03.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5506854PMC
June 2017

How do parent expectations promote child academic achievement in early elementary school? A test of three mediators.

Dev Psychol 2017 09 22;53(9):1694-1708. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University.

Using a longitudinal mediation framework and a low-income sample, this study had 2 aims: (a) to model bidirectional associations between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes from first through fifth grade, and (b) to explore 3 mediators of parental influence: parent involvement in child schooling, child learning behaviors, and child perceived academic competence. Participants included 356 children and their caregivers (89% mothers) recruited from Head Start centers (58% European American, 25% African American, 17% Latino). At each time point (grades 1, 2, 3, 5), parents rated their academic expectations, teachers rated parent involvement and child learning behaviors, and children rated their self-perceptions of their academic competence. Bidirectional longitudinal associations emerged between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes. Child learning behaviors mediated this association from first to third grade, whereas child perceived academic competence mediated from second to fifth grade. Parallel cross-lagged models replicated these findings with child academic outcomes assessed using a test of reading achievement and teacher ratings of academic performance. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5565683PMC
September 2017

Unlocking the Black Box: A Multilevel Analysis of Preadolescent Children's Coping.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2018 Jul-Aug;47(4):527-541. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

c Department of Psychology , University of Denver.

This random assignment experimental study examined the intersection of children's coping and physiologic stress reactivity and recovery patterns in a sample of preadolescent boys and girls. A sample of 82 fourth-grade and fifth-grade (M = 10.59 years old) child-parent dyads participated in the present study. Children participated in the Trier Social Stress Test and were randomly assigned to one of two post-Trier Social Stress Test experimental coping conditions-behavioral distraction or cognitive avoidance. Children's characteristic ways of coping were examined as moderators of the effect of experimental coping condition on cortisol reactivity and recovery patterns. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that children's characteristic coping and experimental coping condition interacted to predict differential cortisol recovery patterns. Children who characteristically engaged in primary control engagement coping strategies were able to more quickly down-regulate salivary cortisol when primed to distract themselves than when primed to avoid, and vice versa. The opposite pattern was true for characteristic disengagement coping in the context of coping condition, suggesting that regulatory fit between children's characteristic ways of coping and cues from their coping environment may lead to more and less adaptive physiologic recovery profiles. This study provides some of the first evidence that coping "gets under the skin" and that children's characteristic ways of coping may constrain or enhance a child's ability to make use of environmental coping resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1141356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6071424PMC
May 2019
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