Publications by authors named "John D Mann"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Methodology for altering omega-3 EPA+DHA and omega-6 linoleic acid as controlled variables in a dietary trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 12;40(6):3859-3867. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background & Aims: Increasing dietary intake of n-3 EPA+DHA and lowering dietary n-6 LA is under investigation as a therapeutic diet for improving chronic pain syndromes as well as other health outcomes. Herein we describe the diet methodology used to modulate intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in a free living migraine headache population and report on nutrient intake, BMI and diet acceptability achieved at week 16 of the intensive diet intervention and week 22 follow-up time-point.

Methods: A total of 178 participants were randomized and began one of three diet interventions: 1) a high n-3 PUFA, average n-6 PUFA (H3) diet targeting 1500 mg EPA+DHA/day and 7% of energy (en%) from n-6 linoleic acid (LA), 2) a high-n-3 PUFA, low-n-6 PUFA (H3L6) targeting 1500 mg EPA+DHA/day and <1.8 en% n-6 LA or 3) a Control diet with typical American intakes of both EPA+DHA (<150 mg/day) and 7 en% from n-6 LA. Methods used to achieve diet change to week 16 include diet education, diet counseling, supply of specially prepared foods, self-monitoring and access to online diet materials. Only study oils and website materials were provided for the follow-up week 16 to week 22 periods. Diet adherence was assessed by multiple 24 h recalls administered throughout the trial. Diet acceptability was assessed in a subset of participants at 4 time points by questionnaire.

Results: At week 16 H3 and H3L6 diet groups significantly increased median n-3 EPA+DHA intake from 48 mg/2000 kcals at baseline to 1484 mg/2000 kcals (p < 0.0001) and from 44 mg/2000 kcals to 1341 mg/2000 kcals (p < 0.0001), respectively. In the Control group, EPA+DHA intake remained below the typical American intake with baseline median at 60 mg/2000 kcals and 80 mg/2000 kcals (p = 0.6) at week 16. As desired, LA intake was maintained in the H3 and Control group with baseline median of 6.5 en% to 7.1 en% (p = 0.4) at week 16 and from 6.5 en% to 6.8 en% (p = 1.0) at week 16, respectively. In the H3L6 group, n-6 LA decreased from 6.3 en% at baseline to 3.2 en% (p < 0.0001) at week 16. There were no significant changes in BMI or diet acceptability throughout the trial or between diet groups.

Conclusions: We find this diet method to be acceptable to research participants and successful in altering dietary n-3 EPA+DHA with and without concurrent decreases in n-6 LA. If n-6 LA of less than 3 en% is desired, additional techniques to limit LA may need to be employed.
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June 2021

A Mixed-Methods, Randomized Clinical Trial to Examine Feasibility of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Management and Diabetes Risk Reduction Intervention for African Americans with Prediabetes.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 14;2019:3962623. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Program on Integrative Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

African Americans have disproportionately high rates of stress-related conditions, including diabetes and diabetes-related morbidity. Psychological stress may negatively influence engagement in risk-reducing lifestyle changes (physical activity and healthy eating) and stress-related physiology that increase diabetes risk. This study examined the feasibility of conducting a randomized trial comparing a novel mindfulness-based stress management program combined with diabetes risk-reduction education versus a conventional diabetes risk-reduction education program among African American adults with prediabetes and self-reported life stress. Participants were recruited in collaboration with community partners and randomized to the mindfulness-based diabetes risk-reduction education program for prediabetes (MPD;  = 38) or the conventional diabetes risk-reduction education program for prediabetes (CPD;  = 30). The mindfulness components were adapted from the Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction Program. The diabetes risk-reduction components were adapted from the Program and the . Groups met for eight weeks for 2.5 hours, with a half-day retreat and six-monthly boosters. . Psychological, behavioral, and metabolic data were collected before the intervention and at three and six months postintervention to examine within-group change and feasibility of collecting such data in future clinical efficacy research. Participants reported acceptability, credibility, and cultural relevance of the intervention components. Enrollment of eligible participants (79%), intervention session attendance (76.5%), retention (90%), and postintervention data collection attendance (83%, 82%, and 78%, respectively) demonstrated feasibility, and qualitative data provided information to further enhance feasibility in future studies. Both groups exhibited an A1C reduction. MPD participants had reductions in perceived stress, BMI, calorie, carbohydrate and fat intake, and increases in spiritual well-being. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes and diabetes-related complications in African Americans, these novel findings provide promising guidance to develop a larger trial powered to examine efficacy of a mindfulness-based stress management and diabetes risk-reduction education program for African Americans with prediabetes.
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August 2019

Responsiveness of Myofascial Trigger Points to Single and Multiple Trigger Point Release Massages: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2017 Sep;96(9):639-645

From the College of Nursing, University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora (AFM, SJS); Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (JDM); Boulder College of Massage Therapy, Boulder, Colorado (NB); and Colorado Pain, Golden (JPK).

Objective: This study aimed to assess the effects of single and multiple massage treatments on pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in people with myofascial pain syndrome expressed as tension-type headache.

Design: Individuals (n = 62) with episodic or chronic tension-type headache were randomized to receive 12 twice-weekly 45-min massage or sham ultrasound sessions or wait-list control. Massage focused on trigger point release (ischemic compression) of MTrPs in the bilateral upper trapezius and suboccipital muscles. PPT was measured at MTrPs with a pressure algometer pre and post the first and final (12th) treatments.

Results: PPT increased across the study timeframe in all four muscle sites tested for massage, but not sham ultrasound or wait-list groups (P < 0.0001 for suboccipital; P < 0.004 for upper trapezius). Post hoc analysis within the massage group showed (1) an initial, immediate increase in PPT (all P values < 0.05), (2) a cumulative and sustained increase in PPT over baseline (all P values < 0.05), and (3) an additional immediate increase in PPT at the final (12th) massage treatment (all P values < 0.05, except upper trapezius left, P = 0.17).

Conclusions: Single and multiple massage applications increase PPT at MTrPs. The pain threshold of MTrPs have a great capacity to increase; even after multiple massage treatments additional gain in PPT was observed.

To Claim Cme Credits: Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Understand the contribution of myofascial trigger points to myofascial pain; (2) Describe an effective treatment for decreasing tenderness of a myofascial trigger point; and (3) Discuss the relative values of single vs. multiple massage sessions on increasing pressure-pain thresholds at myofascial trigger points.

Level: Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
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September 2017

Myofascial trigger point-focused head and neck massage for recurrent tension-type headache: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Clin J Pain 2015 Feb;31(2):159-68

*College of Nursing, University of Colorado at Denver ‡Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora †Boulder College of Massage Therapy, Boulder, CO §Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

Objective: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are focal disruptions in the skeletal muscle that can refer pain to the head and reproduce the pain patterns of tension-type HA (TTH). The present study applied massage focused on MTrPs of patients with TTH in a placebo-controlled, clinical trial to assess efficacy on reducing headache (HA) pain.

Methods: Fifty-six patients with TTH were randomized to receive 12 massage or placebo (detuned ultrasound) sessions over 6 weeks, or to wait-list. Trigger point release massage focused on MTrPs in cervical musculature. HA pain (frequency, intensity, and duration) was recorded in a daily HA diary. Additional outcome measures included self-report of perceived clinical change in HA pain and pressure-pain threshold at MTrPs in the upper trapezius and suboccipital muscles.

Results: From diary recordings, group differences across time were detected in HA frequency (P=0.026), but not for intensity or duration. Post hoc analysis indicated that HA frequency decreased from baseline for both massage (P<0.0003) and placebo (P=0.013), but no difference was detected between massage and placebo. Patient report of perceived clinical change was greater reduction in HA pain for massage than placebo or wait-list groups (P=0.002). Pressure-pain threshold improved in all muscles tested for massage only (all P's<0.002).

Discussion: Two findings from this study are apparent: (1) MTrPs are important components in the treatment of TTH, and (2) TTH, like other chronic conditions, is responsive to placebo. Clinical trials on HA that do not include a placebo group are at risk for overestimating the specific contribution from the active intervention.
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February 2015

Craniosacral therapy for migraine: protocol development for an exploratory controlled clinical trial.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2008 Jun 9;8:28. Epub 2008 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Migraine affects approximately 20% of the population. Conventional care for migraine is suboptimal; overuse of medications for the treatment of episodic migraines is a risk factor for developing chronic daily headache. The study of non-pharmaceutical approaches for prevention of migraine headaches is therefore warranted. Craniosacral therapy (CST) is a popular non-pharmacological approach to the treatment or prevention of migraine headaches for which there is limited evidence of safety and efficacy. In this paper, we describe an ongoing feasibility study to assess the safety and efficacy of CST in the treatment of migraine, using a rigorous and innovative randomized controlled study design involving low-strength static magnets (LSSM) as an attention control intervention.

Methods: The trial is designed to test the hypothesis that, compared to those receiving usual care plus a treatment with low-strength static magnets (attention-control complementary therapy), subjects receiving usual medical care plus CST will demonstrate significant improvement in: quality-of-life as measured by the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6); reduced frequency of migraine; and a perception of clinical benefit. Criteria for inclusion are either gender, age > 11, English or Spanish speaking, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) criteria for migraine with or without aura, a headache frequency of 5 to 15 per month over at least two years. After an 8 week baseline phase, eligible subjects are randomized to either CST or an attention control intervention, low strength static magnets (LSSM). To evaluate possible therapist bias, videotaped encounters are analyzed to assess for any systematic group differences in interactions with subjects.

Results: 169 individuals have been screened for eligibility, of which 109 were eligible for the study. Five did not qualify during the baseline phase because of inadequate headache frequency. Nineteen have withdrawn from the study after giving consent.

Conclusion: This report endorses the feasibility of undertaking a rigorous randomized clinical trial of CST for migraine using a standardized CST protocol and an innovative control protocol developed for the study. Subjects are able and willing to complete detailed headache diaries during an 8-week baseline period, with few dropouts during the study period, indicating the acceptability of both interventions.

Trial Registration: NCT00665236.
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June 2008