Publications by authors named "John E Levine"

119 Publications

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) versus pediatric patients with acute leukemia have a significantly increased risk of acute GVHD following unrelated donor (URD) stem cell transplantation (SCT): the Children's Oncology Group experience.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2022 Jan 6. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Pediatrics, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with acute leukemia (AL) have inferior outcomes in comparison to younger patients, and are more likely to develop acute and chronic GVHD than younger children following HLA matched sibling donor stem cell transplant (SCT). We compared the incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and survival in AYA (age 13-21 years) to younger children (age 2-12 years) who received an unrelated donor SCT for acute leukemia on Children's Oncology Group trials between 2004-2017. One hundred and eighty-eight children and young adults ages 2-21 years underwent URD SCT. Sixty-three percent were aged 2-12 and 37% were age 13-21. Older age was a risk factor for grade II-IV acute GVHD in multivariate analysis with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.95 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-3.10], but not for chronic GVHD, HR 1.25 [95% CI 0.57-2.71]. Younger patients relapsed more often (34.5 ± 4.4% vs. 22.8 ± 4.0%, p = 0.032), but their Event-Free Survival (42.6 ± 4.7% vs. 51.8 ± 6.1%, p = 0.18) and Overall Survival at 5 years (48.5 ± 4.9% vs. 51.5 ± 6.4%, p = 0.56) were not different than AYA patients. AYA patients who receive an URD SCT for acute leukemia are significantly more likely to develop grade II-IV acute GVHD, though survival is similar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01558-6DOI Listing
January 2022

Evaluation of Elafin as a Prognostic Biomarker in Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Dec 30;27(12):988.e1-988.e7. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for hematologic malignancies. The skin is the most commonly involved organ in GVHD. Elafin, a protease inhibitor overexpressed in inflamed epidermis, was previously identified as a diagnostic biomarker of skin GVHD; however, this finding was restricted to a subset of patients with isolated skin GVHD. The main driver of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in HCT recipients is gastrointestinal (GI) GVHD. Two biomarkers, Regenerating islet-derived 3a (REG3α) and Suppressor of tumorigenesis 2 (ST2), have been validated as biomarkers of GI GVHD that predict long-term outcomes in patients treated for GVHD. We undertook this study to determine the utility of elafin as a prognostic biomarker in the general population of acute GVHD patients in whom GVHD may develop in multiple organs. We analyzed serum elafin concentrations as a predictive biomarker of acute GVHD outcomes and compared it with ST2 and REG3α in a large group of patients treated at multiple centers. A total of 526 patients from the Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium (MAGIC) who had received corticosteroid treatment for skin GVHD and who had not been previously studied were analyzed. Serum concentrations of elafin, ST2, and REG3α were measured by ELISA in all patients. The patients were divided at random into equal training and validation sets, and a competing-risk regression model was developed to model 6-month NRM using elafin concentration in the training set. Additional models were developed using concentrations of ST2 and REG3α or the combination of all 3 biomarkers as predictors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed using the validation set to evaluate the predictive accuracy of each model and to stratify patients into high- and low-risk biomarker groups. The cumulative incidence of 6-month NRM, overall survival (OS), and 4-week treatment response were compared between the risk groups. Unexpectedly, patients in the low-risk elafin group demonstrated a higher incidence of 6-month NRM, although the difference was not statistically significant (17% versus 11%; P = .19). OS at 6 months (68% versus 68%; P > .99) and 4-week response (78% versus 78%; P = .98) were similar in the low-risk and high-risk elafin groups. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.55 for elafin and 0.75 for the combination of ST2 and REG3α. The addition of elafin to the other 2 biomarkers did not improve the AUC. Our data indicate that serum elafin concentrations measured at the initiation of systemic treatment for acute GVHD did not predict 6-month NRM, OS, or treatment response in a multicenter population of patients treated systemically for acute GVHD. As seen in previous studies, serum concentrations of the GI GVHD biomarkers ST2 and REG3α were significant predictors of NRM, and the addition of elafin levels did not improve their accuracy. These results underscore the importance of GI disease in driving NRM in patients who develop acute GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8671218PMC
December 2021

Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network State of the Science Symposium 2021: Looking Forward as the Network Celebrates its 20th Year.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Nov 27;27(11):885-907. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

In 2021 the BMT CTN held the 4th State of the Science Symposium where the deliberations of 11 committees concerning major topics pertinent to a particular disease, modality, or complication of transplant, as well as two committees to consider clinical trial design and inclusion, diversity, and access as cross-cutting themes were reviewed. This article summarizes the individual committee reports and their recommendations on the highest priority questions in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and cell therapy to address in multicenter trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8556300PMC
November 2021

Tisagenlecleucel immunogenicity in relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 12;5(23):4980-4991

Department of Pediatrics, Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; and.

Tisagenlecleucel is indicated for pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and adult patients with r/r diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The tisagenlecleucel chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) contains a murine single-chain variable fragment domain; we examined the effects of humoral and cellular immune responses to tisagenlecleucel on clinical outcomes using 2 validated assays. Data were pooled from the ELIANA (registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02435849) and ENSIGN (#NCT02228096) trials in r/r B-ALL (N = 143) and the JULIET trial (#NCT02445248) in r/r DLBCL (N = 115). Humoral responses were determined by flow cytometric measurement of anti-murine CAR19 (mCAR19) antibodies in serum. Cellular responses were determined using T-cell production of interferon-γ in response to 2 different pools of mCAR19 peptides. Pretreatment anti-mCAR19 antibodies were detected in 81% of patients with r/r B-ALL and 94% of patients with r/r DLBCL. Posttreatment anti-mCAR19 antibodies were higher than patient-specific baseline in 42% of r/r B-ALL and 9% of r/r DLBCL patients. Pretreatment and posttreatment anti-mCAR19 antibodies did not affect tisagenlecleucel cellular kinetics, including maximum concentration and persistence (r2 < 0.05), clinical response (day-28 response, duration of response, and event-free survival), and safety. T-cell responses were consistent over time, with net responses <1% at baseline and posttreatment time points in a majority of patients and no effect on transgene expansion or persistence or outcomes. Presence of baseline and/or posttreatment anti-mCAR19 antibodies or T-cell responses did not alter the activity of tisagenlecleucel in patients with r/r B-ALL or r/r DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003844DOI Listing
December 2021

Pooled safety analysis of tisagenlecleucel in children and young adults with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 08;9(8)

Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Background: Tisagenlecleucel, an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy, has demonstrated efficacy in children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in two multicenter phase 2 trials (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02435849 (ELIANA) and NCT02228096 (ENSIGN)), leading to commercialization of tisagenlecleucel for the treatment of patients up to age 25 years with B-ALL that is refractory or in second or greater relapse.

Methods: A pooled analysis of 137 patients from these trials (ELIANA: n=79; ENSIGN: n=58) was performed to provide a comprehensive safety profile for tisagenlecleucel.

Results: Grade 3/4 tisagenlecleucel-related adverse events (AEs) were reported in 77% of patients. Specific AEs of interest that occurred ≤8 weeks postinfusion included cytokine-release syndrome (CRS; 79% (grade 4: 22%)), infections (42%; grade 3/4: 19%), prolonged (not resolved by day 28) cytopenias (40%; grade 3/4: 34%), neurologic events (36%; grade 3: 10%; no grade 4 events), and tumor lysis syndrome (4%; all grade 3). Treatment for CRS included tocilizumab (40%) and corticosteroids (23%). The frequency of neurologic events increased with CRS severity (p<0.001). Median time to resolution of grade 3/4 cytopenias to grade ≤2 was 2.0 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.23) months for neutropenia, 2.4 (95% CI 1.97 to 3.68) months for lymphopenia, 2.0 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.27) months for leukopenia, 1.9 (95% CI 1.74 to 2.10) months for thrombocytopenia, and 1.0 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.87) month for anemia. All patients who achieved complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete hematologic recovery experienced B cell aplasia; however, as nearly all responders also received immunoglobulin replacement, few grade 3/4 infections occurred >1 year postinfusion.

Conclusions: This pooled analysis provides a detailed safety profile for tisagenlecleucel during the course of clinical trials, and AE management guidance, with a longer follow-up duration compared with previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-002287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8344270PMC
August 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: IIb. The 2020 Preemptive Therapy Working Group Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08 6;27(8):632-641. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) commonly occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) despite standard prophylactic immune suppression. Intensified universal prophylaxis approaches are effective but risk possible overtreatment and may interfere with the graft-versus-malignancy immune response. Here we summarize conceptual and practical considerations regarding preemptive therapy of chronic GVHD, namely interventions applied after HCT based on evidence that the risk of developing chronic GVHD is higher than previously appreciated. This risk may be anticipated by clinical factors or risk assignment biomarkers or may be indicated by early signs and symptoms of chronic GVHD that do not fully meet National Institutes of Health diagnostic criteria. However, truly preemptive, individualized, and targeted chronic GVHD therapies currently do not exist. In this report, we (1) review current knowledge regarding clinical risk factors for chronic GVHD, (2) review what is known about chronic GVHD risk assignment biomarkers, (3) examine how chronic GVHD pathogenesis intersects with available targeted therapeutic agents, and (4) summarize considerations for preemptive therapy for chronic GVHD, emphasizing trial development, including trial design and statistical considerations. We conclude that robust risk assignment models that accurately predict chronic GVHD after HCT and early-phase preemptive therapy trials represent the most urgent priorities for advancing this novel area of research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.029DOI Listing
August 2021

Results of a phase 2, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study of lenalidomide in pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 07 10;68(7):e28946. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Nemours Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware, USA.

Background: Outcomes after relapse remain poor in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Lenalidomide has demonstrated activity in adults with lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes and older adults with relapsed or refractory (R/R) AML.

Methods: In this phase 2 study (NCT02538965), pediatric patients with R/R AML who received two or more prior therapies were treated with lenalidomide (starting dose 2 mg/kg/day on days 1-21 of each 28-day cycle) for a maximum of 12 cycles. The primary endpoint was rate of complete response (CR) and CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi) within the first four cycles.

Results: Seventeen patients enrolled and received one or more dose of lenalidomide. Median age was 12 years (range 5-18 years), median white blood cell count was 3.7 × 10 /L, and median peripheral blood blast count was 1.0 × 10 /L. One patient (5.9%) with a complex karyotype including del(5q) achieved CRi after two cycles of lenalidomide. This responder proceeded to a second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and has remained without evidence of disease for 3 years. All patients experienced one or more of grades 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). The most common grades 3-4 TEAEs were thrombocytopenia (58.8%), febrile neutropenia (47.1%), anemia (41.2%), and hypokalemia (41.2%).

Conclusions: In this population of pediatric patients with R/R AML, safety data were consistent with the known safety profile of lenalidomide. As only one patient responded, further evaluation of lenalidomide at the dose and schedule studied is not warranted in pediatric AML, with the possible exception of patients with del(5q).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28946DOI Listing
July 2021

Acute GVHD Diagnosis and Adjudication in a Multicenter Trial: A Report From the BMT CTN 1202 Biorepository Study.

J Clin Oncol 2021 06 28;39(17):1878-1887. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Purpose: Accurate and reproducible methods to diagnose, grade, and report acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are critical for the evaluation of therapies and biomarkers.

Patients And Methods: The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network 1202 study is an observational study of 1,709 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients that implemented weekly data reporting and near real-time data adjudication by an end point review committee (ERC), assigning a confidence level (confirmed, probable, possible, or negative) to the diagnosis of acute GVHD at onset.

Results: During the first 100 days, symptoms consistent with GVHD developed in 90% of cases but were often determined by centers to be due to causes other than GVHD. Indeed, GVHD was under consideration in only 23% of cases at symptom onset. Diagnostic biopsies were obtained in 40% of cases, but treatment often was incongruous with biopsy findings and 10.5% of biopsies were equivocal. Importantly, more than 40% of steroid courses were started for reasons other than GVHD. The ERC modified the determination of GVHD diagnosis and/or grade in 12.3% of onset cases. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD as reported by the centers was 62%. When the ERC adjudicated GVHD onset to be present only if the confidence level was probable or confirmed, the incidence of GVHD declined to 49%.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the incidence of GVHD may be overestimated at symptom onset, establishes a contemporary benchmark for acute GVHD, and suggests a structured framework for reporting and adjudication of GVHD that could be used in prospective trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260916PMC
June 2021

Phase II Trial of Costimulation Blockade With Abatacept for Prevention of Acute GVHD.

J Clin Oncol 2021 06 15;39(17):1865-1877. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

University of Utah, Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT.

Purpose: Severe (grade 3-4) acute graft-versus-host disease (AGVHD) is a major cause of death after unrelated-donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), resulting in particularly high mortality after HLA-mismatched transplantation. There are no approved agents for AGVHD prevention, underscoring the critical unmet need for novel therapeutics. ABA2 was a phase II trial to rigorously assess safety, efficacy, and immunologic effects of adding T-cell costimulation blockade with abatacept to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)/methotrexate (MTX)-based GVHD prophylaxis, to test whether abatacept could decrease AGVHD.

Methods: ABA2 enrolled adults and children with hematologic malignancies under two strata: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled stratum (8/8-HLA-matched URD), comparing CNI/MTX plus abatacept with CNI/MTX plus placebo, and a single-arm stratum (7/8-HLA-mismatched URD) comparing CNI/MTX plus abatacept versus CNI/MTX CIBMTR controls. The primary end point was day +100 grade 3-4 AGVHD, with day +180 severe-AGVHD-free-survival (SGFS) a key secondary end point. Sample sizes were calculated using a higher type-1 error (0.2) as recommended for phase II trials, and were based on predicting that abatacept would reduce grade 3-4 AGVHD from 20% to 10% (8/8s) and 30% to 10% (7/8s). ABA2 enrolled 142 recipients (8/8s, median follow-up = 716 days) and 43 recipients (7/8s, median follow-up = 708 days).

Results: In 8/8s, grade 3-4 AGVHD was 6.8% (abatacept) versus 14.8% (placebo) ( = .13, hazard ratio = 0.45). SGFS was 93.2% (CNI/MTX plus abatacept) versus 82% (CNI/MTX plus placebo, = .05). In the smaller 7/8 cohort, grade 3-4 AGVHD was 2.3% (CNI/MTX plus abatacept, intention-to-treat population), which compared favorably with a nonrandomized matched cohort of CNI/MTX (30.2%, < .001), and the SGFS was better (97.7% 58.7%, < .001). Immunologic analysis revealed control of T-cell activation in abatacept-treated patients.

Conclusion: Adding abatacept to URD HCT was safe, reduced AGVHD, and improved SGFS. These results suggest that abatacept may substantially improve AGVHD-related transplant outcomes, with a particularly beneficial impact on HLA-mismatched HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260909PMC
June 2021

Biomarker-guided preemption of steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease with α-1-antitrypsin.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(24):6098-6105

Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Steroid-refractory (SR) acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but its occurrence is not accurately predicted by pre-HCT clinical risk factors. The Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium (MAGIC) algorithm probability (MAP) identifies patients who are at high risk for developing SR GVHD as early as 7 days after HCT based on the extent of intestinal crypt damage as measured by the concentrations of 2 serum biomarkers, suppressor of tumorigenesis 2 and regenerating islet-derived 3α. We conducted a multicenter proof-of-concept "preemptive" treatment trial of α-1-antitrypsin (AAT), a serine protease inhibitor with demonstrated activity against GVHD, in patients at high risk for developing SR GVHD. Patients were eligible if they possessed a high-risk MAP on day 7 after HCT or, if initially low risk, became high risk on repeat testing at day 14. Thirty high-risk patients were treated with twice-weekly infusions of AAT for a total of 16 doses, and their outcomes were compared with 90 high-risk near-contemporaneous MAGIC control patients. AAT treatment was well tolerated with few toxicities, but it did not lower the incidence of SR GVHD compared with controls (20% vs 14%, P = .56). We conclude that real-time biomarker-based risk assignment is feasible early after allogeneic HCT but that this dose and schedule of AAT did not change the incidence of SR acute GVHD. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03459040.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756981PMC
December 2020

Obesity induces gut microbiota alterations and augments acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Sci Transl Med 2020 11;12(571)

Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The impact of obesity on allo-HSCT outcomes is poorly understood. Here, we report that obesity had a negative and selective impact on acute gut GVHD after allo-HSCT in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). These animals exhibited increased gut permeability, endotoxin translocation across the gut, and radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage after allo-HSCT. After allo-HSCT, both male and female DIO mouse recipients showed increased proinflammatory cytokine production and expression of the GVHD marker ST2 (IL-33R) and MHC class II molecules; they also exhibited decreased survival associated with acute severe gut GVHD. This rapid-onset, obesity-associated gut GVHD depended on donor CD4 T cells and occurred even with a minor MHC mismatch between donor and recipient animals. Retrospective analysis of clinical cohorts receiving allo-HSCT transplants from unrelated donors revealed that recipients with a high body mass index (BMI, >30) had reduced survival and higher serum ST2 concentrations compared with nonobese transplant recipients. Assessment of both DIO mice and allo-HSCT recipients with a high BMI revealed reduced gut microbiota diversity and decreased Clostridiaceae abundance. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment protected DIO mouse recipients from endotoxin translocation across the gut and increased inflammatory cytokine production, as well as gut pathology and mortality, but did not protect against later development of chronic skin GVHD. These results suggest that obesity-induced alterations of the gut microbiota may affect GVHD after allo-HSCT in DIO mice, which could be ameliorated by prophylactic antibiotic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aay7713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8525601PMC
November 2020

Current and Emerging Targeted Therapies for Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

BioDrugs 2021 Jan;35(1):19-33

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY, USA.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), develops in approximately 50% of patients. The primary treatment is high-dose systemic steroids, but treatment failure is common, and steroid-refractory (SR) GVHD is the leading cause of non-relapse mortality after allogeneic HCT. Ruxolitinib became the first treatment for SR GVHD to obtain US Food and Drug Administration approval, and other new treatments are actively being studied. We searched the literature using the PubMed database and clinical trials using ClinicalTrials.gov to identify the most promising new treatments for GVHD. In this review, we categorize potential new treatments for GVHD by their mechanism of action (e.g., antibodies that deplete T cells or prevent their trafficking to target tissues, proteasome inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and other agents) and summarize the results from clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40259-020-00454-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855093PMC
January 2021

Priorities for Improving Outcomes for Nonmalignant Blood Diseases: A Report from the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 05 5;26(5):e94-e100. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Nonmalignant blood diseases such as bone marrow failure disorders, immune dysregulation disorders, and hemoglobinopathies often lead to shortened life spans and poor quality of life. Many of these diseases can be cured with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, but patients are often not offered the procedure because of perceived insufficient efficacy and/or excess toxicity. In 2018, the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network convened a task force to identify the most urgently needed yet feasible clinical trials with potential to improve the outcomes for patients with nonmalignant diseases. This report summarizes the task force discussions and specifies the network plans for clinical trial development for nonmalignant blood diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.01.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062984PMC
May 2020

Disease risk and GVHD biomarkers can stratify patients for risk of relapse and nonrelapse mortality post hematopoietic cell transplant.

Leukemia 2020 07 4;34(7):1898-1906. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program, Children's Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

The graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) can prevent relapse but the risk of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) leads to prolonged intensive immunosuppression and possible blunting of the GVL effect. Strategies to reduce immunosuppression in order to prevent relapse have been offset by increases in severe GVHD and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). We recently validated the MAGIC algorithm probability (MAP) that predicts the risk for severe GVHD and NRM in asymptomatic patients using serum biomarkers. In this study we tested whether the MAP could identify patients whose risk for relapse is higher than their risk for severe GVHD and NRM. The multicenter study population (n = 1604) was divided into two cohorts: historical (2006-2015, n = 702) and current (2015-2017, n = 902) with similar NRM, relapse, and survival. On day 28 post-HCT, patients who had not developed GVHD (75% of the population) and who possessed a low MAP were at much higher risk for relapse (24%) than severe GVHD and NRM (16 and 9%); this difference was even more pronounced in patients with a high disease risk index (relapse 33%, NRM 9%). Such patients are good candidates to test relapse prevention strategies that might enhance GVL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0726-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332389PMC
July 2020

Biomarkers in acute graft--host disease: new insights.

Ther Adv Hematol 2019 4;10:2040620719891358. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Hess Center for Science and Medicine, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1470 Madison Avenue, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematologic malignancies that relies on the graft--leukemia (GVL) effect to eradicate malignant cells. GVL is tightly linked to graft--host disease (GVHD) however, in which donor T cells damage healthy host tissues. Acute GVHD occurs in nearly 50% of patients receiving HCT, and damages the skin, liver, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The organ stages are totaled in an overall grade (I-IV), and severe (grade III/IV) GVHD has a high mortality rate (50-70%). In the past decade, serum biomarkers have emerged as an additional potential measurement of acute GVHD severity. The discovery and validation of GVHD biomarkers is a principal objective of the Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium (MAGIC), a group of 25 HCT centers conducting GVHD research. MAGIC has validated an algorithm that combines two GI biomarkers (ST2 and REG3α) into a single value that estimates the probability of 6 month nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for individual patients, known as the MAGIC algorithm probability (MAP). The MAP reflects GI crypt damage and serves as a 'liquid biopsy' of the lower GI tract; it also predicts response to treatment and maximum GVHD severity and is now commercially available and widely used among scores of centers in clinical practice. The MAP is the focus of this review, with consideration of the categorization of types of biomarkers as defined by the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2040620719891358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893923PMC
December 2019

The MAGIC algorithm probability is a validated response biomarker of treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease.

Blood Adv 2019 12;3(23):4034-4042

Division of Haematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

The Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium (MAGIC) algorithm probability (MAP), derived from 2 serum biomarkers, measures damage to crypts in the gastrointestinal tract during graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that changes in MAP after treatment could validate it as a response biomarker. We prospectively collected serum samples and clinical stages of acute GVHD from 615 patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation in 20 centers at initiation of first-line systemic treatment and 4 weeks later. We computed MAPs and clinical responses and compared their abilities to predict 6-month nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in the validation cohort (n = 367). After 4 weeks of treatment, MAPs predicted NRM better than the change in clinical symptoms in all patients and identified 2 groups with significantly different NRM in both clinical responders (40% vs 12%, P < .0001) and nonresponders (65% vs 25%, P < .0001). MAPs successfully reclassified patients for NRM risk within every clinical grade of acute GVHD after 4 weeks of treatment. At the beginning of treatment, patients with a low MAP that rose above the threshold of 0.290 after 4 weeks of treatment had a significant increase in NRM, whereas patients with a high MAP at onset that fell below that threshold after treatment had a striking decrease in NRM that translated into clear differences in overall survival. We conclude that a MAP measured before and after treatment of acute GVHD is a response biomarker that predicts long-term outcomes more accurately than change in clinical symptoms. MAPs have the potential to guide therapy for acute GVHD and may function as a useful end point in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963240PMC
December 2019

Randomized multicenter trial of sirolimus vs prednisone as initial therapy for standard-risk acute GVHD: the BMT CTN 1501 trial.

Blood 2020 01;135(2):97-107

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN.

Clinical- and biomarker-based tools may identify a lower-risk acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) population amenable to novel, reduced-intensity treatments. Previous data suggest sirolimus may rival standard of care prednisone. We conducted a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/National Cancer Institute-funded Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 2 trial to estimate the difference in day 28 complete response (CR)/partial response (PR) rates for sirolimus vs prednisone as initial treatment of patients with standard risk (SR) acute GVHD as defined by the Minnesota (MN) GVHD Risk Score and Ann Arbor (AA1/2) biomarker status. A total of 127 MN-SR patients were randomized (1:1), and 122 were AA1/2 (sirolimus, n = 58; prednisone, n = 64). Others were AA3 (n = 4), or AA status missing (n = 1). The day 28 CR/PR rates were similar for sirolimus 64.8% (90% confidence interval [CI], 54.1%-75.5%) vs 73% (90% CI, 63.8%-82.2%) for prednisone. The day 28 rate of CR/PR with prednisone ≤0.25 mg/kg/day was significantly higher for sirolimus than prednisone (66.7% vs 31.7%; P < .001). No differences were detected in steroid-refractory acute GVHD, disease-free survival, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or overall survival. Sirolimus was associated with reduced steroid exposure and hyperglycemia, reduced grade 2 to 3 infections, improvement in immune suppression discontinuation and patient-reported quality of life, and increased risk for thrombotic microangiopathy. For patients with clinical- and biomarker-based SR acute GVHD, sirolimus demonstrates similar overall initial treatment efficacy as prednisone. In addition, sirolimus therapy spares steroid exposure and allied toxicity, does not compromise long-term survival outcomes, and is associated with improved patient-reported quality of life. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02806947.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952830PMC
January 2020

Tisagenlecleucel Model-Based Cellular Kinetic Analysis of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-T Cells.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2019 05 7;8(5):285-295. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Center for Cellular Immunotherapies, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Tisagenlecleucel is a chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy that facilitates the killing of CD19 B cells. A model was developed for the kinetics of tisagenlecleucel and the impact of therapies for treating cytokine release syndrome (tocilizumab and corticosteroids) on expansion. Data from two phase II studies in pediatric and young adult relapsed/refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia were pooled to evaluate this model and evaluate extrinsic and intrinsic factors that may impact the extent of tisagenlecleucel expansion. The doubling time, initial decline half-life, and terminal half-life for tisagenlecleucel were 0.78, 4.3, and 220 days, respectively. No impact of tocilizumab or corticosteroids on the expansion rate was observed. This work represents the first mixed-effect model-based analysis of chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy and may be clinically impactful as future studies examine prophylactic interventions in patients at risk of higher grade cytokine release syndrome and the effects of these interventions on chimeric antigen receptor-T cell expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/psp4.12388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6539725PMC
May 2019

Phase I/II Trial of a Combination of Anti-CD3/CD7 Immunotoxins for Steroid-Refractory Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 04 3;25(4):712-719. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Hematology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Radboud Institute of Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Effective therapies for treating patients with steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host-disease (SR-aGVHD), particularly strategies that reduce the duration of immunosuppression following remission, are urgently needed. The investigated immunotoxin combination consists of a mixture of anti-CD3 and anti-CD7 antibodies separately conjugated to recombinant ricin A (CD3/CD7-IT), which induces in vivo depletion of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and suppresses T cell receptor activation. We conducted a phase I/II trial to examine the safety and efficacy of CD3/CD7-IT in 20 patients with SR-aGVHD; 17 of these patients (85%) had severe SR-aGVHD, and all 20 patients had visceral organ involvement, including 18 (90%) with gastrointestinal (GI) involvement and 5 (25%) with liver involvement. A validated 2-biomarker algorithm classified the majority of patients (11 of 20) as high risk. On day 28 after the start of CD3/CD7-IT therapy, the overall response rate was 60% (12 of 20), with 10 patients (50%) achieving a complete response. The 6-month overall survival rate was 60% (12 of 20), including 64% (7 of 11) classified as high risk by biomarkers. The 1-week course of treatment with CD3/CD7-IT caused profound but transient depletion of T cells and NK cells, followed by rapid recovery of the immune system with a diverse TCR Vβ repertoire, and preservation of Epstein-Barr virus- and cytomegalovirus-specific T cell clones. Furthermore, our results indicate that CD3/CD7-IT appeared to be safe and well tolerated, with a relatively low prevalence of manageable and reversible adverse events, primarily worsening of hypoalbuminemia, microangiopathy, and thrombocytopenia. These encouraging results suggest that CD3/CD7-IT may improve patient outcomes in patients with SR-aGVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.10.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595479PMC
April 2019

Genetic mechanisms of target antigen loss in CAR19 therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Nat Med 2018 10 1;24(10):1504-1506. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA, USA.

We identified genetic mutations in CD19 and loss of heterozygosity at the time of CD19 relapse to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy. The mutations are present in the vast majority of resistant tumor cells and are predicted to lead to a truncated protein with a nonfunctional or absent transmembrane domain and consequently to a loss of surface antigen. This irreversible loss of CD19 advocates for an alternative targeting or combination CAR approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0146-zDOI Listing
October 2018

Microbial metabolite sensor GPR43 controls severity of experimental GVHD.

Nat Commun 2018 09 10;9(1):3674. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, 48109, MI, USA.

Microbiome-derived metabolites influence intestinal homeostasis and regulate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show the metabolite sensor G-protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) is important for attenuation of gastrointestinal GVHD in multiple clinically relevant murine models. GPR43 is critical for the protective effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), butyrate and propionate. Increased severity of GVHD in the absence of GPR43 is not due to baseline differences in the endogenous microbiota of the hosts. We confirm the ability of microbiome-derived metabolites to reduce GVHD by several methods, including co-housing, antibiotic treatment, and administration of exogenous SCFAs. The GVHD protective effect of SCFAs requires GPR43-mediated ERK phosphorylation and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in non-hematopoietic target tissues of the host. These data provide insight into mechanisms of microbial metabolite-mediated protection of target tissues from the damage caused allogeneic T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06048-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131147PMC
September 2018

Clinical Pharmacology of Tisagenlecleucel in B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 12 6;24(24):6175-6184. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Purpose: Tisagenlecleucel is an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR19) T-cell therapy approved for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory (r/r) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).

Patients And Methods: We evaluated the cellular kinetics of tisagenlecleucel, the effect of patient factors, humoral immunogenicity, and manufacturing attributes on its kinetics, and exposure-response analysis for efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamic endpoints in 79 patients across two studies in pediatric B-ALL (ELIANA and ENSIGN).

Results: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to quantify levels of tisagenlecleucel transgene, responders ( = 62) had ≈2-fold higher tisagenlecleucel expansion in peripheral blood than nonresponders ( = 8; 74% and 104% higher geometric mean Cmax and AUC0-28d, respectively) with persistence measurable beyond 2 years in responding patients. Cmax increased with occurrence and severity of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Tisagenlecleucel continued to expand and persist following tocilizumab, used to manage CRS. Patients with B-cell recovery within 6 months had earlier loss of the transgene compared with patients with sustained clinical response. Clinical responses were seen across the entire dose range evaluated (patients ≤50 kg: 0.2 to 5.0 × 10/kg; patients >50 kg: 0.1 to 2.5 × 10 CAR-positive viable T cells) with no relationship between dose and safety. Neither preexisting nor treatment-induced antimurine CAR19 antibodies affected the persistence or clinical response.

Conclusions: Response to tisagenlecleucel was associated with increased expansion across a wide dose range. These results highlight the importance of cellular kinetics in understanding determinants of response to chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433345PMC
December 2018

Survival signal REG3α prevents crypt apoptosis to control acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.

J Clin Invest 2018 11 24;128(11):4970-4979. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

The Tisch Cancer Institute and Division of Hematology/Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York, USA.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains the major cause of morbidity and nonrelapse mortality after BM transplantation (BMT). The Paneth cell protein regenerating islet-derived 3α (REG3α) is a biomarker specific for GI GVHD. REG3α serum levels rose in the systematic circulation as GVHD progressively destroyed Paneth cells and reduced GI epithelial barrier function. Paradoxically, GVHD suppressed intestinal REG3γ (the mouse homolog of human REG3α), and the absence of REG3γ in BMT recipients intensified GVHD but did not change the composition of the microbiome. IL-22 administration restored REG3γ production and prevented apoptosis of both intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and Paneth cells, but this protection was completely abrogated in Reg3g-/- mice. In vitro, addition of REG3α reduced the apoptosis of colonic cell lines. Strategies that increase intestinal REG3α/γ to promote crypt regeneration may offer a novel, nonimmunosuppressive approach for GVHD and perhaps for other diseases involving the ISC niche, such as inflammatory bowel disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI99261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205404PMC
November 2018

Amphiregulin modifies the Minnesota Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Risk Score: results from BMT CTN 0302/0802.

Blood Adv 2018 08;2(15):1882-1888

National Marrow Donor Program, Minneapolis, MN.

Amphiregulin (AREG) is an epidermal growth factor receptor ligand that can restore integrity to damaged intestinal mucosa in murine models of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). We previously reported that circulating AREG is elevated in late-onset aGVHD (occurring after 100 days posttransplant), but its clinical relevance in the context of aGVHD risk is unknown. We measured AREG in 251 aGVHD onset blood samples from Blood and Marrow Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) primary treatment trials and determined their association with GVHD severity, day 28 complete or partial response (CR/PR) to first-line therapy, overall survival (OS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Every doubling of plasma AREG was associated with a 33% decrease in the odds of day 28 CR/PR (odds ratio [OR], 0.67; < .01). An AREG threshold of 33 pg/mL or greater divided patients with Minnesota standard-risk (SR) aGVHD into a distinct group with a significantly lower likelihood of: day 28 CR/PR (72% vs 85%; = .02); greater 2-year NRM (42% vs 15%; < .01); and inferior OS (40% vs 66%; < .01). High AREG ≥ 33 pg/mL also stratified patients with Minnesota high-risk (HR) aGVHD: day 28 CR/PR (54% vs 83%; = .03) and 2-year NRM (53% vs 11%; < .01), with a trend toward inferior 2-year OS (37% vs 60%; = .09). High-circulating AREG (≥33 pg/mL) reclassifies patients into HR subgroups and thereby further refines the Minnesota aGVHD clinical risk score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018017343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6093743PMC
August 2018

EBMT-NIH-CIBMTR Task Force position statement on standardized terminology & guidance for graft-versus-host disease assessment.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 11 5;53(11):1401-1415. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Center for Cancer Research National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Several international recommendations address the assessment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This position statement by GvHD experts from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) reviews the existing guidelines for both acute and chronic GvHD, addresses potential confusions that arise in daily practice and proposes consensus definitions for many key terms. We provide a historical perspective on the currently available guidelines and recommend the Mount Sinai Acute GvHD International Consortium (MAGIC) criteria for acute GvHD and the NIH 2014 criteria for chronic GvHD as the most comprehensive and detailed criteria available. This statement also offers practical guidance for the implementation of these recommendations and a set of consensus definitions for commonly used GvHD terms in order to facilitate future clinical and translational research. To assist the dissemination of these recommendations, a web-application based on this position statement is available ( https://www.uzleuven.be/egvhd ). We believe that adherence to a common set of GvHD assessment criteria is vitally important to improve the quality of data, compare results of retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials, and make therapeutic recommendations based on quality evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0204-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6786777PMC
November 2018

Comparison of pediatric allogeneic transplant outcomes using myeloablative busulfan with cyclophosphamide or fludarabine.

Blood Adv 2018 06;2(11):1198-1206

Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY.

Busulfan combined with cyclophosphamide (BuCy) has long been considered a standard myeloablative conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), including both nonmalignant conditions and myeloid diseases. Substituting fludarabine for cyclophosphamide (BuFlu) to reduce toxicity without an increase in relapse has been increasingly performed in children, but without comparison with BuCy. We retrospectively analyzed 1781 children transplanted from 2008 to 2014 to compare the effectiveness of BuCy with BuFlu. Nonmalignant and malignant disease populations were analyzed separately. Overall mortality was comparable for children with nonmalignant conditions who received BuFlu or BuCy (relative risk [RR], 1.14, = .52). Lower incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome ( = .04), hemorrhagic cystitis ( = .04), and chronic graft-versus-host disease ( = .02) were observed after BuFlu, but the influence of the conditioning regimen could not be assessed by multivariate analysis because of the low frequency of these complications. Children transplanted for malignancies were more likely to receive BuFlu if they had higher hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index scores ( < .001) or their donor was unrelated and HLA-mismatched ( = .004). Nevertheless, there were no differences in transplant toxicities and comparable transplant-related mortality (RR, 1.2; = .46), relapse (RR, 1.2; = .15), and treatment failure (RR, 1.2; = .12). BuFlu was associated with higher overall mortality (RR, 1.4; = .008) related to inferior postrelapse survival ( = .001). Our findings demonstrated that outcomes after BuFlu are similar to those for BuCy for children, but for unclear reasons, those receiving BuFlu for malignancy may be at risk for shorter postrelapse survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018016956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998928PMC
June 2018

Treosulfan, Fludarabine, and Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation for Children and Young Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Prospective Phase II Trial of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 08 9;24(8):1651-1656. Epub 2018 May 9.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

This multicenter study evaluated a treosulfan-based regimen in children and young adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Forty patients with median age 11 years (range, 1 to 19) underwent allogeneic HCT for AML in first (n = 18), second (n = 11), and third or greater remission (n = 3) or MDS (n = 8) using bone marrow (n = 25), peripheral blood stem cells (n = 5), or cord blood (n = 9). The regimen consisted of body surface area (BSA)-based treosulfan 10 g/m/day (BSA ≤ .5 m), 12 g/m/day (BSA > .5 to 1.0 m), or 14 g/m/day (BSA > 1.0 m) on days -6 to -4; fludarabine 30 mg/m/day on days -6 to -2; and a single fraction of 200 cGy total body irradiation on day -1. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis included tacrolimus and methotrexate for marrow and peripheral blood stem cell and cyclosporine/mycophenolate mofetil for cord blood. One-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and nonrelapse mortality were 80%, 73%, and 3%, respectively. One-year relapse was 38% for AML and 13% for MDS. No serious organ toxicities were observed. All 37 assessable patients engrafted. Cumulative incidences of grades II to IV acute GVHD and chronic GVHD were 22% and 40%, respectively. BSA-based treosulfan dosing resulted in predictable area under the curve and maximum concentration, which is required for dosing without measuring individual pharmacokinetic parameters. Observed differences in pharmacokinetics did not impact disease control or regimen toxicity. This BSA-based treosulfan regimen resulted in excellent engraftment and disease-free survival and minimal toxicity and transplant-related mortality (3%) in children and young adults with AML and MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.04.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108922PMC
August 2018
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