Publications by authors named "John D Schatzle"

15 Publications

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Cutting edge: The adapters EAT-2A and -2B are positive regulators of CD244- and CD84-dependent NK cell functions in the C57BL/6 mouse.

J Immunol 2010 Nov 20;185(10):5683-7. Epub 2010 Oct 20.

Division of Immunology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

EWS/FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2)A and EAT-2B are single SH2-domain proteins, which bind to phosphorylated tyrosines of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptors in murine NK cells. While EAT-2 is a positive regulator in human cells, a negative regulatory role was attributed to the adapter in NK cells derived from EAT-2A-deficient 129Sv mice. To evaluate whether the genetic background or the presence of a selection marker in the mutant mice could influence the regulatory mode of these adapters, we generated EAT-2A-, EAT-2B-, and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice using C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. We found that NK cells from EAT-2A- and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice were unable to kill tumor cells in a CD244- or CD84-dependent manner. Furthermore, EAT-2A/B positively regulate phosphorylation of Vav-1, which is known to be implicated in NK cell killing. Thus, as in humans, the EAT-2 adapters act as positive regulators of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptor-specific NK cell functions in C57BL/6 mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1001974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3255554PMC
November 2010

Transience in polarization of cytolytic effectors is required for efficient killing and controlled by Cdc42.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Jun 14;107(26):11912-7. Epub 2010 Jun 14.

Department of Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Cytolytic effectors polarize toward target cells for effective killing and IFN-gamma secretion. The spatiotemporal features of this polarization and their importance for cytolysis have not been resolved. In cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, transient polarization was consistently associated with effective killing. Polarization was regulated by Cdc42, a small Rho family GTPase universally critical for cytoskeletal dynamics. Transient accumulation of active Cdc42 at the cytolytic effector/target cell interface and focus of such accumulation on the interface center were closely related to cytolysis. Surprisingly, however, the intensity of Cdc42 activation was not. We interfered with Cdc42 activation in NK cells such that sustained polarization in long lasting nonkilling cell couples was selectively blocked. Thus the proportion of the NK cell population displaying transient polarization was increased. As a consequence, cytolytic responder frequency and IFN-gamma production were enhanced upon such interference with Cdc42 activation. These data support the notion that transience in polarization is critical for cytolytic effector function, likely by preventing cytolytic effectors from becoming trapped in nonproductive target cell interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0913422107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2900700PMC
June 2010

Reciprocal responsiveness to interleukin-12 and interferon-alpha specifies human CD8+ effector versus central memory T-cell fates.

Blood 2009 May 18;113(22):5516-25. Epub 2009 Mar 18.

Department of Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9093, USA.

Multiple innate signals regulate the genesis of effector and memory CD8+ T cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the innate cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta regulate distinct aspects of effector and memory human CD8+ T-cell differentiation. IL-12 exclusively promoted the development of IFN-gamma- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-secreting T effector memory (T(EM)) cells, whereas IFN-alpha drove the development of T central memory (T(CM)) cells. The development of T(EM) and T(CM) was linked to cell division. In rapidly dividing cells, IL-12 programmed T(EM) through induction of the IL-12 receptor beta2. In contrast, IFN-alpha regulated T(CM) development by slowing the progression of cell division in a subpopulation of cells that selectively expressed elevated IFN-alpha/beta receptor-2. The strength of signal delivered through T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement regulated the responsiveness of cells to IL-12 and IFN-alpha. In the presence of both IL-12 and IFN-alpha, these cytokine signals were amplified as the strength of the TCR signal was increased, promoting the simultaneous development of both T(CM) and T(EM). Together, our results support a novel model in which IL-12 and IFN-alpha act in a nonredundant manner to regulate the colinear generation of both effector and memory cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-11-188458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2689051PMC
May 2009

Mapping of quantitative trait loci determining NK cell-mediated resistance to MHC class I-deficient bone marrow grafts in perforin-deficient mice.

J Immunol 2006 Dec;177(11):7923-9

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

NK cells reject allogeneic and MHC class I-deficient bone marrow (BM) grafts in vivo. The mechanisms used by NK cells to mediate this rejection are not yet thoroughly characterized. Although perforin plays a major role, perforin-independent mechanisms are involved as well. C57BL/6 mice deficient in perforin (B6 perforin knockout (PKO)) reject class I-deficient TAP-1 KO BM cells as efficiently as normal B6 mice. In contrast, perforin-deficient 129S6/SvEvTac mice (129 PKO) cannot mediate this rejection while normal 129 mice efficiently reject. This suggests that in 129, but not in B6, mice, perforin is crucial for NK cell-mediated rejection of MHC class I-deficient BM grafts. To identify loci linked to BM rejection in perforin-deficient mice, we generated backcross 1 progeny by crossing (129 x B6)F(1) PKO mice to 129 PKO mice. In transplantation experiments, >350 backcross 1 progeny were analyzed and displayed a great variation in ability to reject TAP-1 KO BM grafts. PCR-based microsatellite mapping identified four quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 2, 4, and 8, with the QTL on chromosome 8 showing the highest significance, as well as a fifth epistatic QTL on chromosome 3. This study describes the first important step toward identifying BM graft resistance gene(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.11.7923DOI Listing
December 2006

The role of SAP and the SLAM family in autoimmunity.

Curr Opin Immunol 2006 Dec 29;18(6):656-64. Epub 2006 Sep 29.

Center for Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75235, USA.

The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors and their associated signaling adaptors play a pivotal role in the regulation of various stages of cellular immunity. They regulate lymphocyte-lymphocyte interactions involved in both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Recent evidence indicates that members of this family of receptors and signaling intermediates are also involved in autoimmunity. These include strictly correlative studies showing increased expression of various family members in immune effectors involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in inflammatory bowel disease, as well as more direct evidence (from various knockout strains of mice) for their role in autoimmune processes such as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and lupus. Additional studies defining naturally occurring polymorphic variations in the SLAM family show a direct role in initiating the break in tolerance that is an essential step in the progression towards autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2006.09.010DOI Listing
December 2006

Regulation of B cell tolerance by the lupus susceptibility gene Ly108.

Science 2006 Jun;312(5780):1665-9

Department of Internal Medicine (Rheumatology), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

The susceptibility locus for the autoimmune disease lupus on murine chromosome 1, Sle1z/Sle1bz, and the orthologous human locus are associated with production of autoantibody to chromatin. We report that the presence of Sle1z/Sle1bz impairs B cell anergy, receptor revision, and deletion. Members of the SLAM costimulatory molecule family constitute prime candidates for Sle1bz, among which the Ly108.1 isoform of the Ly108 gene was most highly expressed in immature B cells from lupus-prone B6.Sle1z mice. The normal Ly108.2 allele, but not the lupus-associated Ly108.1 allele, was found to sensitize immature B cells to deletion and RAG reexpression. As a potential regulator of tolerance checkpoints, Ly108 may censor self-reactive B cells, hence safeguarding against autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1125893DOI Listing
June 2006

The murine NK receptor 2B4 (CD244) exhibits inhibitory function independent of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein expression.

J Immunol 2004 Sep;173(6):3953-61

Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75390, USA.

2B4 (CD244) is a receptor belonging to the CD2-signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family and is found on all murine NK cells and a subset of NKT and CD8+ T cells. Murine 2B4 is expressed as two isoforms (2B4 short and 2B4 long) that arise by alternative splicing. They differ only in their cytoplasmic domains and exhibit opposing function when expressed in the RNK-16 cell line. The ligand for 2B4, CD48, is expressed on all hemopoietic cells. Previous studies have shown that treatment of NK cells with a 2B4 mAb results in increased cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma production. In this report, we used CD48+/- variants of the P815 tumor cell line and 2B4 knockout mice to show that engagement of 2B4 by its counterreceptor, CD48, expressed on target cells leads to an inhibition in NK cytotoxicity. The addition of 2B4 or CD48 mAb relieves this inhibition resulting in enhanced target cell lysis. This 2B4-mediated inhibition acts independently of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein expression. Imaging studies show that 2B4 preferentially accumulates at the interface between NK and target cells during nonlytic events also indicative of an inhibitory receptor. This predominant inhibitory function of murine 2B4 correlates with increased 2B4 long isoform level expression over 2B4 short.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.6.3953DOI Listing
September 2004

NK cells stimulate proliferation of T and NK cells through 2B4/CD48 interactions.

J Immunol 2004 Jul;173(1):174-80

Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.

Few studies have addressed the consequences of physical interactions between NK and T cells, as well as physical interactions among NK cells themselves. We show in this study that NK cells can enhance T cell activation and proliferation in response to CD3 cross-linking and specific Ag through interactions between 2B4 (CD244) on NK cells and CD48 on T cells. Furthermore, 2B4/CD48 interactions between NK cells also enhanced proliferation of NK cells in response to IL-2. Overall, these results suggest that NK cells augment the proliferation of neighboring T and NK cells through direct cell-cell contact. These results provide new insights into NK cell-mediated control of innate and adaptive immunity and demonstrate that receptor/ligand-specific cross talk between lymphocytes may occur in settings other than T-B cell or T-T cell interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.1.174DOI Listing
July 2004

2B4 acts as a non-major histocompatibility complex binding inhibitory receptor on mouse natural killer cells.

J Exp Med 2004 May;199(9):1245-54

Department of Biochemistry, Korea University College of Medicine, Sungbuk-Gu, Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-705, Korea.

Natural killer (NK) cells are critical in the immune response to tumor cells, virally infected cells, and bone marrow allografts. 2B4 (CD244) is expressed on all NK cells and the ligand for 2B4, CD48, is expressed on hematopoietic cells. Cross-linking 2B4 on NK cells with anti-2B4 monoclonal antibody leads to NK cell activation in vitro. Therefore, 2B4 is considered to be an activating receptor. Surprisingly, we have found, using antibody-blocking and 2B4-deficient NK cells, that NK lysis of CD48(+) tumor and allogeneic targets is inhibited by 2B4 ligation. Interferon gamma production by NK cells is also inhibited. Using a peritoneal tumor clearance assay, it was found that 2B4(-/-) mice have increased clearance of CD48(+) tumor cells in vivo. Retroviral transduction of 2B4 was sufficient to restore inhibition in 2B4(-/-) primary NK cells. It was found that although mature NK cells express SH2D1A, in vitro-derived NK cells do not. However, both populations are inhibited by 2B4 ligation. This indicates that 2B4 inhibitory signaling occurs regardless of the presence of SH2D1A. These findings reveal a novel role for 2B4 as a non-major histocompatibility complex binding negative regulator of NK cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20031989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2211902PMC
May 2004

Stepwise cytoskeletal polarization as a series of checkpoints in innate but not adaptive cytolytic killing.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Jun 11;100(13):7767-72. Epub 2003 Jun 11.

Center for Immunology, Departments of Cell Biology and Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Cytolytic killing is a major effector mechanism in the elimination of virally infected and tumor cells. The innate cytolytic effectors, natural killer (NK) cells, and the adaptive effectors, cytotoxic T cells (CTL), despite differential immune recognition, both use the same lytic mechanism, cytolytic granule release. Using live cell video fluorescence microscopy in various primary cell models of NK cell and CTL killing, we show here that on tight target cell contact, a majority of the NK cells established cytoskeletal polarity required for effective lytic function slowly or incompletely. In contrast, CTLs established cytoskeletal polarity rapidly. In addition, NK cell killing was uniquely sensitive to minor interference with cytoskeletal dynamics. We propose that the stepwise NK cell cytoskeletal polarization constitutes a series of checkpoints in NK cell killing. In addition, the use of more deliberate progression to effector function to compensate for inferior immune recognition specificity provides a mechanistic explanation for how the same effector function can be used in the different functional contexts of the innate and adaptive immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1336920100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC164662PMC
June 2003

Definition of additional functional ligands for Ly49I(B6) using FVBLy49I(B6) transgenic mice and B6 natural killer cell effectors.

Transplantation 2002 Nov;74(10):1449-54

Department of Pathology, Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9072, USA.

Background: Natural killer (NK) cells use inhibitory Ly49 receptors to differentiate self from foreign cells based on interactions with major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules. Inhibitory receptors may recognize multiple MHC class I molecules. Studies to define ligands for the Ly49 receptors are complicated by the fact that receptors are expressed in overlapping subsets on NK cells. Binding studies can predict which MHC class I molecules are ligands for Ly49 receptors, but functional tests are required to substantiate results from binding studies.

Methods: We developed Ly49 receptor transgenic mice and studied the function of Ly49I(B6) in FVB.Ly49I(B6) transgenic mice using bone marrow transplantation assays to determine additional functional ligands for Ly49I(B6). We have also used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate specific populations of B6 NK cells bearing Ly49I for use as effectors in chromium-release assays against a panel of Concanavalin A blast targets.

Results: Bone marrow transplantation studies indicate that H2-K(b), H2(s), and H2(v) serve as functional ligands for Ly49I(B6). In vitro cytotoxicity assays indicate that Ly49I recognizes H2(q), but not H2(d) or H2(k), target cells to inhibit NK killing.

Conclusions: These data add support to previous binding studies by showing functional interactions between the B6-strain Ly49I and H2-K(b), H2(s), H2(v), and H2(q) class I antigens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200211270-00018DOI Listing
November 2002

Interface accumulation of receptor/ligand couples in lymphocyte activation: methods, mechanisms, and significance.

Immunol Rev 2002 Nov;189:64-83

Center for Immunology, Department of Cell Biology, Program in Immunology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9093, USA.

Cellular interaction is vital to the activation of most lymphocytes. At the interface between the lymphocyte and the cell that activates it, multiple receptor/ligand pairs accumulate in distinct patterns. This accumulation is intriguing, as it is likely to shape the quality of receptor signaling and thereby lymphocyte behavior. Here we address such receptor/ligand accumulation with an emphasis on T and natural killer (NK) cells. First, we discuss the strengths and limitations of commonly used approaches to visualize receptor/ligand accumulation. Second, we discuss two principal mechanisms of receptor and ligand translocation, diffusion and cytoskeletal transport, as understanding these mechanisms can be invaluable in the determination of the significance of receptor/ligand accumulation. We show that the extent of receptor/ligand accumulation at the T cell/antigen presenting cell interface is dominated by diffusion for all but the lowest affinity interactions, while patterning of these receptors/ligands within the interface is strongly influenced by cytoskeletal transport. Third, we discuss two specific issues in lymphocyte receptor/ligand accumulation. We review the abundant but frequently controversial data on T cell receptor (TCR)/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) accumulation and suggest that central TCR/MHC accumulation is a mediator of efficient T cell activation. In the investigation of NK cell/target cell interactions, we characterize the often tentative NK cell/target cell couple maintenance, as it creates a major obstacle in studying receptor/ligand accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-065x.2002.18907.xDOI Listing
November 2002

B6 strain Ly49I inhibitory gene expression on T cells in FVB.Ly49IB6 transgenic mice fails to prevent normal T cell functions.

J Immunol 2002 Oct;169(7):3661-6

Department of Pathology, Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, and Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Inhibitory Ly49 receptors expressed on NK cells provide a mechanism for tolerance to normal self tissues. The immunoregulatory tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs present in some Ly49s are able to transmit an inhibitory signal upon ligation by MHC class I ligands. In our system, as well as others, mice transgenic for inhibitory Ly49 receptors express these receptors on both NK and T cells. FVB (H2(q)) mice transgenic for the B6 strain Ly49I (Ly49I(B6)) express the inhibitory Ly49 receptor on the surface of both T and NK cells. Although Ly49I functions to prevent NK-mediated rejection of H2(b) donor bone marrow cells in this transgenic mouse strain, the T cells do not appear to be affected by the expression of the Ly49I transgene. FVB.Ly49I T cells have normal proliferative capabilities both in vitro and in vivo in response to the Ly49I ligand, H2(b). In vivo functional T cell assays were also done, showing that transgenic T cells were not functionally affected. T cells in these mice also appear to undergo normal T cell development and activation. Only upon stimulation with suboptimal doses of anti-CD3 in the presence of anti-Ly49I is T cell proliferation inhibited. These data are in contrast with findings in Ly49A, and Ly49G2 receptor transgenic models. Perhaps Ly49I-H2(b) interactions are weaker or of lower avidity than Ly49A-H-2D(d) interactions, especially in T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.169.7.3661DOI Listing
October 2002

2B4 is constitutively associated with linker for the activation of T cells in glycolipid-enriched microdomains: properties required for 2B4 lytic function.

J Immunol 2002 Jul;169(1):55-62

Department of Pathology and Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9072, USA.

2B4 is a receptor belonging to the Ig superfamily and is found on all murine NK cells as well as a small subset of T cells. Previous studies have found that cross-linking of the 2B4 receptor results in both increased cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma secretion. We have discovered that 2B4 from transfected NK and T cell lines, as well as from primary murine cells, coimmunoprecipitates with the phosphoprotein linker for the activation of T cells (LAT), which is essential for TCR-mediated signaling. This association is independent of both 2B4 phosphorylation and the cytoplasmic tail of 2B4. We have found that, along with LAT, 2B4 is constitutively located in glycolipid-enriched microdomains of the plasma membrane. In fact, 2B4 appears to associate with LAT only when it localizes to glycolipid-enriched microdomains. This localization of 2B4 occurs due to a CxC cysteine motif found in the transmembrane region, as determined by mutagenesis studies. 2B4-mediated cytotoxicity is defective in the absence of LAT, indicating that LAT is a required intermediate for 2B4 signal transduction. However, we have also shown that LAT association alone is not sufficient for maximal 2B4 activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.169.1.55DOI Listing
July 2002

Perforin- and Fas-dependent mechanisms of natural killer cell-mediated rejection of incompatible bone marrow cell grafts.

Eur J Immunol 2002 03;32(3):793-9

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75390-9072, USA.

Natural killer (NK) cells eliminate target cells infected with intracellular pathogens and tumor cells by employing the granule exocytosis and death receptor pathways. They also mediate the acute rejection of incompatible bone marrow cell (BMC) grafts. However, the cytotoxic mechanisms employed during acute BMC graft rejection are obscure. Throughout these studies, BMC graft rejection was compared between two inbred strains of mice: 129 mice, which apparently use perforin- and Fas-dependent cytotoxicity, and C57BL/6 (B6) mice, which are able to exploit perforin- and/or Fas-independent mechanisms. Using perforin-knockout (PKO) mice, we have determined that the granule exocytosis pathway can play a major role in NK cell-mediated rejection of allogeneic and MHC class I-deficient BMC, depending upon the genetic background of the recipient and the environmental housing conditions. Although the granule exocytosis pathway seems to be the most potent cytolytic mechanism of NK cell-mediated rejection, alternative perforin-independent mechanisms, such as death receptor-induced apoptosis, also exist. By preventing both perforin- and Fas-mediated interactions concurrently, we observed that 129 mice were impaired in mediating MHC class I-deficient BMC rejection, while B6 mice maintained strong rejection capacities. The administration of neutralizing TNF antibodies to B6PKO mice before challenging with Fas and MHC class I double-deficient BMC still did not reverse rejection. Thus, our studies reveal the relative importance of perforin-, Fas-, and TNF-based cytotoxicity in NK cell-mediated rejection of incompatible BMC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-4141(200203)32:3<793::AID-IMMU793>3.0.CO;2-MDOI Listing
March 2002