Publications by authors named "John Gallob"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy of an anhydrous stannous fluoride toothpaste for relief of dentine hypersensitivity: A randomized clinical study.

J Clin Periodontol 2020 08 8;47(8):962-969. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

GSK Consumer Healthcare, Weybridge, UK.

Aim: To compare efficacy of an anhydrous 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride/sodium fluoride toothpaste (Test) versus a sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste (Negative control) and a stannous chloride/sodium fluoride toothpaste (Positive control) for dentine hypersensitivity relief after 8 weeks' twice-daily use.

Materials And Methods: In this randomized, examiner-blind, stratified, parallel study, primary and secondary efficacy variables were mean changes in Schiff score (evaporative [air] sensitivity) and tactile threshold (Yeaple probe), respectively, from baseline to Week 8 between Test (n = 62) and Negative control (n = 62). Test and Positive control (n = 61) comparisons were exploratory objectives.

Results: All groups significantly improved from baseline on both dentine hypersensitivity measures (p < .0001). Difference between adjusted mean changes from baseline in Schiff sensitivity scores at Week 8 for Test versus Negative control groups was 0.19 (95% CI 0.002, 0.374), in favour of the Negative control (p = .0476; 12.57% difference). Difference in tactile threshold was -7.20 g (95% CI -16.376, 1.975), and this was not statistically significant (p = .3715; -21.83% difference). Test group showed no significant difference versus Positive control for either measure. Toothpastes were generally well tolerated.

Conclusion: While twice-daily use of Test toothpaste significantly reduced dentine hypersensitivity from baseline, there was no significant advantage over negative or positive controls.

Study Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT03310268.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.13305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496273PMC
August 2020

Randomised clinical studies investigating immediate and short-term efficacy of an occluding toothpaste in providing dentine hypersensitivity relief.

BMC Oral Health 2019 06 4;19(1):98. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

All Sum Clinical Research, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) can occur after gum recession or enamel loss and may impact quality of life. Treatments include toothpastes that decrease DH by occluding dentine tubules. One effective occluding ingredient used in toothpastes is stannous fluoride (SnF), but this can be unstable in aqueous formulation. These three studies aimed to characterise the short-term effects of an experimental, anhydrous SnF dentifrice on DH.

Methods: Three examiner-blind, parallel-group studies evaluated DH in participants with the condition after a single brushing and after 3d brushing with an experimental anhydrous 0.454% SnF/polyphosphate toothpaste (Test) or a toothpaste containing 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate (Control). Test treatment participants brushed two pre-identified sensitive teeth first, then their remaining dentition for ≥1 min ('focused brushing'). Control treatment participants brushed their whole dentition for ≥1 min. DH was measured after single brushing and after 3d twice-daily use, via evaporative (air) (Schiff Sensitivity Scale) and tactile (Yeaple probe) stimuli and analysed using an ANCOVA model.

Results: In all studies, after 3d treatment, the Test toothpaste/brushing regimen significantly reduced DH compared to the Control regimen by both evaporative and tactile stimuli assessment (p < 0.0001 for all). The Test regimen also significantly reduced DH from baseline at both time-points by both measures in all studies (p < 0.0001 for all). Mean Schiff sensitivity score differences (95% confidence intervals) between Test and Control regimens after 3d were: Study 1: - 0.45 (- 0.577, - 0.319); Study 2: - 0.40 (- 0.505, - 0.300); Study 3: - 1.31 (- 1.500, - 1.128). Mean tactile score differences were: Study 1: 11.30 (7.927, 14.662); Study 2: 3.57 (2.531, 4.614); Study 3: 24.54 (20.349, 28.736). After single use, in Studies 2 and 3, the Test toothpaste/brushing regimen significantly reduced DH versus Control by both measures (p < 0.001 for all); in Study 1, treatment differences were not significant. Toothpastes were generally well-tolerated.

Conclusions: Taken together, these studies indicated focused brushing with an experimental anhydrous 0.454% SnF/polyphosphate toothpaste reduces DH compared to brushing with a conventional toothpaste after single use, with greater reduction after 3d.

Trial Registration: Registrations at ClinicalTrials.gov : Study 1: NCT02832375 (registered 26.July.2016); Study 2: NCT02731833 (registered 26.April.2016); Study 3: NCT02923895 (registered 5.October.2016).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-019-0781-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549378PMC
June 2019

Efficacy and Tolerability of Sodium Bicarbonate Toothpaste in Subjects with Gingivitis: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Study.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2018 ;16(5):401-407

Purpose: Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in toothpaste can enhance the removal of biofilms involved in the development of gingivitis. To examine this over an extended time period, this study compared the efficacy and tolerability of twice-daily brushing for 24 weeks with 67% or 0% NaHCO3-containing toothpastes in subjects with moderate gingivitis.

Materials And Methods: 247 adults with bleeding after brushing and ≥ 20 gingival bleeding sites were randomized to twice-daily brushing with a 67% NaHCO3 or 0% NaHCO3 toothpaste. The primary efficacy variables were between-treatment differences in number of bleeding sites and the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) score after 24 weeks' use. Secondary efficacy variables included Bleeding Index (BI) and Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (TPI) (overall and only interproximal sites).

Results: The 67% NaHCO3 toothpaste produced statistically significant improvements compared with the 0% NaHCO3 toothpaste in number of bleeding sites (-17.5; 95% CI -20.32, -14.66; p < 0.0001) and MGI score (-0.2; 95% CI -0.24, -0.17; p < 0.0001) at week 24. These significant differences were also found at 6 and 12 weeks for these measures and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks for BI and TPI scores (including at only interproximal sites) (all p < 0.0001). No treatment-related adverse events were reported.

Conclusion: Twice-daily brushing with 67% NaHCO3 toothpaste was generally well tolerated and significantly improved indices of gingival bleeding and plaque compared with 0% NaHCO3 toothpaste in subjects with moderate gingivitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.ohpd.a41362DOI Listing
June 2019

Potassium oxalate mouthrinse reduces dentinal hypersensitivity: A randomized controlled clinical study.

J Am Dent Assoc 2018 Jul 2;149(7):608-618. Epub 2018 May 2.

Background: Dentinal hypersensitivity is a prevalent oral condition that can be treated with in-office application of potassium oxalate (KO), which has US Food and Drug Administration 510(k) clearance. In this study, the authors assessed a KO mouthrinse for home use. The authors evaluated clinically meaningful improvement by analyzing the proportions of participants who responded to treatment.

Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group controlled study, the authors randomly assigned 375 participants with dentinal hypersensitivity to 1 of 2 mouthrinse groups: KO (189 participants) and placebo (186 participants). Participants used their assigned mouthrinses for 4 weeks. Each participant's success (defined as a ≥ 30% reduction from baseline in mean cold air stimulus response) was the primary efficacy measurement. The authors further defined success, on the basis of 2012 criteria from the American Dental Association, as a statistically significant difference of 20% or more between experimental and placebo groups for 1 sensitivity index.

Results: KO mouthrinse had statistically significantly higher success rates (the primary efficacy measurement) than did placebo (69.3% versus 44.6%; estimated odds ratio [OR], 2.817; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.843 to 4.307; P < .001). At week 4, KO had statistically significant improvements compared with placebo in cold air stimulus score (estimated difference, -14.27 millimeters; 95% CI, -18.68 to -9.87; 35.6% improvement; P < .001) and tactile sensitivity (estimated difference, 13.45 grams; 95% CI, 9.83 to 17.08; 88.0% improvement; P < .001). The authors also observed statistically significant improvements for KO at week 2. Cold air stimulus and tactile sensitivity scores at weeks 2 and 4 were secondary efficacy measurements.

Conclusions: This study's results demonstrated that KO mouthrinse used as an adjunct to toothbrushing statistically and clinically significantly controlled and reduced dentinal hypersensitivity.

Practical Implications: Clinicians can use these results when determining appropriate at-home care regimens for patients with hypersensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adaj.2018.02.027DOI Listing
July 2018

A 24-week randomized clinical study investigating the anti-gingivitis efficacy of a 0.454% w%#47;w stannous fluoride dentifrice.

Am J Dent 2018 Feb;31(1):17-23

Silverstone Research Group, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate and compare gingival health, as measured by a bleeding index (BI), a modified gingival index (MGI), a dental plaque index (PI), and number of bleeding sites following twice daily use of an anhydrous 0.454% weight/weight (w/w) stannous fluoride dentifrice (Test Dentifrice) compared to a sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP) dentifrice (Negative Control) over 24 weeks.

Methods: This was a single-center, examiner-blinded, randomized [by gender and baseline mean MGI score (Low ≤ 2.00/High > 2.00)], stratified, two-treatment arm, parallel group, 24-week clinical study in healthy adult volunteers with moderate gingivitis. At baseline, after abstaining from toothbrushing overnight, subjects underwent BI, MGI and PI assessments. Following randomization, eligible subjects underwent a thorough dental prophylaxis and flossing. After 12 and 24 weeks of twice daily brushing with their allocated treatment, subjects returned to the site with overnight plaque (having abstained from oral hygiene procedures for at least 8 hours) for BI, MGI and PI assessments.

Results: Of 109 screened subjects, 104 were randomized and 98 completed the study. Statistically significant differences between treatments were observed in favor of the Test Dentifrice compared to the Negative Control dentifrice for all outcome measures including not only BI, MGI and PI indices but also number of bleeding sites (P< 0.0001 at Week 12 and Week 24 for all). Data observation showed that the percentage of sites that decreased was more, and those that increased was less, with the Test Dentifrice than with the Negative Control dentifrice at both 12 and 24 weeks. Treatments were generally well tolerated.

Clinical Significance: Use of a dentifrice containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride led to significantly greater control of gingivitis (gingival bleeding and visual signs of gingival inflammation) and plaque compared to a SMFP dentifrice over a 24-week period.
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February 2018

A 12-week randomized clinical study investigating the anti-gingivitis efficacy of a 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride dentifrice.

Am J Dent 2018 Apr;31(2):81-85

Silverstone Research Group, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate and compare gingival health, as measured by a bleeding index (BI), a modified gingival index (MGI), number of bleeding sites, and blood in expectorate following twice daily use of a non-aqueous 0.454% weight/weight (w/w) stannous fluoride dentifrice ('Test dentifrice') compared to a sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP) dentifrice (' Negative Control') over 12 weeks, in subjects with moderate gingivitis and gingival bleeding following tooth brushing.

Methods: This was a single-center, examiner-blinded, randomized, stratified, two-treatment arm, parallel group, 12-week clinical study in healthy adult volunteers with moderate gingivitis who demonstrated gingival bleeding following tooth brushing. Subjects were assessed at baseline for MGI, visible blood in dentifrice expectorate and BI. Following randomization, eligible subjects underwent a thorough dental prophylaxis and flossing. After 4 and 12 weeks of twice daily brushing with their allocated treatment, subjects returned to the site for MGI, visible blood in dentifrice expectorate, and BI assessments.

Results: Of 317 screened subjects, 253 were randomized, and 238 completed the study. Statistically significant differences between treatments were observed in favor of the Test dentifrice compared to the Negative Control dentifrice in terms of gingival bleeding (number of bleeding sites and bleeding index), and visual signs of gingival inflammation (MGI) (P< 0.0001 at Weeks 4 and 12 for all). The visual assessment of the level of blood in expectorate following brushing demonstrated large reductions from baseline, however no significant difference between treatments was observed. Treatments were generally well tolerated.

Clinical Significance: Use of a dentifrice containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride led to significantly greater control of gingivitis (gingival bleeding and visual signs of gingival inflammation) compared to a SMFP dentifrice over a 12-week period. This study was conducted in subjects with moderate gingivitis and in a population represented by individuals who experience gingival bleeding on brushing, and is therefore considered representative of individuals who may opt for treatment therapies in the form of a daily use toothpaste.
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April 2018

Potassium oxalate oral rinses for long-term relief from dentinal hypersensitivity: Three randomised controlled studies.

J Dent 2018 03 11;70:23-30. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Salus Research, Inc., 1220 Medical Park Drive Building #4, Fort Wayne, IN 46825, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate effectiveness of oral rinses containing dipotassium oxalate monohydrate (KOX) in relieving dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) after 8 w use adjunctive to brushing.

Methods: Three 8-week, randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, single-centre studies were conducted in adults with DH. In each study, participants were randomised to one of two experimental rinses or a placebo in a matrix design, such that each experimental rinse was evaluated in two studies. Rinses A (pH 4.5) and B (pH 7.0) contained 1.5% KOX and were fluoride-free; Rinse C (pH 4.5) contained 2.0% KOX and 45 ppm fluoride as NaF; the placebo rinse (pH 4.5) did not contain KOX or fluoride. Participants brushed with a fluoride dentifrice for 1 min, briefly rinsed with water, then rinsed with their assigned oral rinse for 1 min twice daily for 8 w. DH was assessed at baseline and following 4 and 8 w use by response to an evaporative (air) stimulus (evaluated by Schiff sensitivity score and a 10-point visual rating scale) and a tactile stimulus (Yeaple probe).

Results: All rinses in each study were associated with statistically significant improvements from baseline in measures of DH after 4 and 8 w treatment. However, between-treatment comparisons were inconsistent across the studies, with only Study 3 demonstrating a significant difference between the experimental (Rinses B and C) and placebo rinses. A number of treatment-related adverse events (all mild) were reported.

Conclusions: Rinses containing 1.5-2.0% KOX did not consistently demonstrate a benefit over placebo in relieving DH after 8 w use.

Clinical Significance: While favourable results were found in one of the investigations, this suite of studies shows that the possibility of inconsistent results exists even with the best designed and executed trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2017.12.004DOI Listing
March 2018

A randomised exploratory clinical evaluation of dentifrices used as controls in dentinal hypersensitivity studies.

J Dent 2017 Sep 23;64:80-87. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

GSK Consumer Healthcare, Weybridge, Surrey, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: To explore relative efficacy of six negative-control dentifrices utilised as controls in clinical studies compared with two dentine hypersensitivity (DH)-relief dentifrices used 2×/day for 8 weeks.

Methods: Six control dentifrices differing in terms of fluoride source (sodium fluoride/sodium monofluorophosphate), abrasive base (silica/dicalcium phosphate), relative dentine abrasivity (RDA) (∼17 to ∼180) and colour (white/blue/multicoloured stripes) were compared with a depolarising dentifrice (5% KNO; RDA ∼70-97; 'Test 1') and an occlusion-technology dentifrice (0.454% SnF; RDA ∼160-180; 'Test 2'). DH was assessed using tactile and evaporative (air) (measured by Schiff Sensitivity Scale and a visual rating scale [VRS]) stimuli.

Results: In total 249 subjects were randomized. All dentifrices yielded statistically significant improvements from baseline on all endpoints. The two DH-relief dentifrices ranked highest in terms of improvement in scores over the control dentifrices. While there was a clear differentiation between Test 1 and control dentifrices on both measures at 4/8 weeks, for Test 2, statistically significant improvements in Schiff scores were observed over all controls at Week 4 but only over three at Week 8. At Week 4 none of the controls separated from Test 2 on tactile threshold; all separated by Week 8. VRS scores did not separate test and control dentifrices. Dentifrices were generally well-tolerated.

Conclusions: The six negative-control dentifrices can be used to assess dentifrices considered to be effective in reducing DH. Although response ranges for commercially available negative controls varied, these results may begin to set acceptable performance ranges for control dentifrices in DH trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2017.06.009DOI Listing
September 2017

Gingival Health and Plaque Regrowth Response Following a Four-Week Interdental Hygiene Intervention.

J Clin Dent 2017 Mar;28(1 Spec No A):A36-44

Silverstone Research Group, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy of three adjunct interproximal cleaning methods versus a manual toothbrush alone on gingivitis, and demonstrate that the Philips Sonicare AirflossPro™ interproximal (IP) cleaning device provides a similar reduction in gingivitis and plaque compared to string floss.

Methods: A randomized, single-blind, parallel-design study was conducted on generally healthy adults exhibiting mild to moderate gingivitis. Eligible subjects were non-smokers, aged 18-65 years, with ≥ 0.5 per the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI) and a Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) of ≥ 1 on at least 10 sites. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned to use one of four oral hygiene regimens: manual toothbrush (MTB) alone; MTB plus string floss (SF); MTB plus Philips Sonicare AirflossPro used with Cool Mint Listerine® Antiseptic (AFPL); and MTB plus Philips Sonicare AirflossPro used with BreathRx™ (AFPB). Subjects were followed over a 28-day home-use period, with follow-up visits for efficacy and safety conducted at Days 14 and 28. All subjects were instructed to use the MTB twice daily and perform interproximal cleaning once daily, if assigned. Study efficacy endpoints included the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index, and the Gingival Bleeding Index.

Results: Of 290 randomized subjects, 287 were followed to Day 14 and 286 were followed to Day 28. For the primary endpoint at Day 14, significantly larger reductions in MGI were observed in each of the three IP cleaning groups compared to MTB alone (p < 0.001). The adjusted mean reductions and standard error estimates (SE) for MGI expressed as a percent reduction from Baseline at Day 14 were: 0.22% (0.55%) for MTB; 4.30% (0.44%) for SF; 4.55% (0.45%) for AFPL; and 4.20% (0.44%) for AFPB. A non-inferiority test comparing AirflossPro to SF showed AirflossPro to be non-inferior to SF (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The addition of interproximal cleaning to manual tooth brushing statistically significantly reduces gingivitis and plaque compared to manual tooth brushing alone. Among the adjunct interproximal cleaning regimens, AirflossPro provides a similar reduction in gingivitis and plaque to string floss. All study regimens were safe on oral tissues.
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March 2017

Comparative Efficacy of a Soft Toothbrush with Tapered-tip Bristles to an ADA Reference Toothbrush on Gingival Abrasion over a 12-Week Period.

J Clin Dent 2016 Jun;27(2):48-53

Colgate-Palmolive Technology Center, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

Objectives: Evaluation of the impact of a soft toothbrush with tapered-tip (Test Toothbrush) bristles and an ADA reference toothbrush (ADA Toothbrush) on gingival abrasion over a 12-week period.

Methods: This was a randomized, single-center, examiner-blind, two-cell, parallel clinical research study and used the Danser Gingival Abrasion Index to assess the level of gingival abrasion after a single brushing, as well as after six weeks and 12 weeks of twice-daily brushing. Adult male and female subjects from the Central New Jersey, USA area refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for 24 hours. They reported to the study site after refraining from eating, drinking, and smoking for four hours. Following a qualifying examination using plaque and gingivitis scores along with a baseline gingival abrasion examination, subjects were randomized into two balanced groups, each group using one of the two study toothbrushes. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for one minute, under supervision, with their assigned toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste (Colgate© Cavity Protection Toothpaste), after which they were again evaluated for gingival abrasion. Subjects were dismissed from the study site with their assigned toothbrush and toothpaste, and instructed to brush twice daily at home for the next 12 weeks. The subjects were instructed to brush for one minute during each tooth brushing. The subjects reported to the study site after six weeks and 12 weeks of product use, at which time they were evaluated for gingival abrasion.

Results: Seventy-one (71) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the clinical study. The results of this study showed that the Test Toothbrush provided statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions in gingival abrasion scores as compared to the gingival abrasion scores of the ADA Toothbrush after a single tooth brushing, after six weeks, and after 12 weeks of product use (75.0%, 85.5%, 73.9%, respectively).

Conclusions: The soft toothbrush with tapered-tip bristles produced significantly less gingival abrasion after 12 weeks of product use as compared to the ADA reference toothbrush.
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June 2016

Comparative Efficacy of a Soft Toothbrush with Tapered-tip Bristles and an ADA Reference Toothbrush on Established Gingivitis and Supragingival Plaque over a 12-Week Period.

J Clin Dent 2016 Jun;27(2):39-47

Colgate-Palmolive Technology Center, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

Objectives: Evaluation of the efficacy of a soft toothbrush with tapered-tip bristles (Test Toothbrush) and an ADA reference soft toothbrush (ADA Toothbrush) on established gingivitis and supragingival plaque over a 12-week period.

Methods: This randomized, single-center, examiner-blind, two-cell, parallel clinical research study assessed plaque removal by the comparison of pre- to- post-brushing after a single use, and again after six- and 12-weeks' use, using the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index, Turesky Modification. The study also assessed gingivitis after six weeks and 12 weeks using the Löe & Silness Gingival Index. Adult male and female subjects from the Central New Jersey, USA area refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for 24 hours. They reported to the study site after refraining from eating, drinking, and smoking for four hours. Subjects had the study procedure explained to them both orally and by written instructions. Subjects then gave written consent to participate before entry into the study. Following an examination for plaque (pre-brushing) and gingivitis (baseline), the subjects were randomized into two balanced groups, each group assigned to one of the two study toothbrushes. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for one minute under supervision with their assigned toothbrush and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste (Colgate© Cavity Protection Toothpaste), after which they were again evaluated for plaque (post-brushing). Subjects were dismissed from the study site with their assigned toothbrush and toothpaste, and instructed to brush twice daily at home for the next 12 weeks. The subjects were instructed to brush for one minute during each tooth brushing. The subjects reported to the study site after six weeks and 12 weeks of product use, at which time they were evaluated for plaque and gingivitis.

Results: Seventy-one (71) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the clinical study. Compared to the ADA Toothbrush, the Test Toothbrush provided statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions of 71.1% in whole mouth plaque index scores, 43.8% in plaque severity index scores, and 81.3% in interproximal sites plaque scores after a single tooth brushing. After six weeks' use, the Test Toothbrush provided statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions of 700% in whole mouth gingival index scores, 700% in gingivitis severity index scores, and 400% in interproximal sites gingival scores compared to the ADA Toothbrush. Also after six weeks' use, the Test Toothbrush provided statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions of 188.9% in whole mouth plaque index scores, 165% in plaque severity index scores, and 203% in interproximal sites plaque scores compared to the ADA Toothbrush. After 12 weeks' use, the Test Toothbrush provided statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions of 266.7% in whole mouth gingival index scores, 300% in gingivitis severity index scores, and 250% in interproximal sites gingival scores compared to the ADA Toothbrush. Also after 12 weeks' use, the Test Toothbrush provided statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions of 158.1% in whole mouth plaque index scores, 143.5% in plaque severity index scores, and 145.4% in interproximal sites plaque scores compared to the ADA Toothbrush.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that a soft toothbrush with tapered-tip bristles provided a significantly greater reduction in supragingival plaque after a single tooth brushing, as well as after six and 12 weeks of twice-daily use, compared to the ADA Toothbrush. After six and 12 weeks of twice-daily use, it also provided a significantly greater reduction in gingivitis as compared to the ADA Toothbrush.
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June 2016

Efficacy of an experimental toothpaste containing 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate in the relief of dentin hypersensitivity: An 8-week randomized study (Study 1).

Am J Dent 2016 Apr;29(2):93-100

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of an experimental toothpaste containing 5% (w/w) calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS) in relieving dentin hypersensitivity (DH) compared with control toothpastes containing no known anti-sensitivity ingredients.

Methods: This was the first of two exploratory, randomized, four-treatment, examiner-blind, parallel-design, single-site, 8-week studies in healthy subjects with self-reported and clinically diagnosed DH. The experimental toothpaste contained 5% CSPS with a modified surfactant system, developed to enhance its organoleptic properties. Efficacy was evaluated against an abrasivity-matched placebo formulation (0% CSPS) with additional abrasive silica replacing the CSPS, and two commercially available fluoride toothpastes as controls. After an initial lead-in period, subjects were randomized to one of the four study treatments and instructed to brush twice daily for the next 8 weeks. DH was assessed at baseline and following 4 and 8 weeks of treatment by response to tactile and evaporative (air) stimuli, and using a Dentine Hypersensitivity Experience Questionnaire (DHEQ; a validated quality-of-life measure for DH).

Results: A total of 134 subjects were randomized and completed the study. All treatments demonstrated statistically significant reductions in sensitivity from baseline at Week 4 and Week 8 for each clinical measure of sensitivity (all P ≤ 0.001). The 0% CSPS toothpaste demonstrated small but statistically significant reductions in Schiff sensitivity score compared with the other study toothpastes at Week 8 (all P< 0.05), whereas the experimental 5% CSPS toothpaste significantly improved the tactile threshold at Week 4 compared with the 0% CSPS toothpaste (P = 0.0467). The DHEQ responses did not reveal any consistent statistically significant within-treatment changes from baseline or between-treatment differences. Correlation analysis showed weak-to-moderate associations between the DHEQ outcomes and clinical endpoints. Study treatments were well tolerated. The treatment differences observed in this exploratory study were small and inconsistent between measures. The reasons for the inconsistencies are not clear but may be related to the properties of the abrasivity-matched 0% CSPS formulation, with the increased level of dental silica conferring an advantage in terms of reducing DH. The ability of dental silicas to occlude exposed dentin tubules and thereby reduce DH has been demonstrated in previous studies, and may warrant further clinical investigation.
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April 2016

Three randomized clinical trials to assess the short-term efficacy of anhydrous 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride dentifrices for the relief of dentin hypersensitivity.

Am J Dent 2016 Feb;29(1):25-32

Purpose: To assess the short-term efficacy of dentifrices containing 0.454% weight/weight (w/w) stannous fluoride applied using a focused brushing methodology for the relief of dentin hypersensitivity (DH).

Methods: Three randomized, examiner blind, controlled, two treatment arm, parallel group studies were conducted utilizing a novel application method in which, prior to brushing the whole mouth, the stannous fluoride dentifrice was applied to two sensitive teeth by focused brushing. DH was assessed with an evaporative (air) stimulus (with the Schiff Sensitivity Scale and a Visual Analogue Scale [VAS, Studies 1 and 3 only]) and a tactile stimulus (using a Yeaple Probe). Clinical assessments were made at baseline, immediately after first use of study dentifrice and after 3 and 14 days of twice daily brushing. Study 1 compared a marketed 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride dentifrice indicated for short-term DH relief to a marketed standard fluoride dentifrice (negative control). Studies 2 and 3 compared a novel anhydrous 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride dentifrice to the same negative control.

Results: For Studies 1, 2 and 3, 118, 113 and 120 subjects respectively were randomized to treatment and included in the intent-to-treat populations. Study 1 showed significant DH improvements in all measures for the test dentifrice compared to the negative control at Day 14. Study 2 showed significant differences in favor of the test dentifrice for all measures at all time points (Immediate, Days 3 and 14). In Study 3, treatment with both test and control dentifrices resulted in significant improvements over baseline, but there were no significant between-treatment differences. While these studies provide evidence for relief of DH with 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride dentifrices after short-term use (14 days) using a novel focused brushing methodology, the evidence, especially at the earliest time points, is inconclusive and further testing is needed. Study dentifrices were well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov trial registration numbers: Study 1 NCT01494649; Study 2: NCT01592851; Study 3: NCT01724008; funded by GSK Consumer Healthcare.
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February 2016

Randomized controlled trial comparing a powered toothbrush with distinct multi-directional cleaning action to a manual flat trim toothbrush.

Am J Dent 2015 Dec;28(6):351-6

Purpose: To compare the plaque and gingivitis efficacy of a power toothbrush with distinct multi-directional cleaning action (Colgate® ProClinical® A1500 Power Toothbrush) against a manual flat-trim toothbrush (Oral-B Indicator).

Methods: This randomized control trial was a single-center, examiner-blind, parallel-group, design and assessed plaque removal after a single brushing, as well as plaque removal and gingivitis reduction after 4 weeks and 12 weeks of brushing. Qualifying subjects used their assigned toothbrush to brush their teeth under supervision after which they were evaluated for plaque (post-brushing). Over the next 12 weeks, subjects brushed unsupervised at home with their assigned toothbrush. After 4 weeks and 12 weeks, subjects returned to the center for plaque and gingivitis examinations.

Results: 80 subjects were screened for eligibility and randomized into the study. 79 subjects completed the study. Both toothbrushes provided statistically significant reductions in all plaque index scores at all time points in comparison to the pre-brushing scores. After 4 weeks and 12 weeks, statistically significant reductions in gingivitis and gingivitis severity scores were observed for subjects using the power toothbrush, whereas statistically significant increases in gingivitis and gingivitis severity were observed for subjects using the manual toothbrush. In conclusion, relative to the manual toothbrush, the power toothbrush provided statistically significantly (P < 0.05) greater removal of plaque: whole-mouth (131%), gumline (97.4%), and interproximal (220%), as well as reductions in gingivitis (400%), and gingivitis severity (320%) after 12 weeks of use. Compared to the manual flat-trim toothbrush, the power toothbrush with distinct multi-directional cleaning action demonstrates statistically and clinically significantly greater levels of plaque removal and gingivitis reduction at all time points.
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December 2015

A randomized trial of ethyl lauroyl arginate-containing mouthrinse in the control of gingivitis.

J Clin Periodontol 2015 Aug 15;42(8):740-747. Epub 2015 Aug 15.

Johnson & Johnson Consumer Services EAME Ltd., Maidenhead, UK.

Aim: This 4-week, single-centre, randomized, examiner-blind, controlled study investigated the efficacy and safety of 0.15% ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE)-containing mouthrinse in adults with mild-to-moderate gingivitis.

Material And Methods: Subjects were randomized to use 0.15% LAE-containing mouthrinse or 5% hydroalcohol-negative control twice daily after brushing with standard fluoride toothpaste. Plaque, gingivitis and bleeding were assessed at baseline and Weeks 2 and 4. The oral microflora was analysed at baseline and Week 4.

Results: Eighty-seven subjects were randomized to treatment. The 0.15% LAE-containing mouthrinse was associated with statistically significantly (p < 0.001) greater reductions in mean plaque and gingivitis scores versus the negative control at Week 2 (difference [95% confidence interval]: plaque 0.83 [0.64, 1.02], 29.1%; gingivitis 0.11 [0.07, 0.14], 4.8%) and Week 4 (co-primary endpoints: plaque 1.23 [1.07, 1.39], 42.6%; gingivitis 0.23 [0.19, 0.28], 10.7%). Bleeding-index scores were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced versus the control at Weeks 2 (by 0.04 [0.03, 0.06], 36.3%) and 4 (by 0.06 [0.04, 0.08], 50.9%). No shifts were detected in the oral microflora. There were no treatment-related adverse events.

Conclusions: The 0.15% LAE-containing mouthrinse was well tolerated and significantly reduced plaque, gingivitis and bleeding when used as an adjunct to tooth brushing for 4 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744955PMC
August 2015

Randomised clinical efficacy trial of potassium oxalate mouthrinse in relieving dentinal sensitivity.

J Dent 2013 Jul;41 Suppl 4:S40-8

Oral Care Research and Development, Johnson & Johnson Consumer & Personal Products Worldwide, Skillman, NJ, USA.

Objective: The study aimed to determine the efficacy in relieving dentinal sensitivity of 4 weeks' treatment with an alcohol-free mouthrinse comprising 1.4% potassium oxalate (KO) (Listerine® Advanced Defence Sensitive; LADS), compared with negative and positive controls.

Methods: Subjects were randomised to one of three treatments: LADS mouthrinse - twice-daily toothbrushing with Crest® Cavity Protection Regular toothpaste, rinsing with water and then 10 mL LADS mouthrinse, followed by expectoration; negative control (twice-daily brushing with Crest Cavity Protection Regular toothpaste); or positive control (twice-daily brushing with Sensodyne® Original desensitising toothpaste). Dentine sensitivity was assessed at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks by Yeaple probe (tactile pressure; patient-reported discomfort by visual analogue scale [VAS]), air blast (VAS) and global subjective sensitivity (VAS). Oral tolerance was monitored throughout the study.

Results: At 2 weeks, subjects treated with the positive control and LADS mouthrinse showed significant reductions (p<0.05) in sensitivity scores versus the negative control. At 4 weeks, sensitivity decreased by 110% in the positive-control subjects versus negative-control subjects (p<0.001); sensitivity decreased by 80% in subjects receiving LADS mouthrinse versus negative-control subjects (p<0.05). No serious treatment-related oral adverse events were reported.

Conclusions: The positive control (Sensodyne Original) significantly reduced sensitivity compared with the negative control (Crest toothpaste alone), thus validating the study. The LADS mouthrinse (1.4% KO mouthrinse) significantly reduced sensitivity compared with the negative control, suggesting that LADS mouthrinse was responsible for the clinical effect observed. The treatments were well tolerated.

Clinical Significance: To our knowledge, this is the first randomised clinical study to demonstrate the efficacy of a KO-containing mouthrinse (LADS) in relieving dentinal sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0300-5712(13)70005-8DOI Listing
July 2013

The efficacy of an experimental dentifrice containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride in providing relief from the pain of dentin hypersensitivity: an 8-week clinical study.

Am J Dent 2013 Mar;26 Spec No A:25A-31A

GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare, St Georges Avenue, Weybridge, KT13 ODE United Kingdom.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of a 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride containing anhydrous dentifrice and a negative control dentifrice containing 1,000 ppm fluoride (as sodium monofluorophosphate) at reducing dentin hypersensitivity over an 8-week period, following twice daily brushing.

Methods: This was a randomized, examiner blind, two-treatment arm, stratified (by maximum baseline Schiff sensitivity score), parallel design, single-site study in 118 subjects, who had at least two sensitive teeth, and met all the criteria at the screening and baseline visit. The study was conducted in Las Vegas, NV, USA. Tactile threshold (Yeaple Probe) and evaporative (air-blast) sensitivity (with Schiff sensitivity scale) were employed as clinical measures to compare the efficacy of the test dentifrice containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride to the negative control (Colgate Cavity Protection) at reducing sensitivity at Weeks 4 and 8.

Results: 117 subjects completed the clinical study. At the 4- and 8-week time points, between treatment analyses demonstrated the test dentifrice to be significantly better at relieving subjects' sensitivity, for both validated clinical measures, compared to the negative control (at 4 weeks Schiff P < 0.0001 tactile threshold P < 0.0001; at 8 weeks Schiff P < 0.0001; tactile threshold P < 0.0001).
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March 2013

Antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of an alcohol-free essential-oil containing mouthrinse: a 2-week clinical trial.

Am J Dent 2012 Aug;25(4):195-8

Johnson & Johnson Consumer and Personal Products Worldwide, a division of Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., 185 Tabor Road, Morris Plains, NJ 07950, USA.

Purpose: This randomized, examiner blind, parallel group, controlled clinical study evaluated the antiplaque and antigingivitis potential of an alcohol-free essential oils containing mouthrinse (Listerine Zero) compared to a 5% hydroalcohol mouthrinse (negative control), using a 2-week experimental gingivitis model.

Methods: 92 subjects, male and female, ranging in age from 18-68 years, in good general health, were assigned to one of the two treatment groups: Alcohol-free essential oils containing mouthrinse (LZ) or 5% hydroalcohol negative control (C) rinse. The mean Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (PI) and the mean Modified Gingival Index (MGI) at 2 weeks were the primary efficacy endpoints. Following baseline examinations, subjects received a complete dental prophylaxis and began supervised rinsing with their assigned mouthrinse twice daily for 2 weeks, as their sole oral hygiene measure.

Results: 90 subjects completed the trial. At 2 weeks, LZ was more effective (P<0.001) than C in reducing plaque (23.9%) and gingivitis (10.4%).
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August 2012