Publications by authors named "John C Selby"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Magnetic tweezers with magnetic flux density feedback control.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Mar;92(3):034101

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.

In this work, we present a single-pole magnetic tweezers (MT) device designed for integration with substrate deformation tracking microscopy and/or traction force microscopy experiments intended to explore extracellular matrix rheology and human epidermal keratinocyte mechanobiology. Assembled from commercially available off-the-shelf electronics hardware and software, the MT device is amenable to replication in the basic biology laboratory. In contrast to conventional solenoid current-controlled MT devices, operation of this instrument is based on real-time feedback control of the magnetic flux density emanating from the blunt end of the needle core using a cascade control scheme and a digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Algorithms that compensate for a spatially non-uniform remnant magnetization of the needle core that develops during actuation are implemented into the feedback control scheme. Through optimization of PID gain scheduling, the MT device exhibits magnetization and demagnetization response times of less than 100 ms without overshoot over a wide range of magnetic flux density setpoints. Compared to current-based control, magnetic flux density-based control allows for more accurate and precise magnetic actuation forces by compensating for temperature increases within the needle core due to heat generated by the applied solenoid currents. Near field calibrations validate the ability of the MT device to actuate 4.5 μm-diameter superparamagnetic beads with forces up to 25 nN with maximum relative uncertainties of ±30% for beads positioned between 2.5 and 40 µm from the needle tip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0039696DOI Listing
March 2021

Substrate deformations induce directed keratinocyte migration.

J R Soc Interface 2018 06;15(143)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA

Cell migration is an essential part of many (patho)physiological processes, including keratinocyte re-epithelialization of healing wounds. Physical forces and mechanical cues from the wound bed (in addition to biochemical signals) may also play an important role in the healing process. Previously, we explored this possibility and found that polyacrylamide (PA) gel stiffness affected human keratinocyte behaviour and that mechanical deformations in soft (approx. 1.2 kPa) PA gels produced by neighbouring cells appeared to influence the process of epithelial sheet formation. To clearly demonstrate that keratinocytes do respond to such deformations, we conducted a series of experiments where we observed the response of single keratinocytes to a prescribed local substrate deformation that mimicked a neighbouring cell or evolving multicellular aggregate via a servo-controlled microneedle. We also examined the effect of adding either Y27632 or blebbistatin on cell response. Our results indicate that keratinocytes do sense and respond to mechanical signals comparable to those that originate from substrate deformations imposed by neighbouring cells, a finding that could have important implications for the process of keratinocyte re-epithelialization that takes place during wound healing. Furthermore, the Rho/ROCK pathway and the engagement of NM II are both essential to substrate deformation-directed keratinocyte migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2018.0133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6030620PMC
June 2018

Mouse Keratinocytes Without Keratin Intermediate Filaments Demonstrate Substrate Stiffness Dependent Behaviors.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2018 Jun 2;11(3):163-174. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Iowa, 5629 Seamans Center, Iowa City, IA USA.

Introduction: Traditionally thought to serve active vs. passive mechanical functions, respectively, a growing body of evidence suggests that actin microfilament and keratin intermediate filament (IF) networks, together with their associated cell-cell and cell-matrix anchoring junctions, may have a large degree of functional interdependence. Therefore, we hypothesized that the loss of keratin IFs in a knockout mouse keratinocyte model would affect the kinematics of colony formation, i.e., the spatiotemporal process by which individual cells join to form colonies and eventually a nascent epithelial sheet.

Methods: Time-lapse imaging and deformation tracking microscopy was used to observe colony formation for both wild type (WT) and keratin-deficient knockout (KO) mouse keratinocytes over 24 h. Cells were cultured under high calcium conditions on collagen-coated substrates with nominal stiffnesses of ~ 1.2 kPa (soft) and 24 kPa (stiff). Immunofluorescent staining of actin and selected adhesion proteins was also performed.

Results: The absence of keratin IFs markedly affected cell morphology, spread area, and cytoskeleton and adhesion protein organization on both soft and stiff substrates. Strikingly, an absence of keratin IFs also significantly reduced the ability of mouse keratinocytes to mechanically deform the soft substrate. Furthermore, KO cells formed colonies more efficiently on stiff vs. soft substrates, a behavior opposite to that observed for WT keratinocytes.

Conclusions: Collectively, these data are strongly supportive of the idea that an interdependence between actin microfilaments and keratin IFs does exist, while further suggesting that keratin IFs may represent an important and under-recognized component of keratinocyte mechanosensation and the force generation apparatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12195-018-0526-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6816603PMC
June 2018

Pustular Eruption (Iododerma?) in a Patient With Cancer Treated With Complementary and Alternative Medicine-Reply.

JAMA Dermatol 2018 04;154(4):496

Department of Dermatology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.6165DOI Listing
April 2018

Septolobular panniculitis in disseminated Lyme borreliosis.

J Cutan Pathol 2018 Apr 9;45(4):274-277. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa.

Lyme disease classically evolves through clinical manifestations according to the stage of illness. Because many of the systemic symptoms are non-specific, and because serology may yield false negative results, cutaneous findings merit even greater importance to diagnosis. The prototypical skin lesion, erythema migrans (EM), occurs early and is the only independent diagnostic clinical feature according to the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. EM itself has protean guises, being, at times, vesicular, indurated, necrotic, purpuric, solid, or targetoid, but it is not the sole Borrelia-associated skin lesion. Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans and borrelial lymphocytoma cutis are other well-known skin manifestations. A rare cutaneous manifestation that is increasingly reported in Lyme patients is panniculitis, which develops after dissemination of the spirochete. We present such a case in a patient who was initially treated for cellulitis as well as neck and radicular leg pain, thereby expanding the cutaneous spectrum of Lyme disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cup.13100DOI Listing
April 2018

Pustular Eruption in a Patient With Cancer Treated With Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

JAMA Dermatol 2017 12;153(12):1335-1337

Department of Dermatology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.3749DOI Listing
December 2017

Severe pediculosis capitus: a case of "crusted lice" with autoeczematization.

Dermatol Online J 2016 Mar 16;22(3). Epub 2016 Mar 16.

University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.

Pediculosis humanus capitus infestations are common and classically present with intense pruritus of the scalp. Although many treatment options are available, lice are becoming more resistant to conventional therapies and severe clinical presentations are bound to become more prevalent. We present a case of treatment-resistant pediculosis capitus resulting in diffuse autoeczematization of the torso and extremities and severe crusting and scaling of the scalp, which we called "crusted lice." This eruption differs from the well-described id reaction known as "pediculid" and represents a more dramatic manifestation of rampant infestation. This paper provides an up-to-date review of treatment options available for pediculosis humanus capitus, including newer medications like the ones that eventually led to resolution of our patient's extreme infestation.
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March 2016

Substrate Stiffness Affects Human Keratinocyte Colony Formation.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2015 Mar;8(1):32-50

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Restoration of epidermal organization and function in response to a variety of pathophysiological insults is critically dependent on coordinated keratinocyte migration, proliferation, and stratification during the process of wound healing. These processes are mediated by the reconfiguration of both cell-cell (desmosomes, adherens junctions) and cell-matrix (focal adhesions, hemidesmosomes) junctions and the cytoskeletal filament networks that they serve to interconnect. In this study, we investigated the role of substrate elasticity (stiffness) on keratinocyte colony formation during the process of nascent epithelial sheet formation as triggered by the model of keratinocyte culture. Keratinocytes cultured on pepsin digested type I collagen coated (nominal = 1.2 kPa) polyacrylamide gels embedded with fluorescent microspheres exhibited (i) smaller spread contact areas, (ii) increased migration velocities, and (iii) increased rates of colony formation with more cells per colony than did keratinocytes cultured on (nominal = 24 kPa) polyacrylamide gels. As assessed by tracking of embedded microsphere displacements, keratinocytes cultured on substrates generated large local substrate deformations that appeared to recruit adjacent keratinocytes into joining an evolving colony. Together with the observed differences in keratinocyte kinematics and substrate deformations, we developed two analyses, termed distance rank (DR) and radius of cooperativity (RC), that help to objectively ascribe what we perceive as increasingly behavior of keratinocytes cultured on versus during the process of colony formation. We hypothesize that the differences in keratinocyte colony formation observed in our experiments could be due to cell-cell mechanical signaling generated via local substrate deformations that appear to be correlated with the increased expression of β4 integrin within keratinocytes positioned along the periphery of an evolving cell colony.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12195-015-0377-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4442095PMC
March 2015

Surgical corner. Modified buried suture technique for the scalp.

J Drugs Dermatol 2013 Jun;12(6):692-3

Department of Dermatology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa, City, IA, USA.

Large surgical defects on an actinically damaged scalp are notoriously difficult to close primarily. Not only is the skin weak and friable, but the underlying bone often limits the size of "bite" that the surgeon can take with their deep suture. We describe a technique that maximizes the ability to grasp adequate deep tissue with the suture, decreasing the likelihood of tearing through the tissue when the wound edges are brought together.
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June 2013

Mechanical response of a living human epidermal keratinocyte sheet as measured in a composite diaphragm inflation experiment.

Biorheology 2007 ;44(5-6):319-48

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

Sheets of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were reconstituted in vitro on tensed but highly compliant, freestanding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes, 5.0 mm in diameter and 10 mum thick. NHEK-PDMS composite diaphragm (CD) specimens were then subjected to cyclical axisymmetric inflation tests to investigate epithelial sheet rheology under conditions of physiologically severe deformations (~50% nominal polar biaxial strains). Because the compliance of the specially formulated PDMS membrane was greater than that of the attached cell layer, the finite load-deformation behavior (mechanical response) of the living NHEK sheet was inferred from differences between the mechanical behavior of the CD specimen and the response of the underlying PDMS membrane measured prior to cell culture. In these composite diaphragm inflation (CDI) experiments, interconnected NHEKs exhibited rheological behaviors that were suggestive of a viscoelastic-plastic stress response. Remarkably, specimens returned to quiescent culture following a sequence of inflation tests recovered at least 80% of their original ability to store elastic strain energy, evidence of biological adaptation and recovery or restitutio ad integrum. Unlike methodologies that assay the morphological or biochemical response of cultured cells to an applied mechanostimulus, CDI experiments can be used to probe the load-bearing functions of desmosomes and adherens junctions within a living epithelial sheet, as well as to assess the rheological behaviors of the intermediate filament and microfilament networks that these cell-cell junctions serve to interconnect.
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December 2008

Apparatus for measuring the finite load-deformation behavior of a sheet of epithelial cells cultured on a mesoscopic freestanding elastomer membrane.

Rev Sci Instrum 2007 Sep;78(9):094301

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.

Details are given for the design, calibration, and operation of an apparatus for measuring the finite load-deformation behavior of a sheet of living epithelial cells cultured on a mesoscopic freestanding elastomer membrane, 10 microm thick and 5 mm in diameter. Although similar in concept to bulge tests used to investigate the mechanical properties of micromachined thin films, cell-elastomer composite diaphragm inflation tests pose a unique set of experimental challenges. Composite diaphragm (CD) specimens are extremely compliant (E<50 kPa), experience large displacements when subject to small inflation pressures (approximately 100 Pa), and must be continuously immersed in a bath of liquid culture medium during the acquisition of load-deformation measurements. Given these considerations, we have constructed an inflation apparatus consisting of an air-piston-cylinder pump integrated with a modular specimen mounting fixture that constitutes a horizontally semi-infinite reservoir of liquid culture medium. In a deformation-controlled inflation test, pressurized air is used to inflate a CD specimen into the liquid reservoir with minimum disturbance of the liquid-air interface. Piston displacements and absolute pump chamber air pressures are utilized as feedback to cycle the displaced (or inflated) CD volume V in a 0.05 Hz triangular or sinusoidal wave form (V(MIN)=0 microl, V(MAX)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2777180DOI Listing
September 2007

A method to fabricate mesoscopic freestanding polydimethylsiloxane membranes used to probe the rheology of an epithelial sheet.

J Biochem Biophys Methods 2008 Apr 1;70(6):932-44. Epub 2007 Aug 1.

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801, United States.

Details are presented for the formulation, fabrication, and mechanical characterization of mesoscopic freestanding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer membranes, 10.0 microm thick and 5.0 mm in diameter, used to probe the rheology of a living epithelial sheet. In what is described as a composite diaphragm inflation (CDI) experiment, freestanding PDMS membranes are utilized as substrates for the culture of a sheet of epithelial cells. Together, the cell layer and the PDMS elastomer form a composite diaphragm (CD) that is suitable for mechanical testing in an axisymmetric membrane inflation experiment. In order to distinguish the rheological behavior of the epithelial sheet from the mechanical response of the elastomer using inflation test data, freestanding PDMS membranes should exhibit a highly compliant yet mechanically invariant finite load-deformation response when subjected to multiple inflation cycles following intermittent periods of cell culture. Given these considerations, we describe a method for preparing freestanding PDMS elastomer membrane specimens that are optically transparent, tensed, and wrinkle-free. Surface modifications intended to facilitate cell culture, namely water vapor plasma and ultraviolet light treatments, were shown to dramatically stiffen the mechanical response of the membranes, rendering them unusable as CD substrates. In this study, only PDMS membranes with physiosorbed collagen demonstrated the mechanical compliance, fatigue resistance, and environmental stability necessary for reliable use in CDI experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbbm.2007.07.005DOI Listing
April 2008

"Click" modification of silica surfaces and glass microfluidic channels.

Anal Chem 2007 Feb;79(4):1661-7

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.

This paper demonstrates a chemical surface modification method for covalent attachment of various polymers by using silane-based "click" chemistry on silica surfaces and within glass microchannels suitable for CE systems. Modified surfaces are characterized by contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) measurements in modified and unmodified channels are provided. Spectroscopic and transport data show that various polymers can be covalently attached to glass surfaces with a measurable change in EOF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac061824nDOI Listing
February 2007