Publications by authors named "John Carlson"

314 Publications

Connecting post-release mortality to the physiological stress response of large coastal sharks in a commercial longline fishery.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0255673. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Center for Shark Research, Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, Florida, United States of America.

Bycatch mortality is a major factor contributing to shark population declines. Post-release mortality (PRM) is particularly difficult to quantify, limiting the accuracy of stock assessments. We paired blood-stress physiology with animal-borne accelerometers to quantify PRM rates of sharks caught in a commercial bottom longline fishery. Blood was sampled from the same individuals that were tagged, providing direct correlation between stress physiology and animal fate for sandbar (Carcharhinus plumbeus, N = 130), blacktip (C. limbatus, N = 105), tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, N = 52), spinner (C. brevipinna, N = 14), and bull sharks (C. leucas, N = 14). PRM rates ranged from 2% and 3% PRM in tiger and sandbar sharks to 42% and 71% PRM in blacktip and spinner sharks, respectively. Decision trees based on blood values predicted mortality with >67% accuracy in blacktip and spinner sharks, and >99% accuracy in sandbar sharks. Ninety percent of PRM occurred within 5 h after release and 59% within 2 h. Blood physiology indicated that PRM was primarily associated with acidosis and increases in plasma potassium levels. Total fishing mortality reached 62% for blacktip and 89% for spinner sharks, which may be under-estimates given that some soak times were shortened to focus on PRM. Our findings suggest that no-take regulations may be beneficial for sandbar, tiger, and bull sharks, but less effective for more susceptible species such as blacktip and spinner sharks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255673PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8443047PMC
September 2021

Overfishing drives over one-third of all sharks and rays toward a global extinction crisis.

Curr Biol 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia. Electronic address:

The scale and drivers of marine biodiversity loss are being revealed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessment process. We present the first global reassessment of 1,199 species in Class Chondrichthyes-sharks, rays, and chimeras. The first global assessment (in 2014) concluded that one-quarter (24%) of species were threatened. Now, 391 (32.6%) species are threatened with extinction. When this percentage of threat is applied to Data Deficient species, more than one-third (37.5%) of chondrichthyans are estimated to be threatened, with much of this change resulting from new information. Three species are Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct), representing possibly the first global marine fish extinctions due to overfishing. Consequently, the chondrichthyan extinction rate is potentially 25 extinctions per million species years, comparable to that of terrestrial vertebrates. Overfishing is the universal threat affecting all 391 threatened species and is the sole threat for 67.3% of species and interacts with three other threats for the remaining third: loss and degradation of habitat (31.2% of threatened species), climate change (10.2%), and pollution (6.9%). Species are disproportionately threatened in tropical and subtropical coastal waters. Science-based limits on fishing, effective marine protected areas, and approaches that reduce or eliminate fishing mortality are urgently needed to minimize mortality of threatened species and ensure sustainable catch and trade of others. Immediate action is essential to prevent further extinctions and protect the potential for food security and ecosystem functions provided by this iconic lineage of predators.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.08.062DOI Listing
September 2021

Best Practices for Conducting Clinical Trials With Indigenous Children in the United States.

Am J Public Health 2021 Sep 26;111(9):1645-1653. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Jennifer L. Shaw and Denise A. Dillard are with the Southcentral Foundation Research Department, Anchorage, AK. Rosalyn Singleton is with the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage. May Okihiro and David Easa are with the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. Erin Semmens, Paul G. Smith, and Niki Graham are with the University of Montana, Missoula. Johnnye L. Lewis is with the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque. Matthew Hirschfeld is with the Alaska Native Medical Center, Anchorage. Timothy M. VanWagoner, Paul M. Darden, Edgardo G. Szyld, and Lancer Stephens are with the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City. Judith L. Ross is with the Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE. Sara E. Watson is with the University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Lee A. Pyles is with the West Virginia University, Morgantown. John C. Carlson is with Tulane University, New Orleans, LA. Russell J. McCulloh is with the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha. Jessica N. Snowden is with the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock. Sarah H. Adeky is with the Ramah Navajo Community, Pinehill, NM.

We provide guidance for conducting clinical trials with Indigenous children in the United States. We drew on extant literature and our experience to describe 3 best practices for the ethical and effective conduct of clinical trials with Indigenous children. Case examples of pediatric research conducted with American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian communities are provided to illustrate these practices. Ethical and effective clinical trials with Indigenous children require early and sustained community engagement, building capacity for Indigenous research, and supporting community oversight and ownership of research. Effective engagement requires equity, trust, shared interests, and mutual benefit among partners over time. Capacity building should prioritize developing Indigenous researchers. Supporting community oversight and ownership of research means that investigators should plan for data-sharing agreements, return or destruction of data, and multiple regulatory approvals. Indigenous children must be included in clinical trials to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes in these pediatric populations. Establishment of the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes Institutional Development Award States Pediatric Clinical Trials Network (ECHO ISPCTN) in 2016 creates a unique and timely opportunity to increase Indigenous children's participation in state-of-the-art clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306372DOI Listing
September 2021

Capacity Building for a New Multicenter Network Within the ECHO IDeA States Pediatric Clinical Trials Network.

Front Pediatr 2021 14;9:679516. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States.

Research capacity building is a critical component of professional development for pediatrician scientists, yet this process has been elusive in the literature. The ECHO IDeA States Pediatric Clinical Trials Network (ISPCTN) seeks to implement pediatric trials across medically underserved and rural populations. A key component of achieving this objective is building pediatric research capacity, including enhancement of infrastructure and faculty development. This article presents findings from a site assessment inventory completed during the initial year of the ISPCTN. An assessment inventory was developed for surveying ISPCTN sites. The inventory captured site-level activities designed to increase clinical trial research capacity for pediatrician scientists and team members. The inventory findings were utilized by the ISPCTN Data Coordinating and Operations Center to construct training modules covering 3 broad domains: Faculty/coordinator development; Infrastructure; Trials/Research concept development. Key lessons learned reveal substantial participation in the training modules, the importance of an inventory to guide the development of trainings, and recognizing local barriers to clinical trials research. Research networks that seek to implement successfully completed trials need to build capacity across and within the sites engaged. Our findings indicate that building research capacity is a multi-faceted endeavor, but likely necessary for sustainability of a unique network addressing high impact pediatric health problems. The ISPCTN emphasis on building and enhancing site capacity, including pediatrician scientists and team members, is critical to successful trial implementation/completion and the production of findings that enhance the lives of children and families.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.679516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316720PMC
July 2021

Dynamic Intracranial Pressure Waveform Morphology Predicts Ventriculitis.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Neurology, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, 177 Fort Washington Ave, 8 Milstein - 300 Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Intracranial pressure waveform morphology reflects compliance, which can be decreased by ventriculitis. We investigated whether morphologic analysis of intracranial pressure dynamics predicts the onset of ventriculitis.

Methods: Ventriculitis was defined as culture or Gram stain positive cerebrospinal fluid, warranting treatment. We developed a pipeline to automatically isolate segments of intracranial pressure waveforms from extraventricular catheters, extract dominant pulses, and obtain morphologically similar groupings. We used a previously validated clinician-supervised active learning paradigm to identify metaclusters of triphasic, single-peak, or artifactual peaks. Metacluster distributions were concatenated with temperature and routine blood laboratory values to create feature vectors. A L2-regularized logistic regression classifier was trained to distinguish patients with ventriculitis from matched controls, and the discriminative performance using area under receiver operating characteristic curve with bootstrapping cross-validation was reported.

Results: Fifty-eight patients were included for analysis. Twenty-seven patients with ventriculitis from two centers were identified. Thirty-one patients with catheters but without ventriculitis were selected as matched controls based on age, sex, and primary diagnosis. There were 1590 h of segmented data, including 396,130 dominant pulses in patients with ventriculitis and 557,435 pulses in patients without ventriculitis. There were significant differences in metacluster distribution comparing before culture-positivity versus during culture-positivity (p < 0.001) and after culture-positivity (p < 0.001). The classifier demonstrated good discrimination with median area under receiver operating characteristic 0.70 (interquartile range 0.55-0.80). There were 1.5 true alerts (ventriculitis detected) for every false alert.

Conclusions: Intracranial pressure waveform morphology analysis can classify ventriculitis without cerebrospinal fluid sampling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-021-01303-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Exposure to species of Vespidae in the urbanized areas of New Orleans, Louisiana.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 09 19;127(3):384-386. Epub 2021 May 19.

Atlanta, Georgia.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2021.05.014DOI Listing
September 2021

Unconventional Care at a Convention Center: An Overview of Patient Focused Care at a COVID-19 Alternative Care Site in New Orleans.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 May 3:1-7. Epub 2021 May 3.

Louisiana Department of Health, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

In March 2020, the State of Louisiana opened an alternative care site at the New Orleans Convention Center, known as the Medical Monitoring Station (MMS). The facility was designed, constructed, and staffed to serve a population with basic medical needs as they recovered from COVID-19. As the MMS prepared to open, local hospitals indicated a greater need for assistance with patients requiring a higher acuity of care and populations unable to be discharged due to infection risks. In response to this, the capabilities of the facility were altered to accommodate primarily elderly patients, with significant comorbidities, requiring extensive care. This manuscript presents the demographics of the first 250 patients seen at the MMS, and describes the most critical policies/protocols, interventions, and resources that proved successful in adjusting to effectively serve its population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255650PMC
May 2021

Sight of parasitoid wasps accelerates sexual behavior and upregulates a micropeptide gene in Drosophila.

Nat Commun 2021 04 27;12(1):2453. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Parasitoid wasps inflict widespread death upon the insect world. Hundreds of thousands of parasitoid wasp species kill a vast range of insect species. Insects have evolved defensive responses to the threat of wasps, some cellular and some behavioral. Here we find an unexpected response of adult Drosophila to the presence of certain parasitoid wasps: accelerated mating behavior. Flies exposed to certain wasp species begin mating more quickly. The effect is mediated via changes in the behavior of the female fly and depends on visual perception. The sight of wasps induces the dramatic upregulation in the fly nervous system of a gene that encodes a 41-amino acid micropeptide. Mutational analysis reveals that the gene is essential to the behavioral response of the fly. Our work provides a foundation for further exploration of how the activation of visual circuits by the sight of a wasp alters both sexual behavior and gene expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22712-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079388PMC
April 2021

Application Fever: Reviewing the Causes, Costs, and Cures for Residency Application Inflation.

Cureus 2021 Mar 10;13(3):e13804. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA.

Over the past decade, the number of residency applications submitted per applicant has nearly doubled. This epidemic of "Application Fever" is expensive for applicants, burdensome for programs, and ultimately does not improve overall Match outcomes. In this review, we discuss the phenomenon of Application Fever, with a focus on contributing factors and costs of this behavior. Application Fever has its origins in the early 1990s. At that time, the number of residency applicants began to outpace the number of available positions. Because an applicant who applies to more residency programs has a greater probability of securing a residency position than an otherwise equivalent applicant who applies to fewer, "overapplication" became a dominant strategy and residency applicants began to apply to more residency programs each year. This trend was enhanced and enabled by the introduction of the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS). Although Application Fever is a rational decision for applicants, it imposes a substantial evaluative burden on program directors and necessitates the use of convenience screening metrics. We then briefly review potential solutions, including informational strategies, application limits, and marketplace incentives to reduce application numbers. Although a fixed cap on applications would reduce application numbers and facilitate a holistic selection process, greater transparency from residency programs regarding their selection criteria would be required to help applicants choose where to apply. To improve the residency application process for programs and applicants alike, we call upon the medical community to further study Application Fever and carefully consider solutions, including fixed application caps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034763PMC
March 2021

Evolutionary shifts in taste coding in the fruit pest .

Elife 2021 Feb 22;10. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, United States.

Although most species lay eggs in overripe fruit, the agricultural pest lays eggs in ripe fruit. We found that changes in bitter taste perception have accompanied this adaptation. We show that bitter-sensing mutants of undergo a shift in egg laying preference toward ripe fruit. has lost 20% of the bitter-sensing sensilla from the labellum, the major taste organ of the head. Physiological responses to various bitter compounds are lost. Responses to strawberry purées are lost from two classes of taste sensilla. Egg laying is not deterred by bitter compounds that deter other species. Profiling of labellar transcriptomes reveals reduced expression of several bitter genes (). These findings support a model in which bitter compounds in early ripening stages deter egg laying in most species, but a loss of bitter response contributes to the adaptation of to ripe fruit.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.64317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899650PMC
February 2021

The impact of socioeconomic risk factors and mental health on asthma.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 05 18;126(5):453-457. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2021.02.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Half a century of global decline in oceanic sharks and rays.

Nature 2021 01 27;589(7843):567-571. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Biological Sciences, Earth to Ocean Research Group, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Overfishing is the primary cause of marine defaunation, yet declines in and increasing extinction risks of individual species are difficult to measure, particularly for the largest predators found in the high seas. Here we calculate two well-established indicators to track progress towards Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Sustainable Development Goals: the Living Planet Index (a measure of changes in abundance aggregated from 57 abundance time-series datasets for 18 oceanic shark and ray species) and the Red List Index (a measure of change in extinction risk calculated for all 31 oceanic species of sharks and rays). We find that, since 1970, the global abundance of oceanic sharks and rays has declined by 71% owing to an 18-fold increase in relative fishing pressure. This depletion has increased the global extinction risk to the point at which three-quarters of the species comprising this functionally important assemblage are threatened with extinction. Strict prohibitions and precautionary science-based catch limits are urgently needed to avert population collapse, avoid the disruption of ecological functions and promote species recovery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03173-9DOI Listing
January 2021

The mosquito taste system and disease control.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12;117(52):32848-32856

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511

Mosquitoes are a widely diverse group of organisms, comprising ∼3,500 species that live in an enormous range of habitats. Some species are vectors of diseases that afflict hundreds of millions of people each year. Although understanding of mosquito olfaction has progressed dramatically in recent years, mosquito taste remains greatly understudied. Since taste is essential to feeding, egg laying, and mating decisions in insects, improved understanding of taste in mosquitoes could provide new mechanistic insight into many aspects of their behavior. We provide a guide to current knowledge in the field, and we suggest a wealth of opportunities for research that are now enabled by recent scientific and technological advances. We also propose means by which taste might be exploited in new strategies for mosquito control, which may be urgently needed as the geographical ranges of vector species increase with climate change.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013076117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7776869PMC
December 2020

Technology-enacted abusive supervision and its effect on work and family.

J Soc Psychol 2021 May 22;161(3):272-286. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Indiana University Southeast.

This study examines the effects of technology-enacted abusive supervision, defined as subordinate perceptions of supervisor's use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to engage in hostile communications. This research was designed to examine if technology-enacted abusive supervision has an impact on both the work and family domains. Based on conservation of resources theory, we theorize that technology-enacted abusive supervision enhances subordinate engagement in emotional labor surface acting, which contributes to emotional exhaustion, which in turn impacts both the work and family domains. Results demonstrate significant paths in both domains. Subordinate perceptions of technology-enacted abusive supervision are positively related to the engagement in technology-enacted incivility through the serial mediation of emotional labor surface acting and emotional exhaustion. Additionally, subordinate perceptions of technology-enacted abusive supervision are positively related to family undermining at home for the subordinate through the serial mediation of emotional labor surface acting, emotional exhaustion, and stress transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2020.1816885DOI Listing
May 2021

Chlamydia trachomatis Plasmid Gene Protein 3 Is Essential for the Establishment of Persistent Infection and Associated Immunopathology.

mBio 2020 08 18;11(4). Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted disease afflicting hundreds of millions of people globally. A fundamental but poorly understood pathophysiological characteristic of chlamydial infection is the propensity to cause persistent infection that drives damaging inflammatory disease. The chlamydial plasmid is a virulence factor, but its role in the pathogenesis of persistent infection capable of driving immunopathology is unknown. Here, we show by using mouse and nonhuman primate infection models that the secreted plasmid gene protein 3 (Pgp3) is essential for establishing persistent infection. Ppg3-dependent persistent genital tract infection resulted in a severe endometritis caused by an intense infiltration of endometrial submucosal macrophages. Pgp3 released from the cytosol of lysed infected oviduct epithelial cells, not organism outer membrane-associated Pgp3, inhibited the chlamydial killing activity of antimicrobial peptides. Genetic Pgp3 rescue experiments in cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP)-deficient mice showed Pgp3-targeted antimicrobial peptides to subvert innate immunity as a pathogenic strategy to establish persistent infection. These findings provide important advances in understanding the role of Pgp3 in the pathogenesis of persistent chlamydial infection and associated immunopathology. can cause persistent infection that drives damaging inflammatory responses resulting in infertility and blindness. Little is known about chlamydial genes that cause persistence or factors that drive damaging pathology. In this work, we show that the plasmid protein gene 3 (Pgp3) is the essential virulence factor for establishing persistent female genital tract infection and provide supportive evidence that Pgp3 functions similarly in a nonhuman primate trachoma model. We further show that persistent Ppg3-dependent infection drives damaging immunopathology. These results are important advances in understanding the pathophysiology of chlamydial persistence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01902-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439461PMC
August 2020

Transcriptome analysis of contrasting resistance to herbivory by Empoasca fabae in two shrub willow species and their hybrid progeny.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(7):e0236586. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Short rotation woody biomass cultivars developed from fast-growing shrub species of willow (Salix spp.) have superior properties as perennial energy crops for the Northeast and Midwest US. However, the insect pest potato leafhopper (PLH) Empoasca fabae (Harris) can cause serious damage and reduce yield of susceptible genotypes. Currently, the willow cultivars in use display varying levels of susceptibility under PLH infestation. However, genes and markers for resistance to PLH are not yet available for marker-assisted selection in breeding. In this study, transcriptome differences between a resistant genotype 94006 (S. purpurea) and a susceptible cultivar 'Jorr' (S. viminalis), and their hybrid progeny were determined. Over 600 million RNA-Seq reads were generated and mapped to the Salix purpurea reference transcriptome. Gene expression analyses revealed the unique defense mechanism in resistant genotype 94006 that involves PLH-induced secondary cell wall modification. In the susceptible genotypes, genes involved in programed cell death were highly expressed, explaining the necrosis symptoms after PLH feeding. Overall, the discovery of resistance genes and defense mechanisms provides new resources for shrub willow breeding and research in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236586PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7390382PMC
September 2020

Olfaction: Receptor Antagonistes.

Curr Biol 2020 07;30(14):R815-R817

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8103, USA. Electronic address:

Odor receptors of the mammalian olfactory system have long been known to be activated in combinatorial fashion by odorants. A large-scale study now reveals that inhibition of receptors by odorants is comparably prevalent and combinatorial.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.074DOI Listing
July 2020

Tabanidae insect (horsefly and deerfly) allergy in humans: A review of the literature.

Clin Exp Allergy 2020 08 23;50(8):886-893. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Section of Allergy and Immunology, School of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Allergy to insects of the family Tabanidae (order Diptera), commonly called horseflies or deerflies, is anecdotally common, although the published literature is limited to case reports and small case series. This review summarizes the available literature, in which there is enormous variability in clinical detail, identification of species or even genus, and means and thoroughness of assessment of sensitization. The clinical utility of in vivo and in vitro assays remains unclear. Investigation and management of patients reporting anaphylaxis to suspected bites must therefore be pragmatic, by considering other insects (eg Hymenoptera), provision of a written action plan and self-injectable adrenaline if appropriate, and advice on avoidance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.13677DOI Listing
August 2020

Options for Personal Protective Equipment During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Used in New Orleans, Louisiana.

Authors:
John C Carlson

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 09 30;8(8):2481-2483. Epub 2020 May 30.

Tulane University, New Orleans, La. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.05.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260495PMC
September 2020

Transcriptome profiles of Quercus rubra responding to increased O stress.

BMC Genomics 2020 Feb 14;21(1):160. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

The Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.

Background: Climate plays an essential role in forest health, and climate change may increase forest productivity losses due to abiotic and biotic stress. Increased temperature leads to the increased formation of ozone (O). Ozone is formed by the interaction of sunlight, molecular oxygen and by the reactions of chemicals commonly found in industrial and automobile emissions such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Although it is well known that productivity of Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) (NRO), an ecologically and economically important species in the forests of eastern North America, is reduced by exposure to O, limited information is available on its responses to exogenous stimuli at the level of gene expression.

Results: RNA sequencing yielded more than 323 million high-quality raw sequence reads. De novo assembly generated 52,662 unigenes, of which more than 42,000 sequences could be annotated through homology-based searches. A total of 4140 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in response to O stress, as compared to their respective controls. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of the O-response DEGs revealed perturbation of several biological pathways including energy, lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate and terpenoid metabolism as well as plant-pathogen interaction.

Conclusion: This study provides the first reference transcriptome for NRO and initial insights into the genomic responses of NRO to O. Gene expression profiling reveals altered primary and secondary metabolism of NRO seedlings, including known defense responses such as terpenoid biosynthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6549-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023784PMC
February 2020

Assessing Discrepancies in Neurocognitive and Patient-Reported Measures of Brain Tumor Survivors.

Oncol Nurs Forum 2020 01;47(1):E1-E12

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Objectives: To examine the association between performance-based neurocognitive and patient-reported cognitive function tests and identify characteristics that may explain observed discrepancies as a means to advance intervention development.

Sample & Setting: 40 adults diagnosed with a primary brain tumor (PBT) (high-grade, n = 35) were recruited from two academic neuro-oncology clinics in North Carolina.

Methods & Variables: Eligibility included a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 24 or greater, having completed cancer treatment, and having tumor stability. Participants completed performance-based neurocognitive and patient-reported cognitive function, demographic, and symptom assessment tests at one time point.

Results: Neurocognitive impairments included executive control, memory, and attention. Age, time since diagnosis, and tumor- or treatment-specific variables were not associated with neurocognitive or patient-reported cognitive function. Those reporting worse cognitive impairment tended also to report greater severity of PBT-specific and depressive symptoms.

Implications For Nursing: Patient-reported cognitive concerns warrant additional assessment for potential interventions to maintain function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1188/20.ONF.E1-E12DOI Listing
January 2020

Molecular Logic and Evolution of Bitter Taste in Drosophila.

Curr Biol 2020 01 12;30(1):17-30.e3. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Taste systems detect a vast diversity of toxins, which are perceived as bitter. When a species adapts to a new environment, its taste system must adapt to detect new death threats. We deleted each of six commonly expressed bitter gustatory receptors (Grs) from Drosophila melanogaster. Systematic analysis revealed that requirements for these Grs differed for the same tastant in different neurons and for different tastants in the same neuron. Responses to some tastants in some neurons required four Grs, including Gr39a. Deletions also produced increased or novel responses, supporting a model of Gr-Gr inhibitory interactions. Coexpression of four Grs conferred several bitter responses to a sugar neuron. We then examined bitter coding in three other Drosophila species. We found major evolutionary shifts. One shift depended on the concerted activity of seven Grs. This work shows how the complex logic of bitter coding provides the capacity to detect innumerable hazards and the flexibility to adapt to new ones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946858PMC
January 2020

Factors associated with using alternative sources of primary care: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Dec 4;19(1):933. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Tulane School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Ave, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

Background: Mobile (MHCs), Community (CHCs), and School-based health clinics (SBHCs) are understudied alternative sources of health care delivery used to provide more accessible primary care to disenfranchised populations. However, providing access does not guarantee utilization. This study explored the utilization of these alternative sources of health care and assessed factors associated with residential segregation that may influence their utilization.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design assessed the associations between travel distance, perceived quality of care, satisfaction-adjusted distance (SAD) and patient utilization of alternative health care clinics. Adults (n = 165), child caregivers (n = 124), and adult caregivers (n = 7) residing in New Orleans, Louisiana between 2014 and 2015 were conveniently sampled. Data were obtained via face-to face interviews using standardized questionnaires and geospatial data geocoded using GIS mapping tools. Multivariate regression models were used to predict alternative care utilization.

Results: Overall 49.4% of respondents reported ever using a MCH, CHC, or SBHC. Travel distance was not significantly associated with using either MCH, CHC, or SBHC (OR = 0.91, 0.74-1.11 p > .05). Controlling for covariates, higher perceived quality of care (OR = 1.02, 1.01-1.04 p < .01) and lower SAD (OR = 0.81, 0.73-0.91 p < .01) were significantly associated with utilization.

Conclusions: Provision of primary care via alternative health clinics may overcome some barriers to care but have yet to be fully integrated as regular sources of care. Perceived quality and mixed-methods measures are useful indicators of access to care. Future health delivery research is needed to understand the multiple mechanisms by which residential segregation influences health-seeking behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4743-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6894211PMC
December 2019

Population productivity of shovelnose rays: Inferring the potential for recovery.

PLoS One 2019 21;14(11):e0225183. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture & College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

There is recent evidence of widespread declines of shovelnose ray populations (Order Rhinopristiformes) in heavily fished regions. These declines, which are likely driven by high demand for their fins in Asian markets, raises concern about their risk of over-exploitation and extinction. Using life-history theory and incorporating uncertainty into a modified Euler-Lotka model, the maximum intrinsic rates of population increase (rmax) were estimated for nine species from four families of Rhinopristiformes, using four different natural mortality estimators. Estimates of mean rmax, across the different natural mortality methods, varied from 0.03 to 0.59 year-1 among the nine species, but generally increased with increasing maximum size. Comparing these estimates to rmax values for other species of chondrichthyans, the species Rhynchobatus australiae, Glaucostegus typus, and Glaucostegus cemiculus were relatively productive, while most species from Rhinobatidae and Trygonorrhinidae had relatively low rmax values. If the demand for their high-value products can be addressed then population recovery for some species is likely possible, but will vary depending on the species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225183PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872150PMC
March 2020

Robust olfactory responses in the absence of odorant binding proteins.

Elife 2019 10 25;8. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, United States.

Odorant binding proteins (Obps) are expressed at extremely high levels in the antennae of insects, and have long been believed essential for carrying hydrophobic odorants to odor receptors. Previously we found that when one functional type of olfactory sensillum in was depleted of its sole abundant Obp, it retained a robust olfactory response (Larter et al., 2016). Here we have deleted all the genes that are abundantly expressed in the antennal basiconic sensilla. All of six tested sensillum types responded robustly to odors of widely diverse chemical or temporal structure. One mutant gave a greater physiological and behavioral response to an odorant that affects oviposition. Our results support a model in which many sensilla can respond to odorants in the absence of Obps, and many Obps are not essential for olfactory response, but that some Obps can modulate olfactory physiology and the behavior that it drives.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.51040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6814364PMC
October 2019

Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of 14 Cases of Morbihan Disease: An Insight Into Its Pathogenesis.

Am J Dermatopathol 2019 Oct;41(10):701-710

Centro Médico Voth, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Morbihan disease (MORD) is rare with only 45 clear-cut cases previously reported. Histopathologic findings are supposed to be nonspecific. We report 14 patients and review the previous cases.

Objectives: To characterize the clinicopathologic findings, outcomes, and immunophenotype of MORD.

Material And Methods: Inclusion criteria were a clinical picture of persistent, nonpitting edema affecting the mid and or upper third of the face and histopathological findings fitting previous reports and exclusion of other entities.

Results: The majority of our patients were males (71.5%) with a male/female ratio of 10/4. The mean age when diagnosed was 58.8 years. Eyelids and forehead were the most frequently involved areas. Two of the patients presented previous rosacea. Most constant histopathological findings were lymphatic vessel dilatations in the upper dermis and the presence of mast cells (7.5 in 10 high-power field as a mean). Mild edema was also present in most of the cases. Granulomas were found in 7 of the cases, and immunostaining with CD68 and CD14 only revealed an additional case.

Conclusions: MORD occurs more in middle-aged males, not associated with rosacea and mostly affects eyelids and forehead. Granulomas are not mandatory for the diagnosis. Histopathology of MORD fits within the spectrum of localized lymphedema.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000001378DOI Listing
October 2019

Odor coding in the antenna of the tsetse fly .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 07 20;116(28):14300-14308. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520

Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomiasis to humans and livestock across much of sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse are attracted by olfactory cues emanating from their hosts. However, remarkably little is known about the cellular basis of olfaction in tsetse. We have carried out a systematic physiological analysis of the antenna. We identify 7 functional classes of olfactory sensilla that respond to human or animal odorants, CO, sex and alarm pheromones, or other odorants known to attract or repel tsetse. Sensilla differ in their response spectra, show both excitatory and inhibitory responses, and exhibit different response dynamics to different odor stimuli. We find striking differences between the functional organization of the tsetse fly antenna and that of the fruit fly One morphological type of sensilla has a different function in the 2 species: Trichoid sensilla respond to pheromones in but respond to a wide diversity of compounds in In contrast to , all tested sensilla that show excitatory responses are excited by one odorant, 1-octen-3-ol, which is contained in host emanations. The response profiles of some classes of sensilla are distinct but strongly correlated, unlike the organization described in the antenna. Taken together, this study defines elements that likely mediate the attraction of tsetse to its hosts and that might be manipulated as a means of controlling the fly and the diseases it transmits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1907075116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6628836PMC
July 2019

Chemosensory sensilla of the Drosophila wing express a candidate ionotropic pheromone receptor.

PLoS Biol 2019 05 21;17(5):e2006619. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

The Drosophila wing was proposed to be a taste organ more than 35 years ago, but there has been remarkably little study of its role in chemoreception. We carry out a differential RNA-seq analysis of a row of sensilla on the anterior wing margin and find expression of many genes associated with pheromone and chemical perception. To ask whether these sensilla might receive pheromonal input, we devised a dye-transfer paradigm and found that large, hydrophobic molecules comparable to pheromones can be transferred from one fly to the wing margin of another. One gene, Ionotropic receptor (IR)52a, is coexpressed in neurons of these sensilla with fruitless, a marker of sexual circuitry; IR52a is also expressed in legs. Mutation of IR52a and optogenetic silencing of IR52a+ neurons decrease levels of male sexual behavior. Optogenetic activation of IR52a+ neurons induces males to show courtship toward other males and, remarkably, toward females of another species. Surprisingly, IR52a is also required in females for normal sexual behavior. Optogenetic activation of IR52a+ neurons in mated females induces copulation, which normally occurs at very low levels. Unlike other chemoreceptors that act in males to inhibit male-male interactions and promote male-female interactions, IR52a acts in both males and females, and can promote male-male as well as male-female interactions. Moreover, IR52a+ neurons can override the circuitry that normally suppresses sexual behavior toward unproductive targets. Circuit mapping and Ca2+ imaging using the trans-Tango system reveals second-order projections of IR52a+ neurons in the subesophageal zone (SEZ), some of which are sexually dimorphic. Optogenetic activation of IR52a+ neurons in the wing activates second-order projections in the SEZ. Taken together, this study provides a molecular description of the chemosensory sensilla of a greatly understudied taste organ and defines a gene that regulates the sexual circuitry of the fly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6528970PMC
May 2019

Factoring Ecological, Societal, and Economic Considerations into Inoculant Development.

Trends Biotechnol 2019 06;37(6):572-573

Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

There are many paths toward effective microbial inoculants for agriculture. Considering what is practical for the present day technological and farming landscape should not limit our creativity in developing innovative technologies. However, factors including production costs, practicality of implementation, and technology adoption by farmers will drive the success of new management approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2019.02.009DOI Listing
June 2019
-->