Publications by authors named "John Charles A Lacson"

6 Publications

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Birth cohort-specific trends of sun-related behaviors among individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 23;21(1):692. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Individuals from melanoma-prone families have similar or reduced sun-protective behaviors compared to the general population. Studies on trends in sun-related behaviors have been temporally and geographically limited.

Methods: Individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families (GenoMEL) were retrospectively asked about sunscreen use, sun exposure (time spent outside), sunburns, and sunbed use at several timepoints over their lifetime. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association between these outcomes and birth cohort defined by decade spans, after adjusting for covariates.

Results: A total of 2407 participants from 547 families across 17 centers were analyzed. Sunscreen use increased across subsequent birth cohorts, and although the likelihood of sunburns increased until the 1950s birth cohort, it decreased thereafter. Average sun exposure did not change across the birth cohorts, and the likelihood of sunbed use increased in more recent birth cohorts. We generally did not find any differences in sun-related behavior when comparing melanoma cases to non-cases. Melanoma cases had increased sunscreen use, decreased sun exposure, and decreased odds of sunburn and sunbed use after melanoma diagnosis compared to before diagnosis.

Conclusions: Although sunscreen use has increased and the likelihood of sunburns has decreased in more recent birth cohorts, individuals in melanoma-prone families have not reduced their overall sun exposure and had an increased likelihood of sunbed use in more recent birth cohorts. These observations demonstrate partial improvements in melanoma prevention and suggest that additional intervention strategies may be needed to achieve optimal sun-protective behavior in melanoma-prone families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10424-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063451PMC
April 2021

Genome-Wide Testing of Exonic Variants and Breast Cancer Risk in the California Teachers Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2017 09;26(9):1462-1465

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Few studies have focused on the relationship of exonic variation with breast cancer and subtypes defined by tumor markers: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2. We genotyped 1,764 breast cancer patients and 1,400 controls from the California Teachers Study cohort using the Infinium HumanExome Beadchip. Individual variant and gene-based analyses were conducted for overall breast cancer and by individual tumor marker subtype. No exonic variants or gene-based analyses were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer overall or by ER-, PR-, or HER2-defined subtype. We did not detect any novel statistically significant exonic variants with overall breast cancer risk or by subtype. Exonic variants in the exome chip may not be associated with overall breast cancer or subtype susceptibility. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-0364DOI Listing
September 2017

HIV Infection and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases Beyond Coronary Artery Disease.

Curr Atheroscler Rep 2017 May;19(5):20

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly afflicts people living with HIV (PLWH) in the contemporary era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most widely studied cardiovascular problem in PLWH; however, less is known about other clinically relevant subtypes of CVD such as heart failure (HF), cerebrovascular disease, sudden cardiac death, pericardial diseases, and pulmonary hypertension. This paper reviews evidence of other subtypes of CVD as emerging issues in the post-ART era.

Recent Findings: Recent studies have shown that PLWH have higher risk of HF as well as subclinical impairment of left ventricular (LV) mechanics (systolic and diastolic dysfunction) and myocardial abnormalities (fibrosis and steatosis). The underlying mechanisms, however, are not well-understood. A few studies have also shown higher rates of atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death in PLWH. Ischemic stroke is the most common stroke type in the post-ART era, with underlying mechanisms like those identified in CAD: chronic inflammation and associated vasculopathy. Studies of great vessels (carotid artery and aorta) and peripheral arterial disease show heterogeneous results. Small subclinical pericardial effusions are common in PLWH in post-ART era. Pulmonary hypertension continues to be an underdiagnosed and potentially fatal complication of HIV infection. PLWH remain at higher risk for all types of CVD including heart failure, stroke, and arrhythmias in the post-ART era. Chronic inflammation may play an important role in this increased risk. More studies are needed to further elucidate the extent of non-coronary CVD in PLWH and the underlying mechanisms for them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11883-017-0652-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6066370PMC
May 2017

Coronary Artery Disease in HIV-Infected Patients: Downside of Living Longer.

Curr Atheroscler Rep 2017 Apr;19(4):18

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased the life expectancy of patients with HIV infection, allowing them to live longer with this chronic medical condition and consequently experiencing conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Several studies have investigated the increased risk of CVD in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, less is known about the exact mechanisms involved in this increased risk. Also, specific guidelines for management of CVD in PLWH have not been developed yet. In this article, we review the recent literature on the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of CVD in PLWH, with an emphasis on coronary artery disease (CAD).

Recent Findings: Although initial studies suspected the increased prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors and side effects of ART to be involved in the increased CVD risk in PLWH, recent studies have uncovered the important role of chronic persistent inflammation in this increased risk. In addition, biomarkers of inflammation have been associated with both CVD events and subclinical CAD in this population. Lastly, recent studies and ongoing clinical trials have been investigating medical interventions that aim to reduce inflammation and cardiovascular events. Different mechanisms of inflammation have been examined in PLWH, including subclinical viremia, microbial translocation, and coinfection with other pathogens such as cytomegalovirus. Although inflammatory biomarkers have been consistently associated with CVD and subclinical CVD outcomes, their prognostic value is unknown. Recent and ongoing trials are exploring the benefits of anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, and antimicrobial translocation drugs on both inflammation and CVD risk among PLWH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11883-017-0651-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6066371PMC
April 2017

Population-based case-control study of recreational drug use and testis cancer risk confirms an association between marijuana use and nonseminoma risk.

Cancer 2012 Nov 10;118(21):5374-83. Epub 2012 Sep 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9175, USA.

Background: Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) incidence increased steadily in recent decades, but causes remain elusive. Germ cell function may be influenced by cannabinoids, and 2 prior epidemiologic studies reported that the use of marijuana may be associated with nonseminomatous TGCT. Here, the authors evaluate the relation between TGCTs and exposure to marijuana and other recreational drugs using a population-based case-control study.

Methods: In total, 163 patients who were diagnosed with TGCT in Los Angeles County from December 1986 to April 1991 were enrolled, and 292 controls were matched on age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood. Participants were asked about drug use by a structured, in-person interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for history of cryptorchidism; education; religiosity; and reported use of marijuana, cocaine, and amyl nitrite.

Results: Compared with never use, ever use of marijuana had a 2-fold increased risk (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.02-3.68), whereas ever use of cocaine had a negative association with TGCT (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32-0.91). Stratification on tumor histology revealed a specific association of marijuana use with nonseminoma and mixed histology tumors (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.08-5.42).

Conclusions: A specific association was observed between marijuana use and the risk of nonseminoma and mixed tumors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a negative association between cocaine use and TGCT risk. The current results warrant mechanistic studies of marijuana's effect on the endocannabinoid system and TGCT risk and caution that recreational and therapeutic use of cannabinoids by young men may confer malignant potential to testicular germ cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775603PMC
November 2012