Publications by authors named "John L Cameron"

265 Publications

Impact of Margin Status on Survival in Patients with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

J Am Coll Surg 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Background: Historically, a positive margin after pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) was associated with decreased survival. In an era when neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is being used frequently, the prognostic significance of margin status is unclear.

Study Design: Patients with localized PDAC who received NAC and underwent pancreatectomy from 2011 to 2018 were identified from a single-institution database. Patients with fewer than 2 months of NAC, R2 resection, or fewer than 90 days of follow-up were excluded. A positive margin included tumors within 1 mm of the surgical margin.

Results: Four hundred and sixty-eight patients met inclusion criteria. Median age was 65 years and 53% were female. Preoperative clinical staging demonstrated that most had locally advanced (n = 222 [47%]) or borderline resectable (n = 172 [37%]) disease. Median follow-up was 18.5 months (interquartile range 10.6 to 30.0 months). Median duration of NAC was 119 days (interquartile range 87 to 168 days). FOLFIRINOX was first-line therapy for 67%, and 73% received neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Most underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (69%). Forty percent were node-positive and 80% had an R0 resection. Fifty-six percent received at least 1 cycle of adjuvant therapy. Median overall survival and recurrence-free survival were 22.0 months (95% CI, 19.4 to 25.1 months) and 11.0 months (95% CI, 10.0 to 12.1 months). On multivariate analysis, margin status was not a significant predictor of overall survival or recurrence-free survival. Factors associated with overall survival included clinical stage, duration of NAC, nodal status, histopathologic treatment response score, and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy.

Conclusions: Microscopic margin positivity is not associated with recurrence and survival in localized PDAC patients resected after treatment with NAC. Aggressive surgical extirpation in high-volume centers should be considered in selected patients after extensive NAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.11.018DOI Listing
December 2020

Vaccine-Induced Intratumoral Lymphoid Aggregates Correlate with Survival Following Treatment with a Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Vaccine in Patients with Resectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Mar 4;27(5):1278-1286. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: Immunotherapy is currently ineffective for nearly all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), largely due to its tumor microenvironment (TME) that lacks antigen-experienced T effector cells (Teff). Vaccine-based immunotherapies are known to activate antigen-specific Teffs in the peripheral blood. To evaluate the effect of vaccine therapy on the PDAC TME, we designed a neoadjuvant and adjuvant clinical trial of an irradiated, GM-CSF-secreting, allogeneic PDAC vaccine (GVAX).

Patients And Methods: Eighty-seven eligible patients with resectable PDAC were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive GVAX alone or in combination with two forms of low-dose cyclophosphamide. Resected tumors following neoadjuvant immunotherapy were assessed for the formation of tertiary lymphoid aggregates (TLA) in response to treatment. The clinical endpoints are disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: The neoadjuvant treatment with GVAX either alone or with two forms of low-dose cyclophosphamide is safe and feasible without adversely increasing the surgical complication rate. Patients in Arm A who received neoadjuvant and adjuvant GVAX alone had a trend toward longer median OS (35.0 months) than that (24.8 months) in the historical controls who received adjuvant GVAX alone. However, Arm C, who received low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in addition to GVAX, had a significantly shorter DFS than Arm A. When comparing patients with OS > 24 months to those with OS < 15 months, longer OS was found to be associated with higher density of intratumoral TLA.

Conclusions: It is safe and feasible to use a neoadjuvant immunotherapy approach for PDACs to evaluate early biologic responses. In-depth analysis of TLAs is warranted in future neoadjuvant immunotherapy clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925374PMC
March 2021

The Impact of Clinical and Pathological Features on Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Recurrence After Surgical Resection: Long-Term Follow-Up Analysis.

Ann Surg 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Surgery, Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery Section of the Division of Surgical Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: This study aimed to identify risk factors for recurrence after pancreatic resection for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN).

Summary Background Data: Long-term follow-up data on recurrence after surgical resection for IPMN are currently lacking. Previous studies have presented mixed results on the role of margin status in risk of recurrence after surgical resection.

Methods: A total of 126 patients that underwent resection for noninvasive IPMN were followed for a median of 9.5 years. Dedicated pathological and radiological reviews were performed to correlate clinical and pathological features (including detailed pathological features of the parenchymal margin) with recurrence after surgical resection. In addition, in a subset of 32 patients with positive margins, we determined the relationship between the margin and original IPMN using driver gene mutations identified by next-generation sequencing.

Results: Family history of pancreatic cancer and high-grade IPMN was identified as risk factors for recurrence in both uni- and multivariate analysis (adjusted hazard ratio 3.05 and 1.88, respectively). Although positive margin was not significantly associated with recurrence in our cohort, the size and grade of the dysplastic focus at the margin were significantly correlated with recurrence in margin-positive patients. Genetic analyses showed that the neoplastic epithelium at the margin was independent from the original IPMN in at least 9 of 32 cases (28%). The majority of recurrences (74%) occurred after 3 years, and a significant minority (32%) occurred after 5 years.

Conclusion: Sustained postoperative surveillance for all patients is indicated, particularly those with risk factors such has family history and high-grade dysplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004427DOI Listing
November 2020

Perioperative Outcomes of Robotic Pancreaticoduodenectomy: a Propensity-Matched Analysis to Open and Laparoscopic Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

J Gastrointest Surg 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Halsted 614, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Introduction: Robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy is slowly gaining acceptance within pancreatic surgery. Advantages have been demonstrated for robotic surgery in other fields, but robust data for pancreaticoduodenectomy is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes of robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy (RPD) to open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD) and laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD).

Methods: Patients who underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy between January 2011 and July 2019 at the Johns Hopkins Hospital were included in this retrospective propensity-matched analysis. The RPD cohort was matched to patients who underwent OPD in a 1:2 fashion and LPD in a 1:1 fashion. Short-term outcomes were analyzed for all three cohorts.

Results: In total, 1644 patients were included, of which 96 (5.8%) underwent RPD, 131 (8.0%) LPD, and 1417 (86.2%) OPD. RPD was associated with a decreased incidence of delayed gastric emptying (9.4%) compared to OPD (23.5%; P = 0.006). The median estimated blood loss was significantly less in the RPD cohort (RPD vs OPD, 150 vs 487 mL; P < 0.001, RPD vs LPD, 125 vs 300 mL; P < 0.001). Compared to OPD, the robotic approach was associated with a shorter median length of stay (median 8 vs 9 days; P = 0.014) and a decrease in wound complications (4.2% vs 16.7%; P = 0.002). The incidence of other postoperative complications was comparable between RPD and OPD, and RPD and LPD.

Conclusion: In the hands of experienced surgeons, RPD may have a modest yet statistically significant reduction in estimated blood loss, postoperative length of stay, wound complications, and delayed gastric emptying comparing to OPD in similar patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-020-04869-zDOI Listing
November 2020

Invasive and Non-Invasive Progression after Resection of Non-Invasive Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms.

Ann Surg 2020 Nov 12. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Departments of Surgery.

Objective: To define frequencies, pattern of progression (invasive versus non-invasive), and risk factors of progression of resected non-invasive IPMNs BACKGROUND:: There is a risk of progression in the remnant pancreas after resection of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs).

Methods: 449 consecutive patients with resected IPMNs from 1995-2018 were included to the study. Patients with invasive carcinoma or with follow-up < 6 months were excluded. Non-invasive progression was defined as a new IPMN, increased main pancreatic duct (MPD) size, and increased size of an existing lesion (5 mm compared to preoperative imaging). Invasive progression was defined as development of invasive cancer in the remnant pancreas or metastatic disease.

Results: With a median follow-up of 48.9 months, progression was identified in 124 patients (27.6%); 108(24.1%) with non-invasive and 16(3.6%) with invasive progression. Median progression follow-up was longer for invasive progression (85.4 vs. 55.9 months; P = 0.001). Five- and 10-year estimates for a cumulative incidence of invasive progression were 6.4% and 12.9% versus 26.9% and 41.5% for non-invasive progression. After risk-adjustment, multifocality (HR 4.53, 95%CI 1.34-15.26; P = 0.02) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in the original resection (HR 3.60, 95%CI 1.13-11.48; P = 0.03) were associated with invasive progression.

Conclusions: Progression to invasive carcinoma can occur years after the surgical resection of a non-invasive IPMN. HGD in the original resection is a risk factor for invasive progression but some cases of low-grade dysplasia also progressed to cancer. Patients with high-risk features such as HGD and multifocal cysts should be considered for more intensive surveillance and represent an important cohort for future trials such as anti-inflammatory or prophylactic immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004488DOI Listing
November 2020

Challenges of the current precision medicine approach for pancreatic cancer: A single institution experience between 2013 and 2017.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jan 28;497:221-228. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

The Pancreatic Cancer "Precision Medicine" Program, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Recent research on genomic profiling of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has identified many potentially actionable alterations. However, the feasibility of using genomic profiling to guide routine clinical decision making for PDAC patients remains unclear. We retrospectively reviewed PDAC patients between October 2013 and December 2017, who underwent treatment at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and had clinical tumor next-generation sequencing (NGS) through commercial resources. Ninety-two patients with 93 tumors tested were included. Forty-eight (52%) patients had potentially curative surgeries. The median time from the tissue available to the NGS testing ordered was 229 days (interquartile range 62-415). A total of three (3%) patients had matched targeted therapies based on genomic profiling results. Genomic profiling guided personalized treatment for PDAC patients is feasible, but the percentage of patients who receive targeted therapy is low. The main challenges are ordering NGS testing early in the clinical course of the disease and the limited evidence of using a targeted approach in these patients. A real-time department level genomic testing ordering system in combination with an evidence-based flagging system for potentially actionable alterations could help address these shortcomings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.10.039DOI Listing
January 2021

Duodenal, ampullary, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Oncologic outcomes are driven by tumor biology and tissue of origin.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Feb 30;123(2):416-424. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

The Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Periampullary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from the duodenum, ampulla, and periampullary pancreas. Duodenal and ampullary NETs are rare and may have distinct biologic behavior from pancreatic NETs (P-NETs). We examined the outcomes of these entities.

Methods: An institutional database was queried for patients undergoing resection for pancreatic head, duodenal, or ampullary NETs from 2000 to 2018. Patients with MEN1 syndrome or follow up less than 12 months were excluded.

Results: Three hundred and ten patients were identified. Tumor locations were ampulla (n = 15), duodenum (n = 35) and pancreas (n = 260). Median follow-up and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were 60.9 (interquartile range [IQR]: 34.8-99.3) and 171.7 (IQR: 84.0-NR) months. Clinicopathologic data and survival outcomes were similar for duodenal and ampullary NETs (RFS: p = .347 and overall survival [OS]: p = .246) and were combined into an intestinal subtype (IS) group. There were no differences in OS or RFS when comparing IS-NET and P-NET. On multivariate analysis, tissue of origin was not associated with risk of recurrence. The current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging guidelines, which account for origin tissue, were predictive of outcomes for all subtypes.

Conclusion: Tissue of origin does not appear to impact long-term outcomes when comparing IS-NETs and P-NETs. The AJCC staging system offers good discriminatory capacity in the context of the tissue type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26285DOI Listing
February 2021

An Aggressive Approach to Locally Confined Pancreatic Cancer: Defining Surgical and Oncologic Outcomes Unique to Pancreatectomy with Celiac Axis Resection (DP-CAR).

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Oct 13. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

The Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Modern chemotherapeutics have led to improved systemic disease control for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Surgical strategies such as distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) are increasingly entertained. Herein we review procedure-specific outcomes and assess biologic rationale for DP-CAR.

Methods: A prospectively maintained single-institution database of all pancreatectomies was queried for patients undergoing DP-CAR. We excluded all patients for whom complete data were not available and those who were not treated with contemporary multi-agent therapy. Data were supplemented with dedicated chart review and outreach for long-term oncologic outcomes.

Results: Fifty-four patients underwent DP-CAR between 2008 and 2018. The median age was 62.7 years. Ninety-eight percent received induction chemotherapy. Arterial reconstruction was performed in 17% and concomitant visceral resection in 30%. The R0 resection rate was 87%. Postoperative complications were common (43%) with chyle leak being the most frequent (17%). Length of stay was 8 days, readmission occurred in one-third, and 90-day mortality was 2%. Disease recurrence occurred in 74% during a median follow up of 17.4 months. Median recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were 9 and 25 months, respectively.

Conclusions: Following modern induction paradigms, DP-CAR can be performed with low mortality, manageable morbidity, and excellent rates of margin-negative resection in high-volume settings. The profile of complications of DP-CAR is distinct from pancreaticoduodenectomy and simple distal pancreatectomy. OS and RFS are similar to those undergoing resection of borderline resectable and resectable disease. Improved systemic disease control will likely lead to increasing utilization of aggressive surgical approaches to LAPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09201-2DOI Listing
October 2020

Periadventitial dissection of the superior mesenteric artery for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: Surgical planning with the "halo sign" and "string sign".

Surgery 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Most patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer are classified as nonoperative candidates based on the contemporary guidelines of resectability. The advent of more potent control of systemic disease using neoadjuvant chemotherapy has enabled more aggressive operative interventions. In our multidisciplinary practice, patients with Stage III, locally advanced pancreatic cancer and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) encasement are now carefully triaged with high quality, preoperative imaging to determine if they can be considered candidates for operative resection with periadventitial dissection of the SMA. Patients displaying a "halo sign," where the encased SMA remains fully patent and free from arterial invasion, are now candidates for SMA periadventitial dissection. This procedure involves the surgical stripping of the infiltrated neurolymphatic tissue off the SMA leaving behind a bare "skeletonized artery." Alternatively, the "string sign" involving the SMA confers a more likely case of arterial invasion, where a complete oncologic resection cannot be achieved successfully. This method of patient selection in case of SMA involvement abandons the traditional metrics of circumferential degrees of the arterial encasement to guide surgical decisions. Our institutional approach has allowed us to meaningfully expand our operative methods of resection with the potential for improved longitudinal outcomes to pancreatic cancer patients who were deprived historically from the more effective and possibly curative treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.08.031DOI Listing
October 2020

Mesoportal bypass, interposition graft, and mesocaval shunt: Surgical strategies to overcome superior mesenteric vein involvement in pancreatic cancer.

Surgery 2020 12 17;168(6):1048-1055. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Background: In pancreatic cancer, extensive tumor involvement of the mesenteric venous system poses formidable challenges to operative resection. Such involvement can result from cavernous collateral veins leading to increased intraoperative blood loss or long-segment vascular defects of not only just the superior mesenteric vein but also even jejunal/ileal branches. Strategies to facilitate margin-free resection and safe vascular reconstruction in pancreatic surgery are important, particularly because systemic control of the tumor is improving with multi-agent chemotherapy regimens.

Methods: We describe a systematic, multidisciplinary assessment for patients with pancreatic cancer that involves the superior mesenteric vein, as well as the preoperative planning of those undergoing operative resection. In addition, detailed descriptions of operative approaches and technical strategies, which evolved with increasing experience at a high-volume center, are presented.

Results: For the preoperative evaluation of tumor-free, vascular locations for potential reconstruction and collateralization, computed tomographic imaging with high-resolution of vascular structures (used with 3-dimensional or cinematic rendering) allows a precise calibration of radiographic data with intraoperative findings. From an operative perspective, we identified 5 potential strategies to consider for resection: collateral preservation, mesoportal bypass (preresection), mesoportal interposition graft (postresection), mesocaval shunt, and various combinations of these strategies. Many of these techniques use interposition grafts, making it essential to assess autologous veins (preferred conduit for reconstruction) or to prepare cryopreserved vascular allografts (an alternative conduit, which must be thawed and should be matched for size and blood type).

Conclusion: Herein we share operative strategies to overcome involvement of the superior mesenteric vein in pancreatic cancer. Improvements in preoperative planning and operative technique can address common barriers to resection with curative intent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.07.054DOI Listing
December 2020

Minimal main pancreatic duct dilatation in small branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms associated with high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma.

HPB (Oxford) 2020 Sep 7. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or invasive carcinoma in patients with small branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs).

Methods: 923 patients who underwent surgical resection for an IPMN were identified. Sendai-negative patients were identified as those without history of pancreatitis or jaundice, main pancreatic duct size (MPD) <5 mm, cyst size <3 cm, no mural nodules, negative cyst fluid cytology for adenocarcinoma, or serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) <37 U/L.

Results: BD-IPMN was identified in 388 (46.4%) patients and 89 (22.9%) were categorized as Sendai-negative. Overall, 68 (17.5%) of BD-IPMN had HGD and 62 (16.0%) had an associated invasive-carcinoma. Among the 89 Sendai-negative patients, 12 (13.5%) had IPMNs with HGD and only one patient (1.1%) had invasive-carcinoma. Of note, older age (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.23; P = 0.008) and minimal dilation of MPD (OR 11.3, 95% CI 2.40-53.65; P = 0.002) were associated with high-risk disease in Sendai-negative patients after multivariable risk adjustment.

Conclusion: The risk of harboring a high-risk disease remains low in small BD-IPMNs. However, Sendai-negative patients who are older than 65 years old and those with minimal dilation of MPD (3-5 mm) are at greater risk of high-risk lesions and should be given consideration to be included as a "worrisome feature" in a future guidelines update.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2020.08.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Defining a minimum number of examined lymph nodes improves the prognostic value of lymphadenectomy in pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma.

HPB (Oxford) 2020 Sep 5. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Lymph node (LN) metastasis is associated with decreased survival following resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In N0 disease, increasing total evaluated LN (ELN) correlates with improved outcomes suggesting patients may be understaged when LNs are undersampled. We aim to assess the optimal number of examined lymph nodes (ELN) following pancreatectomy.

Methods: Data from 1837 patients undergoing surgery were prospectively collected. The binomial probability law was utilized to analyze the minimum number of examined LNs (minELN) and accurately characterize each histopathologic stage. LN ratio (LNR) was compared to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) guidelines.

Results: As ELN total increased, the likelihood of finding node positive disease increased. An evaluation based upon the binomial probability law suggested an optimal minELN of 12 for accurate AJCC N staging. As the number of ELNs increased, the discriminatory capacity of alternative strategies to characterize LN disease exceeded that offered by AJCC N stage.

Conclusion: This is the first study dedicated to optimizing histopathologic staging in PDAC using models of minELN informed by the binomial probability law. This study highlights two separate cutoffs for ELNs depending upon prognostic goal and validates that 12 LNs are adequate to determine AJCC N stage for the majority of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2020.08.016DOI Listing
September 2020

Patient-derived Organoid Pharmacotyping is a Clinically Tractable Strategy for Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer.

Ann Surg 2020 09;272(3):427-435

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objective: PDAC patients who undergo surgical resection and receive effective chemotherapy have the best chance of long-term survival. Unfortunately, we lack predictive biomarkers to guide optimal systemic treatment. Ex-vivo generation of PDO for pharmacotyping may serve as predictive biomarkers in PDAC. The goal of the current study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of a PDO-guided precision medicine framework of care.

Methods: PDO cultures were established from surgical specimens and endoscopic biopsies, expanded in Matrigel, and used for high-throughput drug testing (pharmacotyping). Efficacy of standard-of-care chemotherapeutics was assessed by measuring cell viability after drug exposure.

Results: A framework for rapid pharmacotyping of PDOs was established across a multi-institutional consortium of academic medical centers. Specimens obtained remotely and shipped to a central biorepository maintain viability and allowed generation of PDOs with 77% success. Early cultures maintain the clonal heterogeneity seen in PDAC with similar phenotypes (cystic-solid). Late cultures exhibit a dominant clone with a pharmacotyping profile similar to early passages. The biomass required for accurate pharmacotyping can be minimized by leveraging a high-throughput technology. Twenty-nine cultures were pharmacotyped to derive a population distribution of chemotherapeutic sensitivity at our center. Pharmacotyping rapidly-expanded PDOs was completed in a median of 48 (range 18-102) days.

Conclusions: Rapid development of PDOs from patients undergoing surgery for PDAC is eminently feasible within the perioperative recovery period, enabling the potential for pharmacotyping to guide postoperative adjuvant chemotherapeutic selection. Studies validating PDOs as a promising predictive biomarker are ongoing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901605PMC
September 2020

Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy versus standard distal pancreatosplenectomy for pancreatic cancer, a dual-institutional analysis.

Chin Clin Oncol 2020 Aug 16;9(4):54. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS) has been adopted by some surgeons in the treatment of left-sided pancreatic cancer (PDAC). Low disease incidence and heterogenous disease biology make robust prospective comparison of RAMPS and standard distal pancreatosplenectomy (DPS) difficult.

Methods: Consecutive cases of chemo-naïve patients undergoing open RAMPS and DPS for PDAC between 2010-2017 at two international high-volume pancreatectomy centers were compared. Cox proportional hazard modeling was utilized for multivariate analysis.

Results: We identified 193 DPS and 253 RAMPS during the study period. DPS was associated with higher rates of median estimated blood loss (500 vs. 300 cc, P<0.001), median total harvested lymph nodes (18 vs. 12, P<0.001) and R0 resection (94.3% vs. 88.9%, P=0.013). There were no differences in rates of postoperative pancreatic fistula (16.5% vs. 17.8%, P=1) or postoperative hemorrhage (5.9% vs. 3.6%, P=0.385) (DPS vs. RAMPS). After controlling for significant clinical pathological parameters, RAMPS was associated with non-superior recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.07-1.27, P=0.101) and overall-survival (HR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.71-1.49, P=0.895) compared with DPS. Similar results were observed in node-positive patients.

Conclusions: RAMPS is safe and effective in the treatment of PDAC, but is not associated with an improvement in either RFS or overall-survival over DPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cco-20-6DOI Listing
August 2020

Recurrence in Patients Achieving Pathological Complete Response After Neoadjuvant Treatment for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.

Ann Surg 2019 Nov 25. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Section of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the patterns and treatment of disease recurrence in patients achieving a pathological complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant chemoradiation for advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Summary Of Background Data: A pCR is an independent predictor for improved survival in PDAC. However, disease recurrence is still observed in these patients.

Methods: Patients with advanced PDAC who were treated with neoadjuvant therapy and had a pCR were identified between 2009 and 2017. Overall survival (OS) was determined from the initiation of neoadjuvant, disease-free survival (DFS) from the date of surgery, and post-recurrence survival (PRS) from the date of recurrence. Factors associated with recurrence were analyzed using a Cox-regression model.

Results: Of 331 patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced PDAC, 30 achieved a pCR following neoadjuvant treatment and pancreatectomy. The median DFS for pCR patients was 29 months and OS 76 months. Recurrence was observed in 14 patients. No clinicopathologic or treatment characteristics were associated with survival. The median PRS following recurrence was 25 months. Treatment following recurrence included chemotherapy, radiation or ablation, and surgical resection. Hepatectomy or completion pancreatectomy was accomplished in 2 patients that remain alive 13 and 62 months, respectively, following metastasectomy.

Conclusions: A pCR following neoadjuvant therapy in patients with advanced PDAC is associated with remarkable survival, although recurrence occurs in about half of patients. Nevertheless, patients with pCR and recurrence respond well to treatment and survival remains encouraging. Advanced molecular characterization and longitudinal liquid biopsy may offer additional assistance with understanding tumor biologic behavior after achieving a pCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003570DOI Listing
November 2019

Role of Lymph Node Resection and Histopathological Evaluation in Accurate Staging of Nonfunctional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: How Many Are Enough?

J Gastrointest Surg 2021 Feb 5;25(2):428-435. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Halsted 614, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Background: Nodal involvement has been identified as one of the strongest prognostic factors in patients with nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PanNETs). Sufficient lymphadenectomy and evaluation is vital for accurate staging. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal number of examined lymph nodes (ELN) required for accurate staging.

Methods: The SEER database was used to identify patients with resected NF-PanNETs between 2004 and 2014. The distributions of positive lymph nodes (PLN) ratio and total lymph nodes were used to develop a mathematical model. The sensitivity of detecting nodal disease at each cutoff of ELN was estimated and used to identify the optimal cutoff for ELN.

Results: A total of 1098 patients were included in the study of which 391 patients (35.6%) had nodal disease. The median ELN was 12 (interquartile range [IQR]: 7-19.5), and the median PLN was 2 (IQR: 1-4) for patients with nodal disease. With an increase in ELN, the sensitivity of detecting nodal disease increased from 12.0% (ELN: 1) to 92.2% (ELN: 20), plateauing at 20 ELN (< 1% increase in sensitivity with an additional ELN). This sensitivity increase pattern was similar in subgroup analyses with different T stages.

Conclusions: The sensitivity of detecting nodal disease in patients with NF-PanNETs increases with an increase in the number of ELN. Cutoffs for adequate nodal assessment were defined for all T stages. Utilization of these cutoffs in clinical settings will help with patient prognostication and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-020-04521-wDOI Listing
February 2021

The impact of high body mass index on patients undergoing robotic pancreatectomy: A propensity matched analysis.

Surgery 2020 03 11;167(3):556-559. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; The Pancreatic Cancer Precision Medicine Center of Excellence Program, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with high body mass index are associated with a higher risk of complications after open pancreatectomy. We aimed to investigate the perioperative outcome for patients with high body mass index after robotic pancreatectomy.

Methods: This is a retrospective, propensity-score matched cohort analysis. From our prospectively maintained database, we identified consecutive patients with body mass index >25 who underwent robotic pancreatectomy between January 2016 and December 2018. Propensity score matching with open pancreatectomy was applied in 1:2 fashion based on age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, surgery type, histology, neoadjuvant therapy, and body mass index during the same study period.

Results: A total of 127 patients were included. The mean age for all patients was 61.7 ± 12.8 years and 65 (51.2%) were male. Median body mass index was 29.9 (interquartile range, 27.0-31.8) for both groups. Propensity score matching provided equally distributed general demographic and clinicopathological factors. Robotic pancreatectomy was associated with decreased blood loss (100 mL vs 300 mL, P < .001) and shorter hospital stay (7 vs 9 days, P = .019).

Conclusion: Robotic pancreatectomy is associated with decreased blood loss and shorter length of hospital stay in overweight patients. Robotic approach may help alleviate morbidity in overweight patients undergoing pancreatectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.11.002DOI Listing
March 2020

Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms: Have IAP Consensus Guidelines Changed our Approach?: Results from a Multi-institutional Study.

Ann Surg 2019 Dec 5. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Surgery, Hepatopancreatobiliary Service, Duke, University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

Objective: To evaluate the influence of consensus guidelines on the management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and the subsequent changes in pathologic outcomes.

Background: Over time, multiple guidelines have been developed to identify high-risk IPMN. We hypothesized that the development and implementation of guidelines should have increased the percentage of resected IPMN with high-risk disease.

Methods: Memorial Sloan-Kettering (MSK), Johns Hopkins (JH), and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) databases were queried for resected IPMN (2000-2015). Patients were categorized into main-duct (MD-IPMN) versus branch-duct (BD-IPMN). Guideline-specific radiographic/endoscopic features were recorded. High-risk disease was defined as high-grade dysplasia/carcinoma. Fisher's exact test was used to detect differences between institutions. Logistic regression evaluated differences between time-points [preguidelines (pre-GL, before 2006), Sendai (SCG, 2006-2012), Fukuoka (FCG, after 2012)].

Results: The study included 1210 patients. The percentage of BD-IPMN with ≥1 high-risk radiographic feature differed between centers (MSK 69%, JH 60%, MGH 45%; P < 0.001). In MD-IPMN cohort, the presence of radiographic features such as solid component and main pancreatic duct diameter ≥10 mm also differed (solid component: MSK 38%, JH 30%, MGH 18%; P < 0.001; duct ≥10 mm: MSK 49%, JH 32%, MGH 44%; P < 0.001). The percentage of high-risk disease on pathology, however, was similar between institutions (BD-IPMN: P = 0.36, MD-IPMN: P = 0.48). During the study period, the percentage of BD-IPMN resected with ≥1 high-risk feature increased (52% pre-GL vs 67% FCG; P = 0.005), whereas the percentage of high-risk disease decreased (pre-GL vs FCG: 30% vs 20%). For MD-IPMN, there was not a clear trend towards guideline adherence, and the rate of high-risk disease was similar over the time (pre-GL vs FCG: 69% vs 67%; P = 0.63).

Conclusion: Surgical management of IPMN based on radiographic criteria is variable between institutions, with similar percentages of high-risk disease. Over the 15-year study period, the rate of BD-IPMN resected with high-risk radiographic features increased; however, the rate of high-risk disease decreased. Better predictors are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003703DOI Listing
December 2019

Proposal of the minimal number of retrieved regional lymph nodes for accurate staging of distal bile duct cancer and clinical validation of the three-tier lymph node staging system (AJCC 8th edition).

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2020 Feb 14;27(2):75-83. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Department of Surgery and Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The minimal required number of retrieved lymph nodes (MNRLNs) to enable accurate staging of distal bile duct (DBD) adenocarcinoma remains unclear. The three-tier 8th N staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) for DBD adenocarcinoma has been recently released. The present study is aimed at proposing the MNRLNs for accurate staging and validating the 8th N stage.

Methods: Between 1991 and 2015, patients with pathologically confirmed DBD adenocarcinoma who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy were enrolled. MNRLN was calculated via a log-rank test based on cut-off values. The concordance index (C-index) was utilized to compare the discrimination capability of the two- and three-tier N stages.

Results: A total of 780 patients were enrolled. Lymph node (LN) positivity and 5-year overall survival (5-YOS) rates stabilized and significant survival differences between node-negative and -positive patients were observed when ≥12 LNs were retrieved. 5-YOS rates between each 8th N stage significantly differ (N0 vs. N1, P = 0.037; N1 vs. N2, P = 0.003). The C-index of the 8th N stage was higher than that of the 7th (0.59 vs. 0.57).

Conclusions: For accurate staging, at least 12 LNs should be retrieved. The three-tier N staging system is valid for clinical practice and has a more accurate prognostic predictability than the two-tier system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.690DOI Listing
February 2020

Multi-institutional Development and External Validation of a Nomogram to Predict Recurrence After Curative Resection of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Ann Surg 2019 Sep 24. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Unit of General and Pancreatic Surgery, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Italy.

Objective: To develop a nomogram estimating the probability of recurrence free at 5 years after resection for localized grade 1 (G1)/ grade 2 (G2) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs).

Background: Among patients undergoing resection of PanNETs, approximately 17% experience recurrence. It is not established which patients are at risk, with no consensus on optimal follow-up.

Method: A multi-institutional database of patients with G1/G2 PanNETs treated at 2 institutions was used to develop a nomogram estimating the rate of freedom from recurrence at 5 years after curative resection. A second cohort of patients from 3 additional institutions was used to validate the nomogram. Prognostic factors were assessed by univariate analysis using Cox regression model. The nomogram was internally validated using bootstrap resampling method and on the external cohort. Performance was assessed by concordance index (c-index) and a calibration curve.

Results: The nomogram was constructed using a cohort of 632 patients. Overall, 68% of PanNETs were G1, the median follow-up was 51 months, and we observed 74 recurrences. Variables included in the nomogram were the number of positive nodes, tumor diameter, Ki-67, and vascular/perineural invasion. The model bias-corrected c-index from the internal validation was 0.85, which was higher than European Neuroendocrine Tumors Society/American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th staging scheme (c-index 0.76, P = <0.001). On the external cohort of 328 patients, the nomogram c-index was 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.88).

Conclusion: Our externally validated nomogram predicts the probability of recurrence-free survival at 5 years after PanNETs curative resection, with improved accuracy over current staging systems. Estimating individual recurrence risk will guide the development of personalized surveillance programs after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003579DOI Listing
September 2019

Histomorphology of pancreatic cancer in patients with inherited ATM serine/threonine kinase pathogenic variants.

Mod Pathol 2019 12 8;32(12):1806-1813. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Department of Pathology, the Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Germline pathogenic variants in the ATM serine/threonine kinase (ATM) gene are associated with an increased risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is important to identify germline ATM pathogenic variants in pancreatic cancer patients because these alterations are potentially targetable with chemotherapeutic drugs and/or radiation and have implications for other family members. As germline pathogenic variants in other genes have been associated with distinct histologic subtypes of pancreatic cancer, we studied the histomorphology of pancreatic cancer in 23 patients with germline ATM pathogenic variants. The histologic subtype was ductal adenocarcinoma in 19/23 (83%) of the patients, adenosquamous carcinoma in 1/23 (4%), and colloid (mucinous non-cystic) carcinoma in 3/23 (13%). The percentage of colloid (mucinous non-cystic) carcinomas is higher than we have previously observed in patients with familial and sporadic pancreatic cancer (1 and 2% in prior reports, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). Three carcinomas (2 colloid carcinomas, 1 ductal adenocarcinoma) arose in association with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Among the resected pancreata, non-invasive precursor lesions, including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and incipient intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, were identified in 83%. We conclude that pancreatic cancers in patients with germline ATM pathogenic variants are more frequently of colloid (mucinous non-cystic) morphology but are overall morphologically diverse supporting the utility of universal germline genetic testing for patients with pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-019-0317-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403604PMC
December 2019

Disparities in the Use of Chemotherapy in Patients with Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

J Gastrointest Surg 2020 07 3;24(7):1590-1596. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

The John L. Cameron Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 N. Wolfe St. / Blalock 1222A, Baltimore, MD, 2I287, USA.

Background: Introduction of effective systemic therapies for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has demonstrated survival benefit. However, chemotherapy remains underutilized in these patients. We sought to investigate the implications of disparities on the trends in utilization of chemotherapy.

Methods: A retrospective study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database identified patients who underwent surgical resection for PDAC from 1998 to 2014. Clinicopathologic, demographic, racial, and geographical factors were analyzed to assess associations with receipt of chemotherapy and disease-specific survival.

Results: A total of 15,585 patients were included in the study. A majority (N = 9953, 63.9%) received chemotherapy. Factors associated with poorer odds of receiving chemotherapy included older age (p < 0.001), African-American race (p = 0.003), and living in the Southwest region of the USA (p < 0.001). Married patients were at higher odds of receiving chemotherapy (all p < 0.001). Receipt of chemotherapy was independently associated with improved disease-specific survival (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Receipt of chemotherapy results in an improved survival in patients with resected PDAC. Demographic, racial, and geographic factors influence the rate of receipt of chemotherapy. Despite prior reports, these trends have not changed over the recent decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-019-04311-zDOI Listing
July 2020

Circulating Tumor DNA as a Clinical Test in Resected Pancreatic Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 08 29;25(16):4973-4984. Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: In research settings, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) shows promise as a tumor-specific biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study aims to perform analytical and clinical validation of a ctDNA assay in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and College of American Pathology-certified clinical laboratory.

Experimental Design: Digital-droplet PCR was used to detect the major PDAC-associated somatic mutations (G12D, G12V, G12R, and Q61H) in liquid biopsies. For clinical validation, 290 preoperative and longitudinal postoperative plasma samples were collected from 59 patients with PDAC. The utility of ctDNA status to predict PDAC recurrence during follow-up was assessed.

Results: ctDNA was detected preoperatively in 29 (49%) patients and was an independent predictor of decreased recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Patients who had neoadjuvant chemotherapy were less likely to have preoperative ctDNA than were chemo-naïve patients (21% vs. 69%; < 0.001). ctDNA levels dropped significantly after tumor resection. Persistence of ctDNA in the immediate postoperative period was associated with a high rate of recurrence and poor median RFS (5 months). ctDNA detected during follow-up predicted clinical recurrence [sensitivity 90% (95% confidence interval (CI), 74%-98%), specificity 88% (95% CI, 62%-98%)] with a median lead time of 84 days (interquartile range, 25-146). Detection of ctDNA during postpancreatectomy follow-up was associated with a median OS of 17 months, while median OS was not yet reached at 30 months for patients without ctDNA ( = 0.011).

Conclusions: Measurement of ctDNA in a CLIA laboratory setting can be used to predict recurrence and survival in patients with PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-0197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403524PMC
August 2019

Defining and Predicting Early Recurrence in 957 Patients With Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Ann Surg 2019 06;269(6):1154-1162

Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objectives: To establish an evidence-based cut-off to differentiate between early and late recurrence and to compare clinicopathologic risk factors between the two groups.

Summary Background Data: A clear definition of "early recurrence" after pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma resection is currently lacking.

Methods: Patients undergoing pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2013 were included. Exclusion criteria were neoadjuvant therapy and incomplete follow-up. A minimum P-value approach was used to evaluate the optimal cut-off value of recurrence-free survival to divide the patients into early and late recurrence cohorts based on subsequent prognosis. Potential risk factors for early recurrence were assessed with logistic regression models.

Results: Of 957 included patients, 204 (21.3%) were recurrence-free at last follow-up. The optimal length of recurrence-free survival to distinguish between early (n = 388, 51.5%) and late recurrence (n = 365, 48.5%) was 12 months (P < 0.001). Patients with early recurrence had 1-, and 2-year post-recurrence survival rates of 20 and 6% compared with 45 and 22% for the late recurrence group (both P < 0.001). Preoperative risk factors for early recurrence included a Charlson age-comorbidity index ≥4 (OR 1.65), tumor size > 3.0 cm on computed tomography (OR 1.53) and CA 19-9 > 210 U/mL (OR 2.30). Postoperative risk factors consisted of poor tumor differentiation grade (OR 1.66), microscopic lymphovascular invasion (OR 1.70), a lymph node ratio > 0.2 (OR 2.49), and CA 19-9 > 37 U/mL (OR 3.38). Adjuvant chemotherapy (OR 0.28) and chemoradiotherapy (OR 0.29) were associated with a reduced likelihood of early recurrence.

Conclusion: A recurrence-free interval of 12 months is the optimal threshold for differentiating between early and late recurrence, based on subsequent prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000002734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6191366PMC
June 2019

Prognostic Factors Change Over Time After Hepatectomy for Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Multi-institutional, International Analysis of 1099 Patients.

Ann Surg 2019 06;269(6):1129-1137

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: To evaluate the changing impact of genetic and clinicopathologic factors on conditional overall survival (CS) over time in patients with resectable colorectal liver metastasis.

Background: CS estimates account for the changing likelihood of survival over time and may reveal the changing impact of prognostic factors as time accrues from the date of surgery.

Methods: CS analysis was performed in 1099 patients of an international, multi-institutional cohort. Three-year CS (CS3) estimates at the "xth" year after surgery were calculated as follows: CS3 = CS (x + 3)/CS (x). The standardized difference (d) between CS3 rates was used to estimate the changing prognostic power of selected variables over time. A d < 0.1 indicated very small differences between groups, 0.1 ≤ d < 0.3 indicated small differences, 0.3 ≤ d < 0.5 indicated moderate differences, and d ≥ 0.5 indicated strong differences.

Results: According to OS estimates calculated at the time of surgery, the presence of BRAF and KRAS mutations, R1 margin status, resected extrahepatic disease, patient age, primary tumor lymph node metastasis, tumor number, and carcinoembryonic antigen levels independently predicted worse survival. However, when temporal changes in the prognostic impact of these variables were considered using CS3 estimates, BRAF mutation dominated prognosis during the first year (d = 0.48), whereas surgeon-related variables (ie, surgical margin and resected extrahepatic disease) determined prognosis thereafter (d ≥ 0.5). Traditional clinicopathologic factors affected survival constantly, but only to a moderate degree (0.3 ≤ d < 0.5).

Conclusions: The impact of genetic, surgery-related, and clinicopathologic factors on OS and CS3 changed dramatically over time. Specifically, BRAF mutation status dominated prognosis in the first year, whereas positive surgical margins and resected extrahepatic disease determined prognosis thereafter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000002664DOI Listing
June 2019

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy for Surgical-site Infections: A Randomized Trial.

Ann Surg 2019 06;269(6):1034-1040

The John L. Cameron Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: This study seeks to evaluate the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy for surgical-site infection (SSI) after open pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Background: Despite improvement in infection control, SSIs remain a common cause of morbidity after abdominal surgery. SSI has been associated with an increased risk of reoperation, prolonged hospitalization, readmission, and higher costs. Recent retrospective studies have suggested that the use of negative pressure wound therapy can potentially prevent this complication.

Methods: We conducted a single-center randomized, controlled trial evaluating surgical incision closure during pancreaticoduodenectomy using negative pressure wound therapy in patients at high risk for SSI. We randomly assigned patients to receive negative pressure wound therapy or a standard wound closure. The primary end point of the study was the occurrence of a postoperative SSI. We evaluated the economic impact of the intervention.

Results: From January 2017 through February 2018, we randomized 123 patients at the time of closure of the surgical incision. SSI occurred in 9.7% (6/62) of patients in the negative pressure wound therapy group and in 31.1% (19/61) of patients in the standard closure group (relative risk = 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.73; P = 0.003). This corresponded to a relative risk reduction of 68.8%. SSIs were found to independently increase the cost of hospitalization by 23.8%.

Conclusions: The use of negative pressure wound therapy resulted in a significantly lower risk of SSIs. Incorporating this intervention in surgical practice can help reduce a complication that significantly increases patient harm and healthcare costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003056DOI Listing
June 2019

Surgical Resection of 78 Pancreatic Solid Pseudopapillary Tumors: a 30-Year Single Institutional Experience.

J Gastrointest Surg 2020 04 9;24(4):874-881. Epub 2019 May 9.

The John L. Cameron Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) are rare, benign tumors of the pancreas that present as heterogeneous masses. We sought to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of surgical resected SPTs. Patients managed via initial surveillance were compared to those who underwent upfront resection.

Methods: A prospectively maintained institutional database was used to identify patients who underwent surgical resection for a SPT between 1988 and 2018. Data on clinicopathological features and outcomes were collected and analyzed.

Results: Seventy-eight patients underwent surgical resection for SPT during the study period. The mean age was 34.0 ± 14.6 years and a majority were female (N = 67, 85.9%) and white (N = 46, 58.9%). Thirty patients (37.9%) were diagnosed incidentally. Imaging-based presumed diagnosis was SPT in 49 patients (62.8%). A majority were located in the body or tail of the pancreas (N = 47, 60.3%), and 48 patients (61.5%) underwent a distal pancreatectomy. The median tumor size was 4.0 cm (IQR, 3.0-6.0), nodal disease was present in three patients (3.9%), and R0 resection was performed in all patients. No difference was observed in clinicopathological features and outcomes between patients who were initially managed via surveillance and those who underwent upfront resection. None of the patients under surveillance had nodal disease or metastasis at the time of resection; however, one of them developed recurrence of disease 95.1 months after resection. At a median follow-up of 36.1 months (IQR, 8.1-62.1), 77 (%) patients were alive and one patient (1.3%) had a recurrence of disease at 95.1 months after resection and subsequently died due to disease.

Conclusions: SPTs are rare pancreatic tumors that are diagnosed most frequently in young females. While a majority are benign and have an indolent course, malignant behavior has been observed. Surgical resection can result in exceptional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-019-04252-7DOI Listing
April 2020

Recurrence after neoadjuvant therapy and resection of borderline resectable and locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2019 Sep 11;45(9):1674-1683. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: The incidence, timing, and implications of recurrence in patients who underwent neoadjuvant treatment and surgical resection of borderline resectable (BRPC) or locally advanced (LAPC) pancreatic cancer are not well established.

Materials And Methods: Patients with BRPC/LAPC who underwent post-neoadjuvant resection between 2007 and 2015 were included. Associations between clinicopathologic characteristics and specific recurrence locations, recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival from resection (OS) were assessed using Cox regression analyses.

Results: For 231 included patients, median survival from diagnosis and resection were 28.0 and 19.8 months, respectively. After a median RFS of 7.9 months, 189 (81.8%) patients had recurred. Multiple-site (n = 87, 46.0%) and liver-only recurrence (n = 28, 14.8%) generally occurred earlier and resulted in significantly worse OS when compared to local-only (n = 52, 27.5%) or lung-only recurrence (n = 18, 9.5%). Microscopic perineural invasion, yN1-yN2 status and elevated pre-surgery CA 19-9 >100 U/mL were associated with both local-only and multiple-site/liver-only recurrence. R1-margin was associated with local-only recurrence (HR 2.03). yN1-yN2 status and microscopic perineural invasion were independent predictors for both poor RFS and OS, while yT3-yT4 tumor stage (HR 1.39) and poor tumor differentiation (HR 1.60) were only predictive of poor OS. Adjuvant therapy was independently associated with both prolonged RFS (HR 0.73; median 7.0 vs. 10.9 months) and OS (HR 0.69; median 15.4 vs. 22.7 months).

Conclusion: Despite neoadjuvant therapy leading to resection and relatively favorable pathologic tumor characteristics in BRPC/LAPC patients, more than 80% of patients experienced disease recurrence, 72.5% of which occurred at distant sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2019.04.007DOI Listing
September 2019

Pancreatic Nerve Sheath Tumors: a Single Institutional Series and Systematic Review of the Literature.

J Gastrointest Surg 2020 04 2;24(4):841-848. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Departments of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: Improvement in imaging has resulted in frequent diagnosis of benign and premalignant pancreatic tumors. Pancreatic nerve sheath (PNS) tumors are one of the rarest pancreatic tumors. Literature on PNS is limited and their biology is poorly understood. Here, we report the largest series of PNS tumors to date and review the literature to evaluate the current data available on PNS tumors.

Methods: An institutional database was used to identify patients who underwent resection for PNS tumors. Clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of these patients were reported. Furthermore, a review of literature was performed.

Results: From January 1994 through December 2016, seven patients underwent resection for PNS tumors. The median age was 57.7 years (IQR, 44.9-61.9) and the sex was approximately equally distributed (male = 4; 57.1%). Three (42.9%) patients were diagnosed incidentally and six (85.7%) were misdiagnosed as having other pancreatic tumors. The median tumor size was 2.1 (IQR 1.8-3.0) cm and six (85.7%) had no nodal disease. At a median follow-up of 15.5 (IQR 13.7-49.3) months, six patients were alive without evidence of disease and one patient was lost to follow-up. The literature review identified 49 studies reporting 54 patients with PNS tumors. Forty-six were misdiagnosed as having other pancreatic tumors. The median tumor size was 3.6 (range 1-20) cm, nodal disease was present in six patients (22.2%), and no patient had distant metastatic disease. At the time of last follow-up, all patients were free of disease.

Conclusion: This is the largest single institution series on PNS tumors reported to date. These tumors are rare and are often misdiagnosed, given their radiological characteristics. PNS tumors have a benign course of disease and surgical resection results in favorable long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-019-04201-4DOI Listing
April 2020

Benchmarks in Pancreatic Surgery: A Novel Tool for Unbiased Outcome Comparisons.

Ann Surg 2019 08;270(2):211-218

Department of Surgery and Transplantation, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objective: To use the concept of benchmarking to establish robust and standardized outcome references after pancreatico-duodenectomy (PD).

Background: Best achievable results after PD are unknown. Consequently, outcome comparisons among different cohorts, centers or with novel surgical techniques remain speculative.

Methods: This multicenter study analyzes consecutive patients (2012-2015) undergoing PD in 23 international expert centers in pancreas surgery. Outcomes in patients without significant comorbidities and major vascular resection (benchmark cases) were analyzed to establish 20 outcome benchmarks for PD. These benchmarks were tested in a cohort with a poorer preoperative physical status (ASA class ≥3) and a cohort treated by minimally invasive approaches.

Results: Two thousand three hundred seventy-five (38%) low-risk cases out of a total of 6186 PDs were analyzed, disclosing low in-hospital mortality (≤1.6%) but high morbidity, with a 73% benchmark morbidity rate cumulated within 6 months following surgery. Benchmark cutoffs for pancreatic fistulas (B-C), severe complications (≥ grade 3), and failure-to-rescue rate were 19%, 30%, and 9%, respectively. The ASA ≥3 cohort showed comparable morbidity but a higher in hospital-mortality (3% vs 1.6%) and failure-to-rescue rate (16% vs 9%) than the benchmarks. The proportion of benchmark cases performed varied greatly across centers and continents for both open (9%-93%) and minimally invasive (11%-62%) PD. Centers operating mostly on complex PD cases disclosed better results than those with a majority of low-risk cases.

Conclusion: The proposed outcome benchmarks for PD, established in a large-scale international patient cohort and tested in 2 different cohorts, may allow for meaningful comparisons between different patient cohorts, centers, countries, and surgical techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003223DOI Listing
August 2019