Publications by authors named "John C Thompson"

10 Publications

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Endoreduplication of the mouse genome in the absence of ORC1.

Genes Dev 2018 07;32(13-14):978-990

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

The largest subunit of the origin recognition complex (ORC1) is essential for assembly of the prereplicative complex, firing of DNA replication origins, and faithful duplication of the genome. Here, we generated knock-in mice with sites flanking exons encoding the critical ATPase domain of ORC1. Global or tissue-specific ablation of ORC1 function in mouse embryo fibroblasts and fetal and adult diploid tissues blocked DNA replication, cell lineage expansion, and organ development. Remarkably, ablation in extraembryonic trophoblasts and hepatocytes, two polyploid cell types in mice, failed to impede genome endoreduplication and organ development and function. Thus, ORC1 in mice is essential for mitotic cell divisions but dispensable for endoreduplication. We propose that DNA replication of mammalian polyploid genomes uses a distinct ORC1-independent mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.311910.118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6075035PMC
July 2018

Canonical and atypical E2Fs regulate the mammalian endocycle.

Nat Cell Biol 2012 Nov 14;14(11):1192-202. Epub 2012 Oct 14.

Solid Tumor Biology Program, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, Department of Molecular Genetics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

The endocycle is a variant cell cycle consisting of successive DNA synthesis and gap phases that yield highly polyploid cells. Although essential for metazoan development, relatively little is known about its control or physiologic role in mammals. Using lineage-specific cre mice we identified two opposing arms of the E2F program, one driven by canonical transcription activation (E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3) and the other by atypical repression (E2F7 and E2F8), that converge on the regulation of endocycles in vivo. Ablation of canonical activators in the two endocycling tissues of mammals, trophoblast giant cells in the placenta and hepatocytes in the liver, augmented genome ploidy, whereas ablation of atypical repressors diminished ploidy. These two antagonistic arms coordinate the expression of a unique G2/M transcriptional program that is critical for mitosis, karyokinesis and cytokinesis. These results provide in vivo evidence for a direct role of E2F family members in regulating non-traditional cell cycles in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb2595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3616487PMC
November 2012

Atypical E2F repressors and activators coordinate placental development.

Dev Cell 2012 Apr;22(4):849-62

Solid Tumor Biology Program, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, Human Cancer Genetics Program, Comprehensive Cancer Center, College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

The evolutionarily ancient arm of the E2f family of transcription factors consisting of the two atypical members E2f7 and E2f8 is essential for murine embryonic development. However, the critical tissues, cellular processes, and molecular pathways regulated by these two factors remain unknown. Using a series of fetal and placental lineage-specific cre mice, we show that E2F7/E2F8 functions in extraembryonic trophoblast lineages are both necessary and sufficient to carry fetuses to term. Expression profiling and biochemical approaches exposed the canonical E2F3a activator as a key family member that antagonizes E2F7/E2F8 functions. Remarkably, the concomitant loss of E2f3a normalized placental gene expression programs, corrected placental defects, and fostered the survival of E2f7/E2f8-deficient embryos to birth. In summary, we identified a placental transcriptional network tightly coordinated by activation and repression through two distinct arms of the E2F family that is essential for extraembryonic cell proliferation, placental development, and fetal viability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2012.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483796PMC
April 2012

Pten in stromal fibroblasts suppresses mammary epithelial tumours.

Nature 2009 Oct;461(7267):1084-91

Department of Molecular Genetics, College of Biological Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

The tumour stroma is believed to contribute to some of the most malignant characteristics of epithelial tumours. However, signalling between stromal and tumour cells is complex and remains poorly understood. Here we show that the genetic inactivation of Pten in stromal fibroblasts of mouse mammary glands accelerated the initiation, progression and malignant transformation of mammary epithelial tumours. This was associated with the massive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), innate immune cell infiltration and increased angiogenesis. Loss of Pten in stromal fibroblasts led to increased expression, phosphorylation (T72) and recruitment of Ets2 to target promoters known to be involved in these processes. Remarkably, Ets2 inactivation in Pten stroma-deleted tumours ameliorated disruption of the tumour microenvironment and was sufficient to decrease tumour growth and progression. Global gene expression profiling of mammary stromal cells identified a Pten-specific signature that was highly represented in the tumour stroma of patients with breast cancer. These findings identify the Pten-Ets2 axis as a critical stroma-specific signalling pathway that suppresses mammary epithelial tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2767301PMC
October 2009

Smad1 and Smad8 function similarly in mammalian central nervous system development.

Mol Cell Biol 2005 Jun;25(11):4683-92

Department of Molecular Genetics and Division of Human Cancer Genetics, Ohio State University, 484 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Smads 1, 5, and 8 are the intracellular mediators for the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which play crucial roles during mammalian development. Previous research has shown that Smad1 is important in the formation of the allantois, while Smad5 has been shown to be critical in the process of angiogenesis. To further analyze the BMP-responsive Smads, we disrupted the murine Smad8 gene utilizing the Cre/loxP system. A Smad8 hypomorphic allele (Smad8(Deltaexon3)) was constructed that contains an in-frame deletion of exon 3, removing one-third of the MH2 domain and a small portion of the linker region. Xenopus injection assays indicated that this Smad8 deletion allele is still functional but has reduced ventralizing capability compared to the wild type. Although Smad8(Deltaexon3/Deltaexon3) embryos are phenotypically normal, homozygotes of another hypomorphic allele of Smad8 (Smad8(3loxP)) containing a neomycin cassette within intron 3, phenocopy an embryonic brain defect observed in roughly 22% of Smad1(+/)(-) embryos analyzed at embryonic day 11.5. These observations suggest that BMP-responsive Smads have critical functions in the development of the mammalian central nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.25.11.4683-4692.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1140628PMC
June 2005

Generation of novel conditional and hypomorphic alleles of the Smad2 gene.

Genesis 2004 Oct;40(2):118-123

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Smad2 is an intracellular mediator of the transforming growth factor beta signaling (TGFbeta) pathway. It has been previously shown that, in the mouse, ablation of functional Smad2 results in embryonic lethality due to gastrulation defects. To circumvent the early lethality and study the spatially and temporally specific functions of Smad2, we utilized the Cre-loxP system to generate a Smad2 conditional allele. Here we show that a conditional allele, Smad2(flox), was generated. In this allele, exons 9 and 10 are flanked by loxP sites and the gene is functionally wildtype. Cre-mediated recombination results in a deletion allele which phenocopies our previously reported Smad2(DeltaC) null mutation. To generate this conditional allele, we first made a targeted mutation which introduced a floxed neo cassette into intron 10. This allele (Smad2(3loxP)) functions hypomorphically when placed opposite a null allele, and unlike the other published Smad2 hypomorphic allele, can be maintained in the homozygous state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gene.20072DOI Listing
October 2004

Smad2 and Smad3 coordinately regulate craniofacial and endodermal development.

Dev Biol 2004 Jun;270(2):411-26

Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1392, USA.

Ligands of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily are involved in numerous developmental and disease processes. TGF-beta, activins, and nodal ligands operate through the highly homologous Smad2 and Smad3 intracellular mediators. Smad2 mutants exhibit early embryonic lethality, while Smad3 mutants are viable, but show a plethora of postnatal phenotypes, including immune dysfunction and skeletal abnormalities. Previously, we have shown that the Smad2 and Smad3 genes function cooperatively during liver morphogenesis. Here we show that Smad2 and Smad3 are required at a full dosage for normal embryonic development. Animals lacking one allele of each gene exhibit a variably penetrant phenotype in which structures in the anterior and ventral midline are reduced or lost; additionally, we demonstrate that this craniofacial defect and the previously reported hepatic phenotypes are both due to defects in the definitive endoderm. A reduction of endodermal gene expression as well as a failure to displace the visceral endoderm occurs despite the formation of a normal foregut pocket. This precedes any defects in anterior patterning and likely causes the abnormalities observed in craniofacial and midline development, as well as hepatogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.03.017DOI Listing
June 2004

Extra-embryonic function of Rb is essential for embryonic development and viability.

Nature 2003 Feb;421(6926):942-7

Human Cancer Genetics Program, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

The retinoblastoma (Rb) gene was the first tumour suppressor identified. Inactivation of Rb in mice results in unscheduled cell proliferation, apoptosis and widespread developmental defects, leading to embryonic death by day 14.5 (refs 2-4). However, the actual cause of the embryonic lethality has not been fully investigated. Here we show that loss of Rb leads to excessive proliferation of trophoblast cells and a severe disruption of the normal labyrinth architecture in the placenta. This is accompanied by a decrease in vascularization and a reduction in placental transport function. We used two complementary techniques-tetraploid aggregation and conditional knockout strategies-to demonstrate that Rb-deficient embryos supplied with a wild-type placenta can be carried to term, but die soon after birth. Most of the neurological and erythroid abnormalities thought to be responsible for the embryonic lethality of Rb-null animals were virtually absent in rescued Rb-null pups. These findings identify and define a key function of Rb in extra-embryonic cell lineages that is required for embryonic development and viability, and provide a mechanism for the cell autonomous versus non-cell autonomous roles of Rb in development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01417DOI Listing
February 2003

Clinical performance characteristics of a new photometric lithium assay: a multicenter study.

Clin Chim Acta 2003 Jan;327(1-2):157-64

Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Background: Therapeutic monitoring of lithium is important because of its narrow therapeutic range and therapeutic index, low protein binding and single route of elimination. We characterized a new photometric method that avoids the specialized requirements of ion-specific electrode (ISE), atomic absorption and flame emission methods.

Methods: Minimum detectable concentration (MDC), linearity and calibration drift over 65 days were determined. Within-run, between-run and total imprecision were assessed over 20 days in accordance with NCCLS EP5. Interference studies were conducted for 46 endogenous and exogenous compounds. Two production lots of the new photometric method (LI) were compared on the Dimension(R) RxL system and two ISE methods [Ciba Corning (n=124) and DuPont (n=131)], an established photometric method (Vitros) 950 system; n=63) and atomic absorption (Thermo-Jerell Ash; n=63).

Results: The MDC was 0.04 mmol/l. Linearity was demonstrated from 0.12 to 5.8 mmol/l by the regression equation: observed=(1.01 x expected)-0.0005 mmol/l, S(y/x)=0.03 mmol/l, r=0.999. Drift for the lithium calibrators over the 65-day study period was <5%, except for the lowest calibrator, which showed 0.04 mmol/l drift. None of the 46 potential interfering substances showed greater than a 6.5% difference between control and test solutions. ISE method comparisons showed the following: LI=(1.08 x Ciba Corning ISE)-0.15 mmol/l, S(y/x)=0.05, r=0.999, and LI=(1.03 x DuPont ISE)+0.00 mmol/l, S(y/x)=0.06 mmol/l, r=0.999. Comparison of the LI method with the atomic absorption and Vitros system showed proportionality error <10%. Bias between the LI method and atomic absorption was 7%, substantially less than that documented in proficiency surveys for the Vitros and other systems. No lot-to-lot or site-to-site differences were observed.

Conclusion: This new photometric method is an attractive alternative for Li measurement and is adaptable to instruments having spectrophotometric capability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0009-8981(02)00367-4DOI Listing
January 2003

Development of an automated photometric assay for serum lithium and use of binding equilibrium expressions to optimize results.

Authors:
John C Thompson

Clin Chim Acta 2003 Jan;327(1-2):149-56

Dade Behring Inc, Glasgow Business Community, P O Box 6101, Newark, DE 19714-6101, USA.

Background: A spectrophotometric serum lithium assay and relevant reaction equilibria used in the assay development are described.

Methods: The dye, 7-nitro-2,12-dicarboxyl-16,17-dihydro-5H,15H-dibenzo[b,i] [1,11,4,5,7,8]dioxatetraazacyclotetradecine reacts rapidly with Li(+) in alkaline water/dimethylsulfoxide with an absorbance change. Sodium binds weakly, thus presenting potential inaccuracy from varying endogenous sodium. To minimize this problem, excess sodium ion was added from reagents. This diminishes the signal from lithium binding, thus lowering sensitivity, requiring selection of reagent sodium concentration for proper balance of performance characteristics. Absorptivities and binding constants were determined. Description of competing equilibria by an explicit cubic equation was used to predict sensitivity and effects of varying endogenous Na(+) concentration as functions of added NaCl.

Results: Concentration-absorbance data were satisfactorily predicted by the cubic equation, equilibrium constants, and absorptivities. Li(+) binds 300 times more tightly than Na(+). Interference was minimized, while sufficient sensitivity for needed precision was retained. A full evaluation is summarized separately in this issue.

Conclusions: Explicit description of the competitive binding was successfully used to develop an automated liquid reagent assay for Li(+) with acceptable accuracy and precision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0009-8981(02)00368-6DOI Listing
January 2003