Publications by authors named "John J V McMurray"

814 Publications

Assessment of Omecamtiv Mecarbil for the Treatment of Patients With Severe Heart Failure: A Post Hoc Analysis of Data From the GALACTIC-HF Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Division of Cardiology, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California.

Importance: Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a progressive clinical syndrome, and many patients' condition worsen over time despite treatment. Patients with more severe disease are often intolerant of available medical therapies.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of omecamtiv mecarbil for the treatment of patients with severe heart failure (HF) enrolled in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac Outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure (GALACTIC-HF) randomized clinical trial.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The GALACTIC-HF study was a global double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 randomized clinical trial that was conducted at multiple centers between January 2017 and August 2020. A total of 8232 patients with symptomatic HF (defined as New York Heart Association symptom class II-IV) and left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less were randomized to receive omecamtiv mecarbil or placebo and followed up for a median of 21.8 months (range, 15.4-28.6 months). The current post hoc analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of omecamtiv mecarbil therapy among patients classified as having severe HF compared with patients without severe HF. Severe HF was defined as the presence of all of the following criteria: New York Heart Association symptom class III to IV, left ventricular ejection fraction of 30% or less, and hospitalization for HF within the previous 6 months.

Interventions: Participants were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive either omecamtiv mecarbil or placebo.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was time to first HF event or cardiovascular (CV) death. Secondary end points included time to CV death and safety and tolerability.

Results: Among 8232 patients enrolled in the GALACTIC-HF clinical trial, 2258 patients (27.4%; mean [SD] age, 64.5 [11.6] years; 1781 men [78.9%]) met the specified criteria for severe HF. Of those, 1106 patients were randomized to the omecamtiv mecarbil group and 1152 to the placebo group. Patients with severe HF who received omecamtiv mecarbil experienced a significant treatment benefit for the primary end point (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71-0.90), whereas patients without severe HF had no significant treatment benefit (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.91-1.08; P = .005 for interaction). For CV death, the results were similar (HR for patients with vs without severe HF: 0.88 [95% CI, 0.75-1.03] vs 1.10 [95% CI, 0.97-1.25]; P = .03 for interaction). Omecamtiv mecarbil therapy was well tolerated in patients with severe HF, with no significant changes in blood pressure, kidney function, or potassium level compared with placebo.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this post hoc analysis of data from the GALACTIC-HF clinical trial, omecamtiv mecarbil therapy may have provided a clinically meaningful reduction in the composite end point of time to first HF event or CV death among patients with severe HF. These data support a potential role of omecamtiv mecarbil therapy among patients for whom current treatment options are limited.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02929329.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.4027DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of dapagliflozin on the rate of decline in kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes: a prespecified analysis from the DAPA-CKD trial.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Study Design and Biostatistics Center, University of Utah Health Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes in the DAPA-CKD trial. In this pre-specified analysis, we assessed the effect of dapagliflozin on the rate of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-ie, the eGFR slope.

Methods: DAPA-CKD was a randomised controlled trial that enrolled participants aged 18 years or older, with or without type 2 diabetes, with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 200-5000 mg/g, and an eGFR of 25-75 mL/min per 1·73m. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to oral dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or placebo, added to standard care. In this pre-specified analysis, we analysed eGFR slope using mixed-effect models with different slopes from baseline to week 2 (acute eGFR decline), week 2 to end of treatment (chronic eGFR slope), and baseline to end of treatment (total eGFR slope). DAPA-CKD is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03036150, and is now complete.

Findings: Between Feb 2, 2017, and April 3, 2020, 4304 participants were recruited, of whom 2152 (50%) were assigned to dapagliflozin and 2152 (50%) were assigned to placebo. At baseline, the mean age was 62 years (SD 12), 1425 (33·1%) participants were women, 2906 (67·5%) participants had type 2 diabetes. The median on-treatment follow-up was 2·3 years (IQR 1·8-2·6). From baseline to the end of treatment, dapagliflozin compared with placebo slowed eGFR decline by 0·95 mL/min per 1·73 m per year (95% CI 0·63 to 1·27) in the overall cohort. Between baseline and week 2, dapagliflozin compared with placebo resulted in an acute eGFR decline of 2·61 mL/min per 1·73 m (2·16 to 3·06) in patients with type 2 diabetes and 2·01 mL/min per 1·73 m (1·36 to 2·66) in those without type 2 diabetes. Between week 2 and end of treatment, dapagliflozin compared with placebo reduced the mean rate of eGFR decline by a greater amount in patients with type 2 diabetes (mean difference in chronic eGFR slope 2·26 mL/min per 1·73 m per year [1·88 to 2·64]) than in those without type 2 diabetes (1·29 mL/min per 1·73 m per year [0·73 to 1·85]; p=0·0049). Between baseline and end of treatment, the effect of dapagliflozin compared with placebo on the decline of total eGFR slope in patients with type 2 diabetes was 1·18 mL/min per 1·73 m per year (0·79 to 1·56) and without type 2 diabetes was 0·46 mL/min per 1·73 m per year (-0·10 to 1·03; p=0·040). The total eGFR slope was steeper in patients with higher baseline HbA and UACR; the effect of dapagliflozin on eGFR slope was also more pronounced in patients with higher baseline HbA and UACR.

Interpretation: Dapagliflozin significantly slowed long-term eGFR decline in patients with chronic kidney disease compared with placebo. The mean difference in eGFR slope between patients treated with dapagliflozin versus placebo was greater in patients with type 2 diabetes, higher HbA, and higher UACR.

Funding: AstraZeneca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00242-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of dapagliflozin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes: a prespecified analysis from the DAPA-CKD trial.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Reductions in albuminuria are associated with a subsequent lower risk of kidney failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. The SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin significantly reduced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and normal or near-normal kidney function. Whether this effect persists in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes is unknown. We assessed the effects of dapagliflozin on albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes in the dapagliflozin and prevention of adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease (DAPA-CKD) trial.

Methods: DAPA-CKD was a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial done at 386 sites in 21 countries. Patients were eligible for the trial if they had chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 25 mL/min per 1·73 m and 75 mL/min per 1·73 m and a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) between 200 mg/g and 5000 mg/g (22·6 to 565·6 mg/mmol). Participants were randomly assigned to dapagliflozin 10 mg (AstraZeneca; Gothenburg, Sweden) once daily or matching placebo, in accordance with the sequestered, fixed randomisation schedule, using balanced blocks to ensure an approximate 1:1 ratio. Change in albuminuria was a pre-specified exploratory outcome of DAPA-CKD. Regression in UACR stage, defined as a transition from macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/g) to microalbuminuria or normoalbuminuria (<300 mg/g), and progression in UACR stage, defined as a transition from less than 3000 mg/g to 3000 mg/g or greater, were additional discrete endpoints. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03036150.

Findings: Between Feb 2, 2017, and April 3, 2020, 4304 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to either dapagliflozin (n=2152) or placebo (n=2152). Median UACR was 949 mg/g (IQR 477 to 1885). Overall, compared with placebo, dapagliflozin reduced geometric mean UACR by 29·3% (95% CI -33·1 to -25·2; p<0·0001); relative to placebo, treatment with dapagliflozin resulted in a geometric mean percentage change of -35·1% (95% CI -39·4 to -30·6; p<0·0001) in patients with type 2 diabetes and -14·8% (-22·9 to -5·9; p=0·0016) in patients without type 2 diabetes over the follow-up visits (p<0·0001) Among 3860 patients with UACR of 300 mg/g or greater at baseline, dapagliflozin increased the likelihood of regression in UACR stage (hazard ratio 1·81, 95% CI 1·60 to 2·05). Among 3820 patients with UACR less than 3000 mg/g at baseline, dapagliflozin decreased the risk of progression in UACR stage (0·41, 0·32 to 0·52). Larger reductions in UACR at day 14 during dapagliflozin treatment were significantly associated with attenuated eGFR decline during subsequent follow-up (β per log unit UACR change -3·06, 95% CI -5·20 to -0·90; p=0·0056).

Interpretation: In patients with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes, dapagliflozin significantly reduced albuminuria, with a larger relative reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. The similar effects of dapagliflozin on clinical outcomes in patients with or without type 2 diabetes, but different effects on UACR, suggest that part of the protective effect of dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease might be mediated through pathways unrelated to reduction in albuminuria.

Funding: AstraZeneca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00243-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Growth differentiation factor 15 predicts poor prognosis in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction and anemia: results from RED-HF.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Nydalen, P. B. 4950, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Aims: We aimed to assess the value of GDF-15, a stress-responsive cytokine, in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and anemia METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum GDF-15 was assessed in 1582 HFrEF and mild-to-moderate anemia patients who where followed for 28 months in the Reduction of Events by Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure (RED-HF) trial, an overall neutral RCT evaluating the effect darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and mild-to-moderate anemia. Association between baseline and change in GDF-15 during 6 months follow-up and the primary composite outcome of all-cause death or HF hospitalization were evaluated in multivariable Cox-models adjusted for conventional clinical and biochemical risk factors. The adjusted risk for the primary outcome increased with (i) successive tertiles of baseline GDF-15 (tertile 3 HR 1.56 [1.23-1.98] p < 0.001) as well as with (ii) a 15% increase in GDF-15 levels over 6 months of follow-up (HR 1.68 [1.38-2.06] p < 0.001). Addition of change in GDF-15 to the fully adjusted model improved the C-statistics (p < 0.001). No interaction between treatment and baseline or change in GDF-15 on outcome was observed. GDF-15 was inversely associated with several indices of anemia and correlated positively with ferritin.

Conclusions: In patients with HF and anemia, both higher baseline serum GDF-15 levels and an increase in GDF-15 during follow-up, were associated with worse clinical outcomes. GDF-15 did not identify subgroups of patients who might benefit from correction of anemia but was associated with several indices of anemia and iron status in the HF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01944-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Valsartan in early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a randomized phase 2 trial.

Nat Med 2021 Oct 23;27(10):1818-1824. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by pathogenic variants in sarcomeric genes and characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and increased risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. There are no existing therapies to modify disease progression. In this study, we conducted a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan in attenuating disease evolution in early HCM. In total, 178 participants with early-stage sarcomeric HCM were randomized (1:1) to receive valsartan (320 mg daily in adults; 80-160 mg daily in children) or placebo for 2 years ( NCT01912534 ). Standardized changes from baseline to year 2 in LV wall thickness, mass and volumes; left atrial volume; tissue Doppler diastolic and systolic velocities; and serum levels of high-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic protein were integrated into a single composite z-score as the primary outcome. Valsartan (n = 88) improved cardiac structure and function compared to placebo (n = 90), as reflected by an increase in the composite z-score (between-group difference +0.231, 95% confidence interval (+0.098, +0.364); P = 0.001), which met the primary endpoint of the study. Treatment was well-tolerated. These results indicate a key opportunity to attenuate disease progression in early-stage sarcomeric HCM with an accessible and safe medication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01505-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in EMPHASIS-HF and RALES.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) individually cause significant morbidity and mortality. Their coexistence is associated with even worse outcomes, partly due to suboptimal heart failure therapy, especially underutilisation of beta-blockers. Our aim was to investigate outcomes in HFrEF patients with and without COPD, and the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) on outcomes.

Methods And Results: We studied the effect of MRA therapy in a post-hoc pooled analysis of 4397 HFrEF patients in the RALES and EMPHASIS-HF trials. The primary endpoint was the composite of heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death. A total of 625 (14.2%) of the 4397 patients had COPD. Patients with COPD were older, more often male, and smokers, but less frequently treated with a beta-blocker. In patients with COPD, event rates (per 100 person-years) for the primary endpoint and for all-cause mortality were 25.2 (95% confidence interval 22.1-28.7) and 17.2 (14.9-19.9), respectively, compared with 19.9 (18.8-21.1) and 12.8 (12.0-13.7) in participants without COPD. The risks of all-cause hospitalisation and sudden death were also higher in patients with COPD. The benefit of MRA, compared with placebo, was consistent in patients with or without COPD for all outcomes, e.g. hazard ratio for the primary outcome 0.66 (0.50-0.85) for COPD and 0.65 (0.58-0.73) for no COPD (interaction p = 0.93). MRA-induced hyperkalaemia was less frequent in patients with COPD.

Conclusions: In RALES and EMPHASIS-HF, one-in-seven patients with HFrEF had coexisting COPD. HFrEF patients with COPD had worse outcomes than those without. The benefits of MRAs were consistent, regardless of COPD status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2350DOI Listing
September 2021

Potential Implications of Expanded US Food and Drug Administration Labeling for Sacubitril/Valsartan in the US.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expanded labeling for sacubitril/valsartan for use in individuals with chronic heart failure (HF) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) lower than normal. The population-level implications of implementation of sacubitril/valsartan at higher LVEF ranges is unknown. While the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in HF With Preserved Ejection Fraction (PARAGON-HF) trial did not meet its primary end point, the trial may provide useful information in projecting expected clinical events among treated individuals.

Objective: To quantify newly eligible treatment candidates for sacubitril/valsartan under the expanded FDA labeling and to apply treatment effects and the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 worsening HF event derived from subgroups of the PARAGON-HF trial who fall under the revised FDA label.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Newly eligible treatment candidates were estimated by mapping the LVEF distribution from 559 520 adult patients hospitalized between 2014 and 2019 in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry to adults self-identifying with HF in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015 to 2018). The NNT with 3 years of treatment for 3 end points of interest (total HF hospitalizations, total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, and total HF hospitalizations and urgent HF visits and cardiovascular death) were estimated from the PARAGON-HF trial. Data were analyzed from February to June 2021.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Number of worsening HF events prevented or postponed if eligible patients were treated with sacubitril/valsartan for 3 years.

Results: Of an estimated 4 682 098 adults, the mean (SE) age was 66.3 (0.8) years, 1 995 037 (42.6%) were women, and 748 045 (16.0%) were Black. The potential number of adults projected to be newly eligible varied by the definition of FDA labeling of lower than normal LVEF from 643 161 (95% CI, 534 433-751 888; LVEF of 41% to 50%) to 1 838 756 (95% CI, 1 527 911-2 149 601; LVEF of 41% to 60%). In the PARAGON-HF trial, the NNT to prevent a worsening HF event (range, 7 to 12 patients) was consistent irrespective of specific LVEF range selected. Comprehensive implementation of sacubitril/valsartan among newly eligible patients was empirically estimated to prevent up to 69 268 (95% CI, 57 558-80 978) worsening HF events (LVEF of 41% to 50%) to 182 592 (95% CI, 151 725-213 460) worsening HF events (LVEF of 41% to 60%).

Conclusions And Relevance: The expanded FDA labeling is positioned to substantially increase the potential HF population eligible for sacubitril/valsartan by up to 1.8 million individuals and has the potential to prevent or postpone as many as 180 000 worsening HF events, depending on the definition of normal LVEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.3651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444065PMC
September 2021

The genomics of heart failure: design and rationale of the HERMES consortium.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: The HERMES (HEart failure Molecular Epidemiology for Therapeutic targetS) consortium aims to identify the genomic and molecular basis of heart failure.

Methods And Results: The consortium currently includes 51 studies from 11 countries, including 68 157 heart failure cases and 949 888 controls, with data on heart failure events and prognosis. All studies collected biological samples and performed genome-wide genotyping of common genetic variants. The enrolment of subjects into participating studies ranged from 1948 to the present day, and the median follow-up following heart failure diagnosis ranged from 2 to 116 months. Forty-nine of 51 individual studies enrolled participants of both sexes; in these studies, participants with heart failure were predominantly male (34-90%). The mean age at diagnosis or ascertainment across all studies ranged from 54 to 84 years. Based on the aggregate sample, we estimated 80% power to genetic variant associations with risk of heart failure with an odds ratio of ≥1.10 for common variants (allele frequency ≥ 0.05) and ≥1.20 for low-frequency variants (allele frequency 0.01-0.05) at P < 5 × 10 under an additive genetic model.

Conclusions: HERMES is a global collaboration aiming to (i) identify the genetic determinants of heart failure; (ii) generate insights into the causal pathways leading to heart failure and enable genetic approaches to target prioritization; and (iii) develop genomic tools for disease stratification and risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13517DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of dapagliflozin on ventricular arrhythmias, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or sudden death in DAPA-HF.

Eur Heart J 2021 Sep;42(36):3727-3738

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dapagliflozin on the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods And Results: In a post hoc analysis of DAPA-HF, we examined serious adverse event reports related to ventricular arrhythmias or cardiac arrest, in addition to adjudicated sudden death. The effect of dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, on the composite of the first occurrence of any serious ventricular arrhythmia, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or sudden death was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. A serious ventricular arrhythmia was reported in 115 (2.4%) of the 4744 patients in DAPA-HF (ventricular fibrillation in 15 patients, ventricular tachycardia in 86, 'other' ventricular arrhythmia/tachyarrhythmia in 12, and torsade de pointes in 2 patients). A total of 206 (41%) of the 500 cardiovascular deaths occurred suddenly. Eight patients survived resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Independent predictors of the composite outcome (first occurrence of any serious ventricular arrhythmia, resuscitated cardiac arrest or sudden death), ranked by chi-square value, were log-transformed N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, history of ventricular arrhythmia, left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure, history of myocardial infarction, male sex, body mass index, serum sodium concentration, non-white race, treatment with dapagliflozin, and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Of participants assigned to dapagliflozin, 140/2373 patients (5.9%) experienced the composite outcome compared with 175/2371 patients (7.4%) in the placebo group [hazard ratio 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.63-0.99), P = 0.037], and the effect was consistent across each of the components of the composite outcome.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of any serious ventricular arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, or sudden death when added to conventional therapy in patients with HFrEF.

Clinical Trial Registration:  ClinicalTrials.gov unique identifier: NCT03036124 (DAPA-HF).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455345PMC
September 2021

Effects of Dapagliflozin in Patients With Kidney Disease, With and Without Heart Failure.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia; Department Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Objectives: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of dapagliflozin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, with and without heart failure (HF).

Background: Patients with CKD, with and without type 2 diabetes, were enrolled in the DAPA-CKD (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease) trial. Some patients had HF at baseline.

Methods: A total of 4,304 participants were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo. The primary composite endpoint was ≥50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, or kidney/cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints were a kidney composite (primary endpoint minus cardiovascular death), the composite of cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization, and all-cause death. Analysis of outcomes according to HF history was prespecified.

Results: HF patients (n = 468; 11%) were older and had more coronary disease, atrial fibrillation, and type 2 diabetes. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was similar in patients with and without HF. Rates of HF hospitalization/cardiovascular death and death from any cause were higher in HF patients, but the secondary kidney failure outcome occurred at the same rate in people with and without HF. Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary outcome equally in patients with HF (HR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.37-0.91]) and without HF (HR: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.51-0.75]) (P interaction = 0.59). The proportional risk-reductions were similar in patients with and without HF for the cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization composite (HR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.44-1.05] vs HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.51-0.97], respectively; P interaction = 0.90), and all-cause death (HR: 0.56 [95% CI: 0.34-0.93] vs HR: 0.73 [95% CI: 0.54-0.97], respectively; P interaction = 0.39), although absolute risk reductions were larger in HF patients. Adverse event rates were low and did not differ among patients with or without HF.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization and prolonged survival in CKD patients with or without type 2 diabetes, independently of history of HF. (A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Renal Outcomes and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease [DAPA-CKD]; NCT03036150).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.06.017DOI Listing
August 2021

Cardiovascular, mortality, and kidney outcomes with GLP-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 10 20;9(10):653-662. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: GLP-1 receptor agonists reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, uncertainty regarding kidney outcomes persists and whether benefits extend to exendin-4-based GLP-1 receptor remains uncertain. We aimed to meta-analyse the most up-to-date evidence on the cardiovascular benefits and risks of GLP-1 receptor agonists from outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: We did a meta-analysis, including new data from AMPLITUDE-O, using a random effects model to estimate overall hazard ratio (HR) for MACE; its components; all-cause mortality; hospital admission for heart failure; a composite kidney outcome consisting of development of macroalbuminuria, doubling of serum creatinine, or at least 40% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), kidney replacement therapy, or death due to kidney disease; worsening of kidney function, based on eGFR change; and odds ratios for key safety outcomes (severe hypoglycaemia, retinopathy, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer). We also examined MACE outcome in patient subgroups on the basis of MACE incidence rates in the placebo group, presence or absence of cardiovascular disease, HbA level, trial duration, treatment dosing interval, structural homology to human GLP-1 or exendin-4, BMI, age, and eGFR. We searched PubMed for eligible trials reporting MACE (ie, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke), up to June 9, 2021. We meta-analysed data from published randomised placebo-controlled trials testing either injectable or oral GLP-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes. We restricted the search to trials of more than 500 patients with a primary outcome that included cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO, CRD42021259711.

Findings: Of 98 articles screened, eight trials comprising 60 080 patients fulfilled the prespecified criteria and were included. Overall, GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced MACE by 14% (HR 0·86 [95% CI 0·80-0·93]; p<0·0001), with no significant heterogeneity across GLP-1 receptor agonist structural homology or eight other examined subgroups (all p≥0·14). GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced all-cause mortality by 12% (HR 0·88 [95% CI 0·82-0·94]; p=0·0001), hospital admission for heart failure by 11% (HR 0·89 [95% CI 0·82-0·98]; p=0·013), and the composite kidney outcome by 21% (HR 0·79 [95% CI 0·73-0·87]; p<0·0001), with no increase in risk of severe hypoglycaemia, retinopathy, or pancreatic adverse effects. In sensitivity analyses removing the only trial restricted to patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ELIXA), all benefits marginally increased, including the outcome of worsening of kidney function, based on eGFR change (HR 0·82 [95% CI 0·69-0·98]; p=0·030).

Interpretation: GLP-1 receptor agonists, regardless of structural homology, reduced the risk of individual MACE components, all-cause mortality, hospital admission for heart failure, and worsening kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00203-5DOI Listing
October 2021

Sacubitril-valsartan as a treatment for apparent resistant hypertension in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

Eur Heart J 2021 Sep;42(36):3741-3752

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Aims: Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) frequently have difficult-to-control hypertension. We examined the effect of neprilysin inhibition on 'apparent resistant hypertension' in patients with HFpEF in the PARAGON-HF trial, which compared the effect of sacubitril-valsartan with valsartan.

Methods And Results: In this post hoc analysis, patients were categorized according to systolic blood pressure at the end of the valsartan run-in (n = 4795). 'Apparent resistant hypertension' was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (≥135 mmHg if diabetes) despite treatment with valsartan, a calcium channel blocker, and a diuretic. 'Apparent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA)-resistant' hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (≥135 mmHg if diabetes) despite the above treatments and an MRA. The primary outcome in the PARAGON-HF trial was a composite of total hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes. We examined clinical endpoints and the safety of sacubitril-valsartan according to the hypertension category. We also examined reductions in blood pressure from the end of valsartan run-in to Weeks 4 and 16 after randomization. Overall, 731 patients (15.2%) had apparent resistant hypertension and 135 (2.8%) had apparent MRA-resistant hypertension. The rate of the primary outcome was higher in patients with apparent resistant hypertension [17.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 15.6-19.1 per 100 person-years] compared to those with a controlled systolic blood pressure (13.4; 12.7-14.3 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted rate ratio of 1.28 (95% CI 1.05-1.57). The reduction in systolic blood pressure at Weeks 4 and 16, respectively, was greater with sacubitril-valsartan vs. valsartan in patients with apparent resistant hypertension [-4.8 (-7.0 to -2.5) and 3.9 (-6.6 to -1.3) mmHg] and apparent MRA-resistant hypertension [-8.8 (-14.0 to -3.5) and -6.3 (-12.5 to -0.1) mmHg]. The proportion of patients with apparent resistant hypertension achieving a controlled systolic blood pressure by Week 16 was 47.9% in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 34.3% in the valsartan group [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.78, 95% CI 1.30-2.43]. In patients with apparent MRA-resistant hypertension, the respective proportions were 43.6% vs. 28.4% (adjusted OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.18-5.89).

Conclusion: Sacubitril-valsartan may be useful in treating apparent resistant hypertension in patients with HFpEF, even in those who continue to have an elevated blood pressure despite treatment with at least four antihypertensive drug classes, including an MRA.

Clinical Trial Registration: PARAGON-HF: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01920711.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455346PMC
September 2021

Initiation of domiciliary care and nursing home admission following first hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cancer.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(8):e0255364. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Patients with chronic diseases are at higher risk of requiring domiciliary and nursing home care, but how different chronic diseases compare in terms of risk is not known. We examined initiation of domiciliary care and nursing home admission among patients with heart failure (HF), stroke, COPD and cancer.

Methods: Patients with a first-time hospitalization for HF, stroke, COPD or cancer from 2008-2016 were identified. Patients were matched on age and sex and followed for five years.

Results: 111,144 patients, 27,786 with each disease, were identified. The median age was 69 years and two thirds of the patients were men. The 5-year risk of receiving domiciliary care was; HF 20.9%, stroke 25.2%, COPD 24.6% and cancer 19.3%. The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios (HRs), with HF patients used as reference, were: stroke 1.35[1.30-1.40]; COPD 1.29[1.25-1.34]; and cancer 1.19[1.14-1.23]. The five-year incidence of nursing home admission was 6.6% for stroke, and substantially lower in patients with HF(2.6%), COPD(2.6%) and cancer (1.5%). The adjusted HRs were (HF reference): stroke, 2.44 [2.23-2.68]; COPD 1.01 [0.91-1.13] and cancer 0.76 [0.67-0.86]. Living alone, older age, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, depression and dementia predicted a higher likelihood of both types of care.

Conclusions: In patients with HF, stroke, COPD or cancer 5-year risk of domiciliary care and nursing home admission, ranged from 19-25% and 1-7%, respectively. Patients with stroke had the highest rate of domiciliary care and were more than twice as likely to be admitted to a nursing home, compared to patients with the other conditions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255364PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336831PMC
August 2021

Extrapolating Long-term Event-Free and Overall Survival With Dapagliflozin in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Exploratory Analysis of a Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Importance: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Clinicians may find estimates of the projected long-term benefits of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors a helpful addition to clinical trial results when communicating the benefits of this class of drug to patients.

Objective: To estimate the projected long-term treatment effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF over the duration of a patient's lifetime.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Exploratory analysis was performed of Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF), a phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% in New York Heart Association functional classification II to IV and elevated plasma levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019. Mean (SD) duration of follow-up was 17.6 (5.2) months.

Interventions: Dapagliflozin, 10 mg, once daily vs placebo in addition to standard therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary composite outcome was time to first hospitalization for heart failure, urgent heart failure visit requiring intravenous therapy, or cardiovascular death. The trial results were extrapolated to estimate the projected long-term treatment effects of dapagliflozin over the duration of a patient's lifetime for the primary outcome and the secondary outcome of death from any cause.

Results: A total of 4744 patients (1109 women [23.4%]; 3635 men [76.6%]) were randomized in DAPA-HF, with a mean (SD) age of 66.3 (10.9) years. The extrapolated mean event-free survival for an individual aged 65 years from a primary composite end point event was 6.2 years for placebo and 8.3 years for dapagliflozin, representing an event-free survival time gain of 2.1 years (95% CI, 0.8-3.3 years; P = .002). When considering death from any cause, mean extrapolated life expectancy for an individual aged 65 years was 9.1 years for placebo and 10.8 years for dapagliflozin, with a gain in survival of 1.7 years (95% CI, 0.1-3.3; P = .03) with dapagliflozin. Similar results were seen when extrapolated across the age range studied. In analyses of subgroups of patients in DAPA-HF, consistent benefits were seen with dapagliflozin on both event-free and overall survival.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings indicate that dapagliflozin provides clinically meaningful gains in extrapolated event-free and overall survival. These findings may be helpful in communicating the benefits of this treatment to patients with HFrEF.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.2632DOI Listing
July 2021

Response by Lee et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Effect of Empagliflozin on Left Ventricular Volumes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, or Prediabetes, and Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (SUGAR-DM-HF)".

Circulation 2021 Jul 19;144(3):e40. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (M.M.Y.L., J.J.V.M., P.S.J., M.C.P., N.S.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055067DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficacy of dapagliflozin in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction according to body mass index.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there is an 'obesity paradox', where survival is better in patients with a higher body mass index (BMI) and weight loss is associated with worse outcomes. We examined the effect of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor according to baseline BMI in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF).

Methods And Results: Body mass index was examined using standard categories, i.e. underweight (<18.5 kg/m ); normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m ); overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m ); obesity class I (30.0-34.9 kg/m ); obesity class II (35.0-39.9 kg/m ); and obesity class III (≥40 kg/m ). The primary outcome in DAPA-HF was the composite of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. Overall, 1348 patients (28.4%) were under/normal-weight, 1722 (36.3%) overweight, 1013 (21.4%) obesity class I and 659 (13.9%) obesity class II/III. The unadjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the primary outcome with obesity class 1, the lowest risk group, as reference was: under/normal-weight 1.41 (1.16-1.71), overweight 1.18 (0.97-1.42), obesity class II/III 1.37 (1.10-1.72). Patients with class I obesity were also at lowest risk of death. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome and other outcomes did not vary by baseline BMI, e.g. hazard ratio for primary outcome: under/normal-weight 0.74 (0.58-0.94), overweight 0.81 (0.65-1.02), obesity class I 0.68 (0.50-0.92), obesity class II/III 0.71 (0.51-1.00) (P-value for interaction = 0.79). The mean decrease in weight at 8 months with dapagliflozin was 0.9 (0.7-1.1) kg (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: We confirmed an 'obesity survival paradox' in HFrEF. We showed that dapagliflozin was beneficial across the wide range of BMI studied.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2308DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of Dapagliflozin in Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Sep 16;32(9):2352-2361. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Background: In the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease (DAPA-CKD) randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin significantly reduced risk of kidney failure and prolonged survival in patients with CKD with or without type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Adults with eGFR of 25-75 ml/min per 1.73 m and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 200-5000 mg/g had been randomized to receive dapagliflozin 10 mg/d or placebo. Here, we conducted a prespecified analysis of dapagliflozin's effects in patients with stage 4 CKD (eGFR,30 ml/min per 1.73 m) at baseline. The primary end point was a composite of time to ≥50% sustained decline in eGFR, ESKD, or kidney or cardiovascular death. Secondary end points were a kidney composite (same as the primary end point but without cardiovascular death), a composite of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause death.

Results: A total of 293 participants with stage 4 CKD received dapagliflozin and 331 received placebo. Patients with stage 4 CKD randomized to dapagliflozin experienced a 27% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -2 to 47%) reduction in the primary composite endpoint, and 29% (-2 to 51%), 17% (-53 to 55%), and 32% (-21 to 61%) reductions in the kidney, cardiovascular and mortality endpoints, respectively, relative to placebo. Interaction P-values were 0.22, 0.13, 0.63, and 0.95, respectively, comparing CKD stages 4 versus 2/3. The eGFR slope declined by 2.15 and 3.38 ml/min per 1.73 m per year in the dapagliflozin and placebo groups, respectively (=0.005). Patients treated with dapagliflozin or placebo had similar rates of serious adverse events and adverse events of interest.

Conclusions: Among patients with stage 4 CKD and albuminuria, the effects of dapagliflozin were consistent with those observed in the DAPA-CKD trial overall, with no evidence of increased risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2021020167DOI Listing
September 2021

Integrating High-Sensitivity Troponin T and Sacubitril/Valsartan Treatment in HFpEF: The PARAGON-HF Trial.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 7;9(9):627-635. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study examined the relationship among high-sensitivity troponin-T (hs-TnT), outcomes, and treatment with sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

Background: hs-TnT is a marker of myocardial injury in HF.

Methods: The PARAGON-HF trial randomized 4,796 patients with HFpEF to sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. We compared the risk of the composite outcome of cardiovascular death (CVD) and total HF hospitalization (HHF) according to hs-TnT. We also assessed the effect of allocated treatment on hs-TnT.

Results: hs-TnT was available in 1,141 patients (24%) at run-in (median value: 17 ng/L) and 1,260 (26%) at randomization, with 58.3% having hs-TnT >14 ng/L (upper limit of normal). During a median follow-up of 34 months, there were 393 outcome events (82 CVD, 311 HHF). Adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), log-hs-TnT at randomization was an independent predictor of the composite outcome (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.19-1.59; P < 0.001). Compared with valsartan, sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced hs-TnT by 9% at week 16 (P < 0.001). Patients whose hs-TnT decreased from randomization to 16 weeks to at or below the median value of 17 ng/L subsequently had a lower risk of CVD/HHF compared with those with persistently elevated hs-TnT (P = 0.046). Patients with higher baseline hs-TnT (>17 ng/L) appeared to have a greater benefit from sacubitril/valsartan treatment when accounting for other potential effect modifiers (P interaction = 0.07).

Conclusions: Higher baseline hs-TnT was associated with increased risk of CVD/HHF, whereas hs-TnT decrease at 16 weeks led to lower subsequent risk of CVD/HHF compared with those who had persistently elevated values. Sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced hs-TnT compared with valsartan. hs-TnT may be helpful in identifying patients with HFpEF who are more likely to benefit from sacubitril/valsartan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.04.009DOI Listing
September 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin by Baseline Glycemic Status: A Prespecified Analysis From the DAPA-CKD Trial.

Diabetes Care 2021 08 28;44(8):1894-1897. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Renal Medicine, University College London, London, U.K.

Objective: The Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease (DAPA-CKD) study demonstrated risk reduction for kidney and cardiovascular outcomes with dapagliflozin versus placebo in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with and without diabetes. We compared outcomes according to baseline glycemic status.

Research Design And Methods: We enrolled participants with CKD, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73 m, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio 200-5,000 mg/g. The primary composite end point was sustained eGFR decline ≥50%, end-stage kidney disease, or kidney or cardiovascular death.

Results: Of 4,304 participants, 738 had normoglycemia, 660 had prediabetes, and 2,906 had type 2 diabetes. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent ( for interaction = 0.19) in normoglycemia (hazard ratio [HR] 0.62 [95% CI 0.39, 1.01]), prediabetes (HR 0.37 [0.21, 0.66]), and type 2 diabetes (HR 0.64 [0.52, 0.79]). We found no evidence for effect modification on any outcome. Adverse events were similar, with no major hypoglycemia or ketoacidosis in participants with normoglycemia or prediabetes.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin safely reduced kidney and cardiovascular events independent of baseline glycemic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc21-0300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385469PMC
August 2021

Increased Risk of Incident Heart Failure and Death Is Associated With Insulin Resistance in People With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: UKPDS 89.

Diabetes Care 2021 08 23;44(8):1877-1884. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Diabetes Trials Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.

Objective: Insulin resistance (IR) may mediate heart failure (HF) development. We examined whether IR in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) increased their risk of a composite outcome of HF or death or of HF alone.

Research Design And Methods: Insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) values for UKPDS participants were derived from paired fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulin measures. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariable survival models were used to evaluate associations between HOMA2-IR and HF/death or HF alone. We adjusted for potential confounders by including variables with univariate associations ( < 0.1) and by requiring a multivariable < 0.05.

Results: Of 5,102 UKPDS participants with newly diagnosed T2D, 4,344 had HOMA2-IR measurements. At enrollment, mean (SD) age was 52.5 (8.7) years, with HbA 7.2% (1.8%), and BMI 28.8 (5.5) kg/m, and median (interquartile range) HOMA2-IR was 1.6 (1.1-2.2). HF/death occurred in 1,974 (45.4%) participants (235 first HF events, 1,739 deaths) over a median follow-up of 16.4 years. Multivariable independent associations with HF/death were older age and higher BMI, HOMA2-IR, FPG, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and heart rate as well as sex, race, smoking status, prior atrial fibrillation, and prior microalbuminuria. A doubling of HOMA2-IR was associated with a 5% greater risk of HF/death (relative risk [RR] 1.05 [95% CI 1.01-1.12], = 0.0029) and a 14% greater risk of HF (RR 1.14, [95% CI 1.02-1.27], = 0.017).

Conclusions: Patients with newly diagnosed T2D and insulin resistance were more likely to develop HF or die than those more sensitive to insulin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc21-0429DOI Listing
August 2021

Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease and Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction in Patients With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Oct;6(10):1130-1143

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Importance: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) may contribute to the pathophysiologic characteristics of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, the prevalence of CAD and CMD have not been systematically studied.

Objective: To examine the prevalence of CAD and CMD in hospitalized patients with HFpEF.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 106 consecutive patients hospitalized with HFpEF were evaluated in this prospective, multicenter, cohort study conducted between January 2, 2017, and August 1, 2018; data analysis was performed from March 4 to September 6, 2019. Participants underwent coronary angiography with guidewire-based assessment of coronary flow reserve, index of microvascular resistance, and fractional flow reserve, followed by coronary vasoreactivity testing. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed with late gadolinium enhancement and assessment of extracellular volume. Myocardial perfusion was assessed qualitatively and semiquantitatively using the myocardial-perfusion reserve index.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The prevalence of obstructive epicardial CAD, CMD, and myocardial ischemia, infarction, and fibrosis.

Results: Of 106 participants enrolled (53 [50%] women; mean [SD] age, 72 [9] years), 75 had coronary angiography, 62 had assessment of coronary microvascular function, 41 underwent coronary vasoreactivity testing, and 52 received cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Obstructive epicardial CAD was present in 38 of 75 participants (51%, 95% CI, 39%-62%); 19 of 38 (50%; 95% CI, 34%-66%) had no history of CAD. Endothelium-independent CMD (ie, coronary flow reserve <2.0 and/or index of microvascular resistance ≥25) was identified in 41 of 62 participants (66%; 95% CI, 53%-77%). Endothelium-dependent CMD (ie, abnormal coronary vasoreactivity) was identified in 10 of 41 participants (24%; 95% CI, 13%-40%). Overall, 45 of 53 participants (85%; 95% CI, 72%-92%) had evidence of CMD and 29 of 36 (81%; 95% CI, 64%-91%) of those without obstructive epicardial CAD had CMD. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings included myocardial-perfusion reserve index less than or equal to 1.84 (ie, impaired global myocardial perfusion) in 29 of 41 patients (71%; 95% CI, 54%-83%), visual perfusion defect in 14 of 46 patients (30%; 95% CI, 19%-46%), ischemic late gadolinium enhancement (ie, myocardial infarction) in 14 of 52 patients (27%; 95% CI, 16%-41%), and extracellular volume greater than 30% (ie, diffuse myocardial fibrosis) in 20 of 48 patients (42%; 95% CI, 28%-56%). Patients with obstructive CAD had more adverse events during follow-up (28 [74%]) than those without obstructive CAD (17 [46%]).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, 91% of patients with HFpEF had evidence of epicardial CAD, CMD, or both. Of those without obstructive CAD, 81% had CMD. Obstructive epicardial CAD and CMD appear to be common and often unrecognized in hospitalized patients with HFpEF and may be therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.1825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223134PMC
October 2021

Treatment Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan Compared With Valsartan by Ejection Fraction in Patients With Recent Hospitalization.

J Card Fail 2021 Sep 13;27(9):1027-1030. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.05.020DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of Insulin Treatment on the Effect of Eplerenone: Insights From the EMPHASIS-HF Trial.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e008075. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Université de Lorraine, Inserm, Centre d'Investigations Cliniques, - Plurithématique 14-33, and Inserm U1116, CHRU, F-CRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Nancy, France (J.P.F., Z.L., P.R., F.Z.).

Background: Patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and insulin-treated diabetes have a high risk of cardiovascular complications. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may mitigate this risk. We aim to explore the effect of eplerenone on cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in HFrEF patients with diabetes, including those treated with insulin in the EMPHASIS-HF trial (Eplerenone in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure and Mild Symptoms).

Methods: The primary outcome was the composite of heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death. Cox models with treatment-by-diabetes subgroup interaction terms were used.

Results: The median follow-up was 21 (10-33) months. Of the 2737 patients included, 623 (23%) had non-insulin-treated diabetes, 236 (9%) had insulin-treated diabetes and 1878 did not have diabetes. Patients with insulin-treated diabetes were younger, more often women, with higher body mass index, waist circumference, more frequent ischemic heart failure cause, impaired kidney function, and longer diabetes duration. Compared with patients without diabetes, those with insulin-treated diabetes had a 2-fold higher risk of having a primary outcome event. The hazard ratio (95% CI) for the effect of eplerenone, compared with placebo, on the primary outcome was 0.31 (0.19-0.50) in insulin-treated diabetes, 0.69 (0.50-0.93) in non-insulin-treated diabetes, and 0.72 (0.58-0.88) in patients without diabetes; interaction =0.007. The annualized number needed-to-treat-to-benefit with regards to the primary outcome was 3 (95% CI, 3-4) in patients with insulin-treated diabetes, 16 (13-19) in patients with diabetes not receiving insulin, and 26 (24-28) in patients without diabetes.

Conclusions: Patients with insulin-treated diabetes experienced a greater benefit from eplerenone than those with diabetes not treated with insulin and people without diabetes. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00232180.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.008075DOI Listing
June 2021

Heart Failure Hospitalization in Adults Receiving Hemodialysis and the Effect of Intravenous Iron Therapy.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Jul 9;9(7):518-527. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Renal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: This study sought to examine the effect of intravenous iron on heart failure events in hemodialysis patients.

Background: Heart failure is a common and deadly complication in patients receiving hemodialysis and is difficult to diagnose and treat.

Methods: The study analyzed heart failure events in the PIVOTAL (Proactive IV Iron Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients) trial, which compared intravenous iron administered proactively in a high-dose regimen with a low-dose regimen administered reactively. Heart failure hospitalization was an adjudicated outcome, a component of the primary composite outcome, and a prespecified secondary endpoint in the trial.

Results: Overall, 2,141 participants were followed for a median of 2.1 years. A first fatal or nonfatal heart failure event occurred in 51 (4.7%) of 1,093 patients in the high-dose iron group and in 70 (6.7%) of 1,048 patients in the low-dose group (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94; P = 0.023). There was a total of 63 heart failure events (including first and recurrent events) in the high-dose iron group and 98 in the low-dose group, giving a rate ratio of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40-0.87; P = 0.0084). Most patients presented with pulmonary edema and were mainly treated by mechanical removal of fluid. History of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of a heart failure event.

Conclusions: Compared with a lower-dose regimen, high-dose intravenous iron decreased the occurrence of first and recurrent heart failure events in patients undergoing hemodialysis, with large relative and absolute risk reductions. (UK Multicentre Open-label Randomised Controlled Trial Of IV Iron Therapy In Incident Haemodialysis Patients; 2013-002267-25).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.04.005DOI Listing
July 2021

Influence of study discontinuation during the run-in period on the estimated efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan in the PARAGON-HF trial.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Aims: The 4822 patients randomized in the PARAGON-HF trial were a subset of 5746 initially eligible patients who entered sequential run-in periods. We identified patient factors associated with study discontinuation during the run-in period and estimated the implications of these discontinuations for the overall study result.

Methods And Results: We utilized multivariable logistic regression models to identify patient factors associated with study discontinuation during the run-in period. The efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan in a broader cohort approximating the full run-in population was estimated by weighting randomized patients according to the inverse probability of run-in completion. A total of 924 (16.1%) subjects failed to complete the run-in period. In multivariable models, non-completion was associated with region other than Central Europe, lower systolic blood pressure, lower serum sodium, lower haemoglobin, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, higher New York Heart Association functional class, prior heart failure (HF) hospitalization, and lack of prior use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or beta-blocker. In repeat analysis of the effect of randomized treatment in PARAGON-HF giving greater weight to participants resembling those who failed to complete the run-in period, the incidence of HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death was higher, and sacubitril/valsartan treatment reduced the composite of total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death compared with valsartan (rate ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.74-1.00).

Conclusion: Patients with more advanced HF were at higher risk for non-completion of the run-in period in PARAGON-HF. Re-analysis of study outcomes accounting for the effect of run-in non-completion did not alter the estimated treatment effects of sacubitril/valsartan vs. valsartan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2262DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril on changes in heart failure therapies over time: the PARADIGM-HF trial.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Sep 21;23(9):1518-1524. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Aims: Sacubitril/valsartan improves morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Whether initiation of sacubitril/valsartan limits the use and dosing of other elements of guideline-directed medical therapy for HFrEF is unknown. We examined the effects of sacubitril/valsartan, compared with enalapril, on β-blocker and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) use and dosing in a large randomized clinical trial.

Methods And Results: Patients with full data on medication use were included. We examined β-blocker and MRA use in patients randomized to sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril through 12-month follow-up. New initiations and discontinuations of β-blocker and MRA were compared between treatment groups. Overall, 8398 (99.9%) had full medication and dose data at baseline. Baseline use of β-blocker and MRA at any dose was 87% and 56%, respectively. Mean doses of β-blocker and MRA were similar between treatment groups at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. New initiations through 12-month follow-up were infrequent and similar in the sacubitril/valsartan and enalapril groups for β-blockers [37 (9.0%) vs. 42 (10.2%), P = 0.56] and MRA [127 (7.6%) vs. 143 (9.2%), P = 0.10]. Among patients on MRA therapy at baseline, there were fewer MRA discontinuations in patients on sacubitril/valsartan as compared with enalapril at 12 months [125 (6.2%) vs. 187 (9.0%), P = 0.001]. Discontinuations of β-blockers were not significantly different between groups in follow-up (2.2% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.26).

Conclusions: Initiation of sacubitril/valsartan, even when titrated to target dose, did not appear to lead to greater discontinuation or dose down-titration of other key guideline-directed medical therapies, and was associated with fewer discontinuations of MRA. Use of sacubitril/valsartan (when compared with enalapril) may promote sustained MRA use in follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2259DOI Listing
September 2021

Development and external validation of prognostic models to predict sudden and pump-failure death in patients with HFrEF from PARADIGM-HF and ATMOSPHERE.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Aug 8;110(8):1334-1349. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.

Background: Sudden death (SD) and pump failure death (PFD) are the two leading causes of death in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Objective: Identifying patients at higher risk for mode-specific death would allow better targeting of individual patients for relevant device and other therapies.

Methods: We developed models in 7156 patients with HFrEF from the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, using Fine-Gray regressions counting other deaths as competing risks. The derived models were externally validated in the Aliskiren Trial to Minimize Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure (ATMOSPHERE) trial.

Results: NYHA class and NT-proBNP were independent predictors for both modes of death. The SD model additionally included male sex, Asian or Black race, prior CABG or PCI, cancer history, MI history, treatment with LCZ696 vs. enalapril, QRS duration and ECG left ventricular hypertrophy. While LVEF, ischemic etiology, systolic blood pressure, HF duration, ECG bundle branch block, and serum albumin, chloride and creatinine were included in the PFD model. Model discrimination was good for SD and excellent for PFD with Harrell's C of 0.67 and 0.78 after correction for optimism, respectively. The observed and predicted incidences were similar in each quartile of risk scores at 3 years in each model. The performance of both models remained robust in ATMOSPHERE.

Conclusion: We developed and validated models which separately predict SD and PFD in patients with HFrEF. These models may help clinicians and patients consider therapies targeted at these modes of death.

Trial Registration Number: PARADIGM-HF: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01035255, ATMOSPHERE: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00853658.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01888-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318968PMC
August 2021
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