Publications by authors named "John C Kraft"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Stabilization of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-Binding Domain Using Deep Mutational Scanning and Structure-Based Design.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:710263. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

The unprecedented global demand for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has demonstrated the need for highly effective vaccine candidates that are thermostable and amenable to large-scale manufacturing. Nanoparticle immunogens presenting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (S) in repetitive arrays are being advanced as second-generation vaccine candidates, as they feature robust manufacturing characteristics and have shown promising immunogenicity in preclinical models. Here, we used previously reported deep mutational scanning (DMS) data to guide the design of stabilized variants of the RBD. The selected mutations fill a cavity in the RBD that has been identified as a linoleic acid binding pocket. Screening of several designs led to the selection of two lead candidates that expressed at higher yields than the wild-type RBD. These stabilized RBDs possess enhanced thermal stability and resistance to aggregation, particularly when incorporated into an icosahedral nanoparticle immunogen that maintained its integrity and antigenicity for 28 days at 35-40°C, while corresponding immunogens displaying the wild-type RBD experienced aggregation and loss of antigenicity. The stabilized immunogens preserved the potent immunogenicity of the original nanoparticle immunogen, which is currently being evaluated in a Phase I/II clinical trial. Our findings may improve the scalability and stability of RBD-based coronavirus vaccines in any format and more generally highlight the utility of comprehensive DMS data in guiding vaccine design.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.710263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276696PMC
July 2021

Detection of antibodies neutralizing historical and emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains using a thermodynamically coupled de novo biosensor system.

bioRxiv 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

With global vaccination efforts against SARS-CoV-2 underway, there is a need for rapid quantification methods for neutralizing antibodies elicited by vaccination and characterization of their strain dependence. Here, we describe a designed protein biosensor that enables sensitive and rapid detection of neutralizing antibodies against wild type and variant SARS-CoV-2 in serum samples. More generally, our thermodynamic coupling approach can better distinguish sample to sample differences in analyte binding affinity and abundance than traditional competition based assays.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.22.449355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240681PMC
June 2021

Adjuvanting a subunit COVID-19 vaccine to induce protective immunity.

Nature 2021 06 19;594(7862):253-258. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA, USA.

The development of a portfolio of COVID-19 vaccines to vaccinate the global population remains an urgent public health imperative. Here we demonstrate the capacity of a subunit vaccine, comprising the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain displayed on an I53-50 protein nanoparticle scaffold (hereafter designated RBD-NP), to stimulate robust and durable neutralizing-antibody responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. We evaluated five adjuvants including Essai O/W 1849101, a squalene-in-water emulsion; AS03, an α-tocopherol-containing oil-in-water emulsion; AS37, a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist adsorbed to alum; CpG1018-alum, a TLR9 agonist formulated in alum; and alum. RBD-NP immunization with AS03, CpG1018-alum, AS37 or alum induced substantial neutralizing-antibody and CD4 T cell responses, and conferred protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pharynges, nares and bronchoalveolar lavage. The neutralizing-antibody response to live virus was maintained up to 180 days after vaccination with RBD-NP in AS03 (RBD-NP-AS03), and correlated with protection from infection. RBD-NP immunization cross-neutralized the B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant efficiently but showed a reduced response against the B.1.351 variant. RBD-NP-AS03 produced a 4.5-fold reduction in neutralization of B.1.351 whereas the group immunized with RBD-NP-AS37 produced a 16-fold reduction in neutralization of B.1.351, suggesting differences in the breadth of the neutralizing-antibody response induced by these adjuvants. Furthermore, RBD-NP-AS03 was as immunogenic as a prefusion-stabilized spike immunogen (HexaPro) with AS03 adjuvant. These data highlight the efficacy of the adjuvanted RBD-NP vaccine in promoting protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and have led to phase I/II clinical trials of this vaccine (NCT04742738 and NCT04750343).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03530-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Adjuvanting a subunit SARS-CoV-2 nanoparticle vaccine to induce protective immunity in non-human primates.

bioRxiv 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

The development of a portfolio of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to vaccinate the global population remains an urgent public health imperative. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of a subunit vaccine under clinical development, comprising the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor-binding domain displayed on a two-component protein nanoparticle (RBD-NP), to stimulate robust and durable neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates. We evaluated five different adjuvants combined with RBD-NP including Essai O/W 1849101, a squalene-in-water emulsion; AS03, an alpha-tocopherol-containing squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion used in pandemic influenza vaccines; AS37, a TLR-7 agonist adsorbed to Alum; CpG 1018-Alum (CpG-Alum), a TLR-9 agonist formulated in Alum; or Alum, the most widely used adjuvant. All five adjuvants induced substantial nAb and CD4 T cell responses after two consecutive immunizations. Durable nAb responses were evaluated for RBD-NP/AS03 immunization and the live-virus nAb response was durably maintained up to 154 days post-vaccination. AS03, CpG-Alum, AS37 and Alum groups conferred significant protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pharynges, nares and in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The nAb titers were highly correlated with protection against infection. Furthermore, RBD-NP when used in conjunction with AS03 was as potent as the prefusion stabilized Spike immunogen, HexaPro. Taken together, these data highlight the efficacy of the RBD-NP formulated with clinically relevant adjuvants in promoting robust immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.10.430696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885918PMC
February 2021

Elicitation of Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses by Designed Protein Nanoparticle Vaccines for SARS-CoV-2.

Cell 2020 11 31;183(5):1367-1382.e17. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA.

A safe, effective, and scalable vaccine is needed to halt the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We describe the structure-based design of self-assembling protein nanoparticle immunogens that elicit potent and protective antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. The nanoparticle vaccines display 60 SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domains (RBDs) in a highly immunogenic array and induce neutralizing antibody titers 10-fold higher than the prefusion-stabilized spike despite a 5-fold lower dose. Antibodies elicited by the RBD nanoparticles target multiple distinct epitopes, suggesting they may not be easily susceptible to escape mutations, and exhibit a lower binding:neutralizing ratio than convalescent human sera, which may minimize the risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease. The high yield and stability of the assembled nanoparticles suggest that manufacture of the nanoparticle vaccines will be highly scalable. These results highlight the utility of robust antigen display platforms and have launched cGMP manufacturing efforts to advance the SARS-CoV-2-RBD nanoparticle vaccine into the clinic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604136PMC
November 2020

Elicitation of potent neutralizing antibody responses by designed protein nanoparticle vaccines for SARS-CoV-2.

bioRxiv 2020 Aug 12. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

A safe, effective, and scalable vaccine is urgently needed to halt the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we describe the structure-based design of self-assembling protein nanoparticle immunogens that elicit potent and protective antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. The nanoparticle vaccines display 60 copies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) in a highly immunogenic array and induce neutralizing antibody titers roughly ten-fold higher than the prefusion-stabilized S ectodomain trimer despite a more than five-fold lower dose. Antibodies elicited by the nanoparticle immunogens target multiple distinct epitopes on the RBD, suggesting that they may not be easily susceptible to escape mutations, and exhibit a significantly lower binding:neutralizing ratio than convalescent human sera, which may minimize the risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease. The high yield and stability of the protein components and assembled nanoparticles, especially compared to the SARS-CoV-2 prefusion-stabilized S trimer, suggest that manufacture of the nanoparticle vaccines will be highly scalable. These results highlight the utility of robust antigen display platforms for inducing potent neutralizing antibody responses and have launched cGMP manufacturing efforts to advance the lead RBD nanoparticle vaccine into the clinic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.11.247395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430571PMC
August 2020

Three HIV Drugs, Atazanavir, Ritonavir, and Tenofovir, Coformulated in Drug-Combination Nanoparticles Exhibit Long-Acting and Lymphocyte-Targeting Properties in Nonhuman Primates.

J Pharm Sci 2018 12 16;107(12):3153-3162. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195; Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195. Electronic address:

Drug-combination nanoparticles (DcNPs) administered subcutaneously represent a potential long-acting lymphatic-targeting treatment for HIV infection. The DcNP containing lopinavir (LPV)-ritonavir (RTV)-tenofovir (TFV), Targeted-Long-Acting-Antiretroviral-Therapy product candidate 101 (TLC-ART 101), has shown to provide long-acting lymphocyte-targeting performance in nonhuman primates. To extend the TLC-ART platform, we replaced TLC-ART 101 LPV with second-generation protease inhibitor, atazanavir (ATV). Pharmacokinetics of the ATV-RTV-TFV DcNP was assessed in macaques, in comparison to the equivalent free drug formulation and to the TLC-ART 101. After single subcutaneous administration of the DcNP formulation, ATV, RTV, and TFV concentrations were sustained in plasma for up to 14 days, and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells for 8 to 14 days, compared with 1 to 2 days in those macaques treated with free drug combination. By 1 week, lymph node mononuclear cells showed significant levels for all 3 drugs from DcNPs, whereas the free controls were undetectable. Compared with TLC-ART 101, the ATV-RTV-TFV DcNP exhibited similar lymphocyte-targeted long-acting features for all 3 drugs and similar pharmacokinetics for RTV and TFV, whereas some pharmacokinetic differences were observed for ATV versus LPV. The present study demonstrated the flexibility of the TLC-ART's DcNP platform to include different antiretroviral combinations that produce targeted long-acting effects on both plasma and cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2018.07.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6553477PMC
December 2018

Extended cell and plasma drug levels after one dose of a three-in-one nanosuspension containing lopinavir, efavirenz, and tenofovir in nonhuman primates.

AIDS 2018 11;32(17):2463-2467

Department of Pharmaceutics.

Objective: To characterize a drug-combination nanoparticle (DcNP) containing water-insoluble lopinavir (LPV) and efavirenz (EFV), and water-soluble tenofovir (TFV), for its potential as a long-acting combination HIV treatment.

Design: Three HIV drugs (LPV, EFV, TFV) with well established efficacy and safety were coformulated into a single DcNP suspension. Two macaques were administered one subcutaneous injection and drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells (in peripheral blood and lymph nodes) were analyzed over 2 weeks. Pharmacokinetic parameters and cell-to-plasma relationships of LPV, EFV, and TFV were determined.

Results: This three-in-one nanoformulation provided extended concentrations of all drugs in lymph node cells that were 57- to 228-fold higher than those in plasma. Levels of all three drugs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells persisted for 2 weeks at levels equal to or higher than those in plasma.

Conclusion: With long-acting characteristics and higher drug penetration/persistence in cells, this three-in-one DcNP may enhance therapeutic efficacy of these well studied HIV drugs due to colocalization and targeting of this three-drug combination to HIV host cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000001969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482845PMC
November 2018

Recent developments of nanotherapeutics for targeted and long-acting, combination HIV chemotherapy.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2019 May 17;138:75-91. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States; Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States. Electronic address:

Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) given orally has transformed HIV from a terminal illness to a manageable chronic disease. Yet despite the recent development of newer and more potent drugs for cART and suppression of virus in blood to undetectable levels, residual virus remains in tissues. Upon stopping cART, virus rebounds and progresses to AIDS. Current oral cART regimens have several drawbacks including (1) challenges in patient adherence due to pill fatigue or side-effects, (2) the requirement of life-long daily drug intake, and (3) limited penetration and retention in cells within lymph nodes. Appropriately designed injectable nano-drug combinations that are long-acting and retained in HIV susceptible cells within lymph nodes may address these challenges. While a number of nanomaterials have been investigated for delivery of HIV drugs and drug combinations, key challenges involve developing and scaling delivery systems that provide a drug combination targeted to HIV host cells and tissues where residual virus persists. With validation of the drug-insufficiency hypothesis in lymph nodes, progress has been made in the development of drug combination nanoparticles that are long-acting and targeted to lymph nodes and cells. Unique drug combination nanoparticles (DcNPs) composed of three HIV drugs-lopinavir, ritonavir, and tenofovir-have been shown to provide enhanced drug levels in lymph nodes; and elevated drug-combination levels in HIV-host cells in the blood and plasma for two weeks. This review summarizes the progress in the development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems for HIV therapy. It discusses how injectable nanocarriers may be designed to enable delivery of drug combinations that are long-lasting and target-selective in physiological contexts (in vivo) to provide safe and effective use. Consistent drug combination exposure in the sites of residual HIV in tissues and cells may overcome drug insufficiency observed in patients on oral cART.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482852PMC
May 2019

Long-Acting Profile of 4 Drugs in 1 Anti-HIV Nanosuspension in Nonhuman Primates for 5 Weeks After a Single Subcutaneous Injection.

J Pharm Sci 2018 07 13;107(7):1787-1790. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195; Center for AIDS Research, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195; Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195. Electronic address:

Daily oral antiretroviral therapy regimens produce limited drug exposure in tissues where residual HIV persists and suffer from poor patient adherence and disparate drug kinetics, which all negatively impact outcomes. To address this, we developed a tissue- and cell-targeted long-acting 4-in-1 nanosuspension composed of lopinavir (LPV), ritonavir, tenofovir (TFV), and lamivudine (3TC). In 4 macaques dosed subcutaneously, drug levels over 5 weeks in plasma, lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and PBMC levels of the active drugs (LPV, TFV, and 3TC) were sustained for 5 weeks; PBMC exposures to LPV, ritonavir, and 3TC were 12-, 16-, 42-fold higher than those in plasma. Apparent T of LPV, TFV, and 3TC were 219.1, 63.1, and 136.3 h in plasma; 1045.7, 105.9, and 127.7 h in PBMCs. At day 8, LPV, TFV, and 3TC levels in LNMCs were 4.1-, 5.0-, and 1.9-fold higher than in those in PBMCs and much higher than in plasma. Therefore, 1 dose of a 4-drug nanosuspension exhibited persistent drug levels in LNMCs, PBMCs, and plasma for 5 weeks. With interspecies scaling and dose adjustment, this 4-in-1 HIV drug-combination could be a long-acting treatment with the potential to target residual virus in tissues and improve patient adherence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2018.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954863PMC
July 2018

Mechanism-based pharmacokinetic (MBPK) models describe the complex plasma kinetics of three antiretrovirals delivered by a long-acting anti-HIV drug combination nanoparticle formulation.

J Control Release 2018 04 10;275:229-241. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States; Center for AIDS Research, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States; Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States. Electronic address:

Existing oral antiretroviral (ARV) agents have been shown in human studies to exhibit limited lymph node penetration and lymphatic drug insufficiency. As lymph nodes are a reservoir of HIV, it is critical to deliver and sustain effective levels of ARV combinations in these tissues. To overcome lymph node drug insufficiency of oral combination ARV therapy (cART), we developed and reported a long-acting and lymphocyte-targeting injectable that contains three ARVs-hydrophobic lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV), and hydrophilic tenofovir (TFV)-stabilized by lipid excipients in a nanosuspension. A single subcutaneous (SC) injection of this first-generation formulation of drug combination nanoparticles (DcNPs), named TLC-ART101, provided persistent ARV levels in macaque lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs) for at least 1 week, and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma for at least 2 weeks, demonstrating long-acting pharmacokinetics for all three drugs. In addition, the lymphocyte-targeting properties of this formulation were demonstrated by the consistently higher intracellular drug concentrations in LNMCs and PBMCs versus those in plasma. To provide insights into the complex mechanisms of absorption and disposition of TLC-ART101, we constructed novel mechanism-based pharmacokinetic (MBPK) models. Based upon plasma PK data obtained after single administration of TLC-ART101 (DcNPs) and a solution formulation of free triple-ARVs, the models feature uptake from the SC injection site that respectively routes free and nanoparticle-associated ARVs via the blood vasculature and lymphatics, and their eventual distribution into and clearance from the systemic circulation. The models provided simultaneous description of the complex long-acting plasma and lymphatic PK profiles for all three ARVs in TLC-ART101. The long-acting PK characteristics of the three drugs in TLC-ART101 were likely due to a combination of mechanisms including: (1) DcNPs undergoing preferential lymphatic uptake from the subcutaneous space, (2) retention in nodes during lymphatic first-pass, (3) subsequent slow release of ARVs into blood circulation, and (4) limited extravasation of DcNP-associated ARVs that resulted in longer persistence in the circulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5878144PMC
April 2018

Indocyanine green nanoparticles undergo selective lymphatic uptake, distribution and retention and enable detailed mapping of lymph vessels, nodes and abnormalities.

J Drug Target 2018 Jun - Jul;26(5-6):494-504. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

a Department of Pharmaceutics , University of Washington , Seattle , WA , USA.

The distributed network of lymph vessels and nodes in the body, with its complex architecture and physiology, presents a major challenge for whole-body lymphatic-targeted drug delivery. To gather physiological and pathological information of the lymphatics, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging of NIR fluorophores is used in clinical practice due to its tissue-penetrating optical radiation (700-900 nm) that safely provides real-time high-resolution in vivo images. However, indocyanine green (ICG), a common clinical NIR fluorophore, is unstable in aqueous environments and under light exposure, and its poor lymphatic distribution and retention limits its use as a NIR lymphatic tracer. To address this, we investigated in mice the distribution pathways of a novel nanoparticle formulation that stabilises ICG and is optimised for lymphatic drug delivery. From the subcutaneous space, ICG particles provided selective lymphatic uptake, lymph vessel and node retention, and extensive first-pass lymphatic distribution of ICG, enabling 0.2 mm and 5-10 cell resolution of lymph vessels, and high signal-to-background ratios for lymphatic vessel and node networks. Soluble (free) ICG readily dissipated from lymph vessels local to the injection site and absorbed into the blood. These unique characteristics of ICG particles could enable mechanistic studies of the lymphatics and diagnosis of lymphatic abnormalities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1061186X.2018.1433681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205717PMC
July 2019

Translation of combination nanodrugs into nanomedicines: lessons learned and future outlook.

J Drug Target 2018 Jun - Jul;26(5-6):435-447. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

a Department of Pharmaceutics , University of Washington , Seattle , WA , USA.

The concept of nanomedicine is not new. For instance, some nanocrystals and colloidal drug molecules are marketed that improve pharmacokinetic characteristics of single-agent therapeutics. For the past two decades, the number of research publications on single-agent nanoformulations has grown exponentially. However, formulations advancing to pre-clinical and clinical evaluations that lead to therapeutic products has been limited. Chronic diseases such as cancer and HIV/AIDS require drug combinations, not single agents, for durable therapeutic responses. Therefore, development and clinical translation of drug combination nanoformulations could play a significant role in improving human health. Successful translation of promising concepts into pre-clinical and clinical studies requires early considerations of the physical compatibility, pharmacological synergy, as well as pharmaceutical characteristics (e.g. stability, scalability and pharmacokinetics). With this approach and robust manufacturing processes in place, some drug-combination nanoparticles have progressed to non-human primate and human studies. In this article, we discuss the rationale and role of drug-combination nanoparticles, the pre-clinical and clinical research progress made to date and the key challenges for successful clinical translation. Finally, we offer insight to accelerate clinical translation through leveraging robust nanoplatform technologies to enable implementation of personalised and precision medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1061186X.2017.1419363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205718PMC
July 2019

Nanoparticle-releasing nanofiber composites for enhanced in vivo vaginal retention.

Biomaterials 2017 Nov 1;144:1-16. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States. Electronic address:

Current approaches for topical vaginal administration of nanoparticles result in poor retention and extensive leakage. To overcome these challenges, we developed a nanoparticle-releasing nanofiber delivery platform and evaluated its ability to improve nanoparticle retention in a murine model. We individually tailored two components of this drug delivery system for optimal interaction with mucus, designing (1) mucoadhesive fibers for better retention in the vaginal tract, and (2) PEGylated nanoparticles that diffuse quickly through mucus. We hypothesized that this novel dual-functioning (mucoadhesive/mucus-penetrating) composite material would provide enhanced retention of nanoparticles in the vaginal mucosa. Equivalent doses of fluorescent nanoparticles were vaginally administered to mice in either water (aqueous suspension) or fiber composites, and fluorescent content was quantified in cervicovaginal mucus and vaginal tissue at time points from 24 h to 7d. We also fabricated composite fibers containing etravirine-loaded nanoparticles and evaluated the pharmacokinetics over 7d. We found that our composite materials provided approximately 30-fold greater retention of nanoparticles in the reproductive tract at 24 h compared to aqueous suspensions. Compared to nanoparticles in aqueous suspension, the nanoparticles in fiber composites exhibited sustained and higher etravirine concentrations after 24 h and up to 7d, demonstrating the capabilities of this new delivery platform to sustain nanoparticle release out to 3d and drug retention out to one week after a single administration. This is the first report of nanoparticle-releasing fibers for vaginal drug delivery, as well as the first study of a single delivery system that combines two components uniquely engineered for complementary interactions with mucus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.07.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5599218PMC
November 2017

Long-acting combination anti-HIV drug suspension enhances and sustains higher drug levels in lymph node cells than in blood cells and plasma.

AIDS 2017 03;31(6):765-770

aDepartment of Pharmaceutics bDepartment of Medicine cCenter for AIDS Research dDepartment of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of anti-HIV drugs - tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) - in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma.

Design: Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) and lymph nodes (LNMCs) were analysed using a validated combination LC-MS/MS assay.

Results: For the two active drugs (TFV, LPV), plasma and PBMC intracellular drug levels persisted for over 2 weeks; PBMC drug exposures were three- to four-fold higher than those in plasma. Apparent terminal half-lives (t1/2) of TFV and LPV were 65.3 and 476.9 h in plasma, and 169.1 and 151.2 h in PBMCs. At 24 and 192 h, TFV and LPV drug levels in LNMCs were up to 79-fold higher than those in PBMCs. Analysis of PBMC intracellular TFV and its active metabolite TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) indicated that intracellular exposures of total TFV and TFV-DP were markedly higher and persisted longer than in humans and macaques dosed with oral TFV prodrugs, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF).

Conclusions: A simple, scalable three-drug combination, lipid-stabilized nanosuspension exhibited persistent drug levels in cells of lymph nodes and the blood (HIV host cells) and in plasma. With appropriate dose adjustment, TLC-ART101 may be a useful HIV treatment with a potential to impact residual virus in lymph nodes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000001405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5345888PMC
March 2017

Nanodrug formulations to enhance HIV drug exposure in lymphoid tissues and cells: clinical significance and potential impact on treatment and eradication of HIV/AIDS.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2016 19;11(5):545-64. Epub 2016 Feb 19.

Cancer Metastasis Alert & Prevention Center, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, PR China.

Although oral combination antiretroviral therapy effectively clears plasma HIV, patients on oral drugs exhibit much lower drug concentrations in lymph nodes than blood. This drug insufficiency is linked to residual HIV in cells of lymph nodes. While nanoformulations improve drug solubility, safety and delivery, most HIV nanoformulations are intended to extend plasma levels. A stable nanodrug combination that transports, delivers and accumulates in lymph nodes is needed to clear HIV in lymphoid tissues. This review discusses limitations of current oral combination antiretroviral therapy and advances in anti-HIV nanoformulations. A 'systems approach' has been proposed to overcome these limitations. This concept has been used to develop nanoformulations for overcoming drug insufficiency, extending cell and tissue exposure and clearing virus for treating HIV/AIDS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm.16.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4910949PMC
December 2016

Systems Approach to targeted and long-acting HIV/AIDS therapy.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2015 Dec;5(6):531-9

Departments of Pharmaceutics and Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Medication adherence and insufficient drug levels are central to HIV/AIDS disease progression. Recently, Fletcher et al. confirmed that HIV patients on oral antiretroviral therapy had lower intracellular drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. For instance, in the same patient, multiple lymph node drug concentrations were as much as 99 % lower than in blood. This study built upon our previous finding that HIV patients taking oral indinavir had 3-fold lower mononuclear cell drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. As a result, an association between insufficient lymph node drug concentrations in cells and persistent viral replication has now been validated. Lymph node cells, particularly CD4 T lymphocytes, host HIV infection and persistence; CD4 T cell depletion in blood correlates with AIDS progression. With established drug targets to overcome drug insufficiency in lymphoid cells and tissues, we have developed and employed a "Systems Approach" to engineer multi-drug-incorporated particles for HIV treatment. The goal is to improve lymphatic HIV drug exposure to eliminate HIV drug insufficiency and disease progression. We found that nano-particulate drugs that absorb, transit, and retain in the lymphatic system after subcutaneous dosing improve intracellular lymphatic drug exposure and overcome HIV lymphatic drug insufficiency. The composition, physical properties, and stability of the drug nanoparticles contribute to the prolonged and enhanced drug exposure in lymphoid cells and tissues. In addition to overcoming lymphatic drug insufficiency and potentially reversing HIV infection, targeted drug nanoparticle properties may extend drug concentrations and enable the development of long-acting HIV drug therapy for enhanced patient compliance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-015-0254-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4826474PMC
December 2015

Interactions of indocyanine green and lipid in enhancing near-infrared fluorescence properties: the basis for near-infrared imaging in vivo.

Biochemistry 2014 Mar 17;53(8):1275-83. Epub 2014 Feb 17.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington 98195, United States.

Indocyanine green (ICG) is a near-infrared (NIR) contrast agent commonly used for in vivo cardiovascular and eye imaging. For medical diagnosis, ICG is limited by its aqueous instability, concentration-dependent aggregation, and rapid degradation. To overcome these limitations, scientists have formulated ICG in various liposomes, which are spherical lipid membrane vesicles with an aqueous core. Some encapsulate ICG, while others mix it with liposomes. There is no clear understanding of lipid-ICG interactions. Therefore, we investigated lipid-ICG interactions by fluorescence and photon correlation spectroscopy. These data were used to design stable and maximally fluorescent liposomal ICG nanoparticles for NIR optical imaging of the lymphatic system. We found that ICG binds to and is incorporated completely and stably into the lipid membrane. At a lipid:ICG molar ratio of 250:1, the maximal fluorescence intensity was detected. ICG incorporated into liposomes enhanced the fluorescence intensity that could be detected across 1.5 cm of muscle tissue, while free ICG only allowed 0.5 cm detection. When administered subcutaneously in mice, lipid-bound ICG in liposomes exhibited a higher intensity, NIR image resolution, and enhanced lymph node and lymphatic vessel visualization. It also reduced the level of fluorescence quenching due to light exposure and degradation in storage. Lipid-bound ICG could provide additional medical diagnostic value with NIR optical imaging for early intervention in cases of lymphatic abnormalities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi500021jDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3985908PMC
March 2014

Emerging research and clinical development trends of liposome and lipid nanoparticle drug delivery systems.

J Pharm Sci 2014 Jan 25;103(1):29-52. Epub 2013 Nov 25.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Liposomes are spherical-enclosed membrane vesicles mainly constructed with lipids. Lipid nanoparticles are loaded with therapeutics and may not contain an enclosed bilayer. The majority of those clinically approved have diameters of 50-300 nm. The growing interest in nanomedicine has fueled lipid-drug and lipid-protein studies, which provide a foundation for developing lipid particles that improve drug potency and reduce off-target effects. Integrating advances in lipid membrane research has enabled therapeutic development. At present, about 600 clinical trials involve lipid particle drug delivery systems. Greater understanding of pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and disposition of lipid-drug particles facilitated particle surface hydration technology (with polyethylene glycol) to reduce rapid clearance and provide sufficient blood circulation time for drug to reach target tissues and cells. Surface hydration enabled the liposome-encapsulated cancer drug doxorubicin (Doxil) to gain clinical approval in 1995. Fifteen lipidic therapeutics are now clinically approved. Although much research involves attaching lipid particles to ligands selective for occult cells and tissues, preparation procedures are often complex and pose scale-up challenges. With emerging knowledge in drug target and lipid-drug distribution in the body, a systems approach that integrates knowledge to design and scale lipid-drug particles may further advance translation of these systems to improve therapeutic safety and efficacy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.23773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074410PMC
January 2014

Pharmacogenetics in obstetric anesthesia.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2010 Jun;23(3):323-9

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195-6540, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Genomic research in pain, anesthesia and analgesia generated some hope that pharmacogenetics may guide anesthesiologists to provide effective medicine in a 'tailored' manner. Within the field of obstetric anesthesia, relatively few studies have evaluated the effect of polymorphisms on the perception of labor or postcesarean pain or the response to analgesics for childbirth. Because of the multifactorial nature of labor and delivery pain and particularly challenging clinical context, many consider that 'titration of drugs to the desired effect works just fine'. With recent evidence highlighting an association between severe postdelivery pain and persistent pain, early recognition of an increased susceptibility for acute pain has become particularly relevant.

Recent Findings: Neuraxial labor analgesia is influenced by a common polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor gene. This polymorphism also affects the analgesic response to systemic opioids for postcesarean pain and other types of surgeries. Finally, the risk for persistent pain after cesarean deliveries may be associated with a certain genetic profile.

Summary: Although still premature to anticipate clinical implications and a change in practice based on these recent discoveries, genetic variability clearly appears to affect pain perception, response to analgesics and predisposition for the development of chronic pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACO.0b013e328339802cDOI Listing
June 2010

An experimental paradigm for the prediction of Post-Operative Pain (PPOP).

J Vis Exp 2010 Jan 27(35). Epub 2010 Jan 27.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, USA.

Many women undergo cesarean delivery without problems, however some experience significant pain after cesarean section. Pain is associated with negative short-term and long-term effects on the mother. Prior to women undergoing surgery, can we predict who is at risk for developing significant postoperative pain and potentially prevent or minimize its negative consequences? These are the fundamental questions that a team from the University of Washington, Stanford University, the Catholic University in Brussels, Belgium, Santa Joana Women's Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, and Rambam Medical Center in Israel is currently evaluating in an international research collaboration. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide optimal pain relief during and after cesarean section by offering individualized anesthetic care to women who appear to be more 'susceptible' to pain after surgery. A significant number of women experience moderate or severe acute post-partum pain after vaginal and cesarean deliveries. (1) Furthermore, 10-15% of women suffer chronic persistent pain after cesarean section. (2) With constant increase in cesarean rates in the US (3) and the already high rate in Brazil, this is bound to create a significant public health problem. When questioning women's fears and expectations from cesarean section, pain during and after it is their greatest concern. (4) Individual variability in severity of pain after vaginal or operative delivery is influenced by multiple factors including sensitivity to pain, psychological factors, age, and genetics. The unique birth experience leads to unpredictable requirements for analgesics, from 'none at all' to 'very high' doses of pain medication. Pain after cesarean section is an excellent model to study post-operative pain because it is performed on otherwise young and healthy women. Therefore, it is recommended to attenuate the pain during the acute phase because this may lead to chronic pain disorders. The impact of developing persistent pain is immense, since it may impair not only the ability of women to care for their child in the immediate postpartum period, but also their own well being for a long period of time. In a series of projects, an international research network is currently investigating the effect of pregnancy on pain modulation and ways to predict who will suffer acute severe pain and potentially chronic pain, by using simple pain tests and questionnaires in combination with genetic analysis. A relatively recent approach to investigate pain modulation is via the psychophysical measure of Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Control (DNIC). This pain-modulating process is the neurophysiological basis for the well-known phenomenon of 'pain inhibits pain' from remote areas of the body. The DNIC paradigm has evolved recently into a clinical tool and simple test and has been shown to be a predictor of post-operative pain.(5) Since pregnancy is associated with decreased pain sensitivity and/or enhanced processes of pain modulation, using tests that investigate pain modulation should provide a better understanding of the pathways involved with pregnancy-induced analgesia and may help predict pain outcomes during labor and delivery. For those women delivering by cesarean section, a DNIC test performed prior to surgery along with psychosocial questionnaires and genetic tests should enable one to identify women prone to suffer severe post-cesarean pain and persistent pain. These clinical tests should allow anesthesiologists to offer not only personalized medicine to women with the promise to improve well-being and satisfaction, but also a reduction in the overall cost of perioperative and long term care due to pain and suffering. On a larger scale, these tests that explore pain modulation may become bedside screening tests to predict the development of pain disorders following surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/1671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2818706PMC
January 2010
-->