Publications by authors named "John C Cheville"

335 Publications

Morphologic Overlap Between Low Grade Oncocytic Tumor (LOT) & Eosinophilic Variant of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Hum Pathol 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2021.09.010DOI Listing
October 2021

Diagnosis of "cribriform" prostatic adenocarcinoma: an interobserver reproducibility study among urologic pathologists with recommendations.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(8):3990-4001. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Pathology, Tufts Medical Center Boston, MA, USA.

Accurate diagnosis of cribriform Gleason pattern 4 (CrP4) prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) is important due to its independent association with adverse clinical outcomes and as a growing body of evidence suggests that it impacts clinical decision making in PCa management. To identify reproducible features for diagnosis of CrP4, we assessed interobserver agreement among 27 experienced urologic pathologists of 60 digital images from 44 radical prostatectomies (RP) that represented a broad spectrum of potential CrP4. The following morphologic features were correlated with the consensus diagnosis (defined as 75% agreement) for each image: partial vs. transluminal glandular bridging, intraglandular stroma, <12 vs. ≥12 lumina, well vs. poorly formed lumina, mucin (mucinous fibroplasia, extravasation, or extracellular pool), size (compared to benign glands and number of lumina), number of attachments with gland border by tumor cells forming a "glomeruloid-like" pattern, a clear luminal space along the periphery of gland occupying <50% of glandular circumference, central nerve, dense (cell mass occupying >50% of luminal space) vs. loose, and regular vs. irregular contour. Interobserver reproducibility for the overall diagnostic agreement was fair (k=0.40). Large CrP4 had better agreement (k=0.49) compared to small CrP4 (k=0.40). Transluminal bridging, dense cellular proliferation, a clear luminal space along the periphery of gland occupying <50% of gland circumference, lack of intraglandular mucin, and lack of contact between the majority of intraglandular cells with stroma were significantly associated with consensus for CrP4. In contrast, partial bridging, majority of intraglandular cells in contact with stroma, mucinous fibroplasia, only one attachment to the gland border by tumor cells forming a "glomeruloid-like" pattern, and a clear luminal space along the periphery of gland accounting for >50% of the glandular circumference were associated with consensus against CrP4. In summary, we identified reproducible morphological features for and against CrP4 diagnosis, which could be used to refine and standardize the diagnostic criteria for CrP4.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414383PMC
August 2021

Fumarate Hydratase (FH) c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) variant is not associated with FH protein deficiency and increased 2SC in two separate patients with renal neoplasia.

Hum Mutat 2021 Oct 1;42(10):1362-1364. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24268DOI Listing
October 2021

Personalized tumor-specific DNA junctions to detect circulating tumor in patients with endometrial cancer.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252390. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States of America.

Introduction: There are no reliable blood biomarkers for monitoring endometrial cancer patients in the current clinical practice. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a promising non-invasive method to measure tumor burden, define prognosis and monitor disease status in many solid cancers. In this pilot study, we investigated if unique tumor-specific DNA junctions can be used to detect ctDNA levels in patients with endometrial cancer.

Methods: Chromosomal rearrangements in primary tumors of eleven patients with high-grade or advanced stage endometrial cancer were determined by whole-genome Mate-Pair sequencing. Identified unique tumor-specific junctions were evaluated in pre- and six-week post-surgery patient plasma using individualized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. The relationship between clinicopathological features and detection of ctDNA was investigated.

Results: CtDNA was detected in 60% (6/10) of cases pre-surgery and in 27% (3/11) post-surgery. The detection of ctDNA pre-surgery was consistent with clinical indicators of aggressive disease such as advanced stage (80% - 4/5), lymphatic spread of disease (100% - 3/3), serous histology (80% - 4/5), deep myometrial invasion (100% - 3/3), lympho-vascular space invasion (75% - 3/4). All patients in which ctDNA was detected post-surgically had type II endometrial cancer.

Discussion: This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of using personalized tumor-specific junction panels for detecting ctDNA in the plasma of endometrial cancer patients. Larger studies and longer follow-up are needed to validate the potential association between pre-surgical ctDNA detection and the presence of cancers with aggressive pathologic tumor characteristics or advanced stage observed in this study.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252390PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192008PMC
October 2021

Comparative molecular analysis of testicular Leydig cell tumors demonstrates distinct subsets of neoplasms with aggressive histopathologic features.

Mod Pathol 2021 Oct 8;34(10):1935-1946. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Testicular Leydig cell tumor (LCT), the most common sex-cord stromal tumor in men, represents a small fraction of all testicular tumors (~1 to 3%). Although most testicular LCTs are indolent and cured by radical orchiectomy, 5-10% have aggressive biology and metastatic potential. In primary LCTs, large size, cytologic atypia, necrosis, increased mitotic activity, and vascular invasion have been associated with clinically aggressive tumors. From a molecular perspective, the characteristics of aggressive LCTs and the differences between aggressive and nonaggressive LCTs remain largely unexplored. This study compares the genomic landscape of aggressive and nonaggressive testicular LCTs. Twenty-six cases were analyzed using next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) and immunohistochemistry. Cases were classified as aggressive LCT if they met published criteria for malignancy in primary (i.e., testicular) tumors or if they had pathology-proven metastatic disease; otherwise, cases were considered nonaggressive. This multi-institutional series included 18 aggressive LCTs (14 primary/testicular, 4 metastatic) and 8 nonaggressive LCTs. Two cases (2/26, 8%; both aggressive LCTs) failed sequencing and had negative (i.e., uninformative) FH immunohistochemistry results. One additional primary aggressive LCT failed sequencing but had informative FH immunohistochemistry results. Combined NGS and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated FH inactivation in 5/26 cases (19%). In addition, NGS demonstrated CTNNB1 mutations or biallelic APC inactivation in 9/23 cases (39%), copy number changes without recurrent mutations in 6/23 (26%) cases, and no alterations in 4/23 cases (17%). CTNNB1 mutations were present in both aggressive and nonaggressive LCTs. In contrast, FH inactivation and multiple copy number changes were only identified in aggressive LCTs. In conclusion, three distinct subgroups of aggressive LCTs were characterized by FH inactivation, Wnt pathway activation, and copy number changes without recurrent mutations, respectively. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin and Wnt pathway activation appear to be early driver events that provide an environment conducive for progression to aggressive biology in a subset of LCTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00845-3DOI Listing
October 2021

A contemporary guide to chromosomal copy number profiling in the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

The routine clinical implementation of molecular methods other than fluorescence in situ hybridization in the evaluation of renal neoplasia is currently limited, as the current standard of care primarily involves a combination of morphologic and immunophenotypic analysis of such tumors. Amongst various molecular techniques, global copy number profiling using single nucleotide polymorphism-based microarrays, colloquially referred to as SNP-arrays, is being increasingly utilized to profile renal tumors, as several subtypes have characteristic recurrent patterns of copy number alterations. Recurrent copy number alterations in common tumor types include loss of chromosome 3p in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), gain of chromosomes 7 and 17 in papillary RCC and multiple losses in chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 in chromophobe RCC. Such assays are being increasingly utilized in the clinical setting. Herein, we discuss some common clinical applications of such testing that includes high yield diagnostic and prognostic applications. Diagnostic utility includes evaluation of tumor types that are primarily defined by underlying copy number alterations, establishing the underlying subtype in high grade dedifferentiated (unclassified) renal tumors, as well as assessment of loss of heterozygosity, which is an important component in the workup for germline alterations in tumor suppressor genes. Universal adoption of these techniques across clinical laboratories will likely be significantly affected by variables such as cost, reimbursement, and turnaround time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.04.042DOI Listing
June 2021

Low-Grade Oncocytic Tumor of Kidney (CK7-Positive, CD117-Negative): Incidence in a single institutional experience with clinicopathological and molecular characteristics.

Hum Pathol 2021 Aug 4;114:9-18. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Low-grade oncocytic tumor of the kidney (LOT) is characterized by cytoplasmic eosinophilia and a CK7-positive/CD117-negative immunophenotype. Morphologically, they exhibit overlapping features with oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Our aim was to obtain long-term clinical follow-up data, clinicopathological and molecular characteristics, and incidence of LOT. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 574 tumors historically diagnosed as oncocytoma and surgically treated at Mayo Clinic between 1970 and 2012, and immunostained for CK7 and CD117. An extended immunophenotype was obtained on whole slide sections, along with FISH for CCND1 rearrangement status and chromosomal microarray for copy number status. In addition, two cases were retrospectively identified in a set of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated neoplasms and three more cases diagnosed on needle core biopsies were obtained during routine clinical practice. Twenty-four cases of LOT were identified among 574 consecutive tumors diagnosed as oncocytoma and treated with partial or radical nephrectomy, corresponding to an incidence of 4.18% of tumors historically diagnosed as oncocytomas, and 0.35% of 6944 nephrectomies performed between 1970 and 2012. Overall, 29 cases of LOT were identified in three clinical settings: sporadic, TSC-associated, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Multifocality was seen only in the setting of TSC and ESRD. No metastases attributable to LOT were identified (median follow-up 9.6 years). There were no recurrent arm level copy number changes detected by chromosomal microarray and all tested cases were negative for CCND1 rearrangement by FISH. LOT is an uncommon eosinophilic renal neoplasm with an indolent prognosis that constitutes ∼4% of tumors historically diagnosed as oncocytoma. The morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features of this neoplasm suggest it is a distinct entity of renal neoplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2021.04.013DOI Listing
August 2021

Locoregional Management of the Axilla in Mastectomy Patients with One or Two Positive Sentinel Nodes: The Role of Intraoperative Pathology.

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 Oct 13;21(5):458-465. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Surgery. Electronic address:

Introduction: Controversy exists regarding optimal management of the axilla in clinically node-negative (cN0) mastectomy patients with one or two positive sentinel lymph nodes (+SLNs). We evaluated the influence of frozen-section pathology on axillary management and recurrence.

Patients And Methods: We studied cN0 breast cancer patients treated from 2008 to 2018 with mastectomy and SLN surgery with one or two +SLNs. Patients with one or two +SLNs identified on frozen-section intraoperatively (FS+SLN) were compared to those with one or two +SLNs not detected by frozen section (FS-SLN). Recurrence rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Of 2295 cN0 mastectomy patients, 338 patients had one or two +SLNs: 108 (32%) FS-SLN and 230 (68%) FS+SLN. In the FS+SLN cases, completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND) was more frequent (97% vs. 39%; P < .001), and median SLN metastasis size (5 vs. 1.3 mm; P < .001) and likelihood of positive non-SLNs (31% vs. 14%; P = .02) were greater compared with FS-SLN cases. Across all 338 patients, 40% had SLN surgery alone, and 47% of cALND patients received post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). At a median follow-up of 61 months, no axillary recurrences were observed among FS-SLN patients. Among FS+SLN patients, 97% proceeded to cALND but 49% avoided PMRT; three regional nodal recurrences were observed (all in patients treated with cALND, of whom two received PMRT).

Conclusion: Mastectomy patients with one or two FS+SLNs have a higher nodal disease burden than FS-SLN patients. The majority of FS+SLN patients underwent cALND, and 51% received PMRT with very low 5-year regional nodal recurrence rates. A substantial proportion of FS-SLN patients successfully avoided both cALND and PMRT. Frozen-section pathology analysis can guide de-escalation of axillary management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2021.02.013DOI Listing
October 2021

Assessment of isochromosome 12p and 12p abnormalities in germ cell tumors using fluorescence in situ hybridization, single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and next-generation sequencing/mate-pair sequencing.

Hum Pathol 2021 06 31;112:20-34. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905 USA. Electronic address:

The identification of isochromosome 12p [i(12p)] and 12p gains have significant clinical utility in the diagnosis of germ cell tumors (GCTs). We have summarized the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays to identify i(12p), performed in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-validated setting for 536 specimens. In addition, the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Project GENIE registry and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data sets were evaluated for chromosome 12p gains, and a limited number of cases were concurrently evaluated using FISH, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS; including mate-pair sequencing). Specimens submitted for FISH testing were frequently from potential sites of metastases (male: 70.9% and female: 69.3%), and polysomy of chromosome 12 with or without concurrent i(12p) was a frequent finding, seen in 3% (16/536) and 35% (186/536) of cases, respectively. Our analysis suggests that 12p gains are likely to be present in approximately 73% of male GCT and in 32% of female GCT (AACR GENIE, n = 555). When comparing TCGA cases of testicular GCT (n = 149) to combined cases of sarcoma, colorectal, prostate, and urothelial carcinoma (n = 1754), 12p gains had a sensitivity of 77.2% and specificity of 97.3% for GCT. Some advantages of FISH over SNP arrays/NGS include relatively lower cost, rapid turnaround time, the ability to analyze biopsy material with a limited number of tumor cells (50 cells), and the ability to distinguish i(12p) from polysomy. The ability to spatially restrict the analysis to cells of interest is critical, as specimens submitted for testing often have low tumor purity. Disadvantages include false negative results due to an inability to detect segmental gains due to FISH probe design. With the availability of numerous testing modalities, including FISH, SNP arrays, and NGS-based assays, a nuanced understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each methodology, as has been presented in this study, may inform appropriate testing strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2021.03.008DOI Listing
June 2021

Theragnostic chromosomal rearrangements in treatment-naive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas obtained via endoscopic ultrasound.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 04 11;25(8):4110-4123. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

A crucial mutational mechanism in malignancy is structural variation, in which chromosomal rearrangements alter gene functions that drive cancer progression. Herein, the presence and pattern of structural variations were investigated in twelve prospectively acquired treatment-naïve pancreatic cancers specimens obtained via endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). In many patients, this diagnostic biopsy procedure and specimen is the only opportunity to identify somatic clinically relevant actionable alterations that may impact their care and outcome. Specialized mate pair sequencing (MPseq) provided genome-wide structural variance analysis (SVA) with a view to identifying prognostic markers and possible therapeutic targets. MPseq was successfully performed on all specimens, identifying highly rearranged genomes with complete SVA on all specimens with > 20% tumour content. SVA identified chimeric fusion proteins and potentially immunogenic readthrough transcripts, change of function truncations, gains and losses of key genes linked to tumour progression. Complex localized rearrangements, termed chromoanagenesis, with broad pattern heterogeneity were observed in 10 (83%) specimens, impacting multiple genes with diverse cellular functions that could influence theragnostic evaluation and responsiveness to immunotherapy regimens. This study indicates that genome-wide MPseq can be successfully performed on very limited clinically EUS obtained specimens for chromosomal rearrangement detection and potential theragnostic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051743PMC
April 2021

New developments in existing WHO entities and evolving molecular concepts: The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) update on renal neoplasia.

Mod Pathol 2021 07 4;34(7):1392-1424. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pathology MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) reviewed recent advances in renal neoplasia, particularly post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, to provide an update on existing entities, including diagnostic criteria, molecular correlates, and updated nomenclature. Key prognostic features for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain WHO/ISUP grade, AJCC/pTNM stage, coagulative necrosis, and rhabdoid and sarcomatoid differentiation. Accrual of subclonal genetic alterations in clear cell RCC including SETD2, PBRM1, BAP1, loss of chromosome 14q and 9p are associated with variable prognosis, patterns of metastasis, and vulnerability to therapies. Recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines increasingly adopt immunotherapeutic agents in advanced RCC, including RCC with rhabdoid and sarcomatoid changes. Papillary RCC subtyping is no longer recommended, as WHO/ISUP grade and tumor architecture better predict outcome. New papillary RCC variants/patterns include biphasic, solid, Warthin-like, and papillary renal neoplasm with reverse polarity. For tumors with 'borderline' features between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC, a term "oncocytic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, not further classified" is proposed. Clear cell papillary RCC may warrant reclassification as a tumor of low malignant potential. Tubulocystic RCC should only be diagnosed when morphologically pure. MiTF family translocation RCCs exhibit varied morphologic patterns and fusion partners. TFEB-amplified RCC occurs in older patients and is associated with more aggressive behavior. Acquired cystic disease (ACD) RCC-like cysts are likely precursors of ACD-RCC. The diagnosis of renal medullary carcinoma requires a negative SMARCB1 (INI-1) expression and sickle cell trait/disease. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) can be distinguished from papillary RCC with overlapping morphology by losses of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22. MTSCC with adverse histologic features shows frequent CDKN2A/2B (9p) deletions. BRAF mutations unify the metanephric family of tumors. The term "fumarate hydratase deficient RCC" ("FH-deficient RCC") is preferred over "hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome-associated RCC". A low threshold for FH, 2SC, and SDHB immunohistochemistry is recommended in difficult to classify RCCs, particularly those with eosinophilic morphology, occurring in younger patients. Current evidence does not support existence of a unique tumor subtype occurring after chemotherapy/radiation in early childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00779-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Leucine Zipper 4 Autoantibody: A Novel Germ Cell Tumor and Paraneoplastic Biomarker.

Ann Neurol 2021 05 28;89(5):1001-1010. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, NY.

Objective: This study was undertaken to describe a novel biomarker of germ cell tumor and associated paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS).

Methods: Archival sera from patients with germ cell tumor-associated PNS were evaluated. We identified a common autoantigen in a human testicular cancer cell line (TCam-2) by Western blot and mass spectrometry. Its identity was confirmed by recombinant-protein Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and cell-based assay. Autoantibody specificity was confirmed by analyzing assorted control sera/cerebrospinal fluid.

Results: Leucine zipper 4 (LUZP4)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) was detected in 28 patients' sera, 26 of whom (93%) were men. The median age at neurological symptom onset was 45 years (range = 28-84). Median titer (ELISA) was 1:300 (1:50 to >1:6,400, normal value < 1:50). Coexistent kelchlike protein 11-IgG was identified in 18 cases (64%). The most common presenting phenotype was rhombencephalitis (17/28, 61%). Other presentations included limbic encephalitis (n = 5, 18%), seizures and/or encephalitis (n = 2, 7%), and motor neuronopathy/polyradiculopathy (n = 4, 14%). The most common malignancy among cancer-evaluated PNS patients was seminoma (21/27, 78%). Nine of the 21 seminomas detected by whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan (43%) were extratesticular. Both female patients had ovarian teratoma. Regressed testicular germ cell tumors were found in 4 patients. Exposure of T-cell-dendritic-cell cocultures from chronic immunosuppression-naïve LUZP4-IgG-seropositive patients to recombinant LUZP4 protein evoked a marked increase in CD69 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when compared to vehicle-exposed and healthy control cultures.

Interpretation: LUZP4-IgG represents a novel serological biomarker of PNS and has high predictive value for germ cell tumors. The demonstrated antigen-specific T-cell responses support a CD8+ T-cell-mediated cytotoxic paraneoplastic and antitumor potential. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:1001-1010.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26050DOI Listing
May 2021

Novel, emerging and provisional renal entities: The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) update on renal neoplasia.

Mod Pathol 2021 06 1;34(6):1167-1184. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in renal neoplasia, particularly focusing on the newly accumulated evidence post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. In the era of evolving histo-molecular classification of renal neoplasia, morphology is still key. However, entities (or groups of entities) are increasingly characterized by specific molecular features, often associated either with recognizable, specific morphologies or constellations of morphologies and corresponding immunohistochemical profiles. The correct diagnosis has clinical implications leading to better prognosis, potential clinical management with targeted therapies, may identify hereditary or syndromic associations, which may necessitate appropriate genetic testing. We hope that this undertaking will further facilitate the identification of these entities in practice. We also hope that this update will bring more clarity regarding the evolving classification of renal neoplasia and will further reduce the category of "unclassifiable renal carcinomas/tumors". We propose three categories of novel entities: (1) "Novel entity", validated by multiple independent studies; (2) "Emerging entity", good compelling data available from at least two or more independent studies, but additional validation is needed; and (3) "Provisional entity", limited data available from one or two studies, with more work required to validate them. For some entities initially described using different names, we propose new terminologies, to facilitate their recognition and to avoid further diagnostic dilemmas. Following these criteria, we propose as novel entities: eosinophilic solid and cystic renal cell carcinoma (ESC RCC), renal cell carcinoma with fibromyomatous stroma (RCC FMS) (formerly RCC with leiomyomatous or smooth muscle stroma), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement-associated renal cell carcinoma (ALK-RCC). Emerging entities include: eosinophilic vacuolated tumor (EVT) and thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma (TLFRCC). Finally, as provisional entities, we propose low-grade oncocytic tumor (LOT), atrophic kidney-like lesion (AKLL), and biphasic hyalinizing psammomatous renal cell carcinoma (BHP RCC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00737-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Renal Neoplasia in Tuberous Sclerosis: A Study of 41 Patients.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 06 29;96(6):1470-1489. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objective: To study the clinical features and identify unique renal neoplasia subtypes and their prognostic implications in individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).

Patients And Methods: The Mayo Clinic nephrectomy registry included 37 patients with TSC diagnosed between 1970 and 2018. Four additional patients were identified from the pathology consultation and autopsy files. All available renal tumors were further characterized using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clinicopathologic features and follow-up were obtained from the medical record. The American Association for Cancer Research Project GENIE registry was accessed using cBioPortal for molecular profiling of angiomyolipoma (AML).

Results: A total of 276 renal tumors from 41 patients were analyzed. Renal tumors were classified into 9 distinct morphological subtypes, with AML predominating (238 [86%]). Interestingly, all these tumors acted in a benign fashion except one renal cell carcinoma with clear cells and fibromyomatous stroma and one epithelioid AML that metastasized. Molecular profiling studies revealed that epithelioid AMLs were enriched for alterations of TP53, RB1, and ATRX. Eight patients died of direct complications of TSC, including 3 of end-stage renal disease. To date, none have died of a renal epithelial neoplasm.

Conclusion: The identification of unique renal neoplasia subtypes may provide important clues to establish a diagnosis of TSC, and in the somatic setting, this finding has important implications for accurate prognostication. These tumors tend to be indolent, and only 2 of 276 tumors in our study exhibited metastatic behavior. Our results support multidisciplinary management with a focus on preservation of renal function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.11.004DOI Listing
June 2021

The association of salvage intravesical therapy following BCG with pathologic outcomes and survival after radical cystectomy for patients with high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: A multi-institution analysis.

Urol Oncol 2021 07 21;39(7):436.e1-436.e8. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Introduction: While numerous current clinical trials are testing novel salvage therapies (ST) for patients with recurrent nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the natural history of this disease state has been poorly defined to date. Herein, we evaluated oncologic outcomes in patients previously treated with BCG and ST who subsequently underwent radical cystectomy (RC).

Methods: We identified 378 patients with high-grade NMIBC who received at least one complete induction course of BCG (n = 378) with (n = 62) or without (n = 316) additional ST and who then underwent RC between 2000 and 2018. Oncologic outcomes were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Sensitivity analyses were conducted stratifying by presenting tumor stage, matched 1:3 for receipt vs. no receipt of ST.

Results: Patients receiving ST were more likely to initially present with CIS (26% vs. 17%) and less likely with T1 disease (34% vs. 50%, P = 0.06) compared to patients not treated with ST. Receipt of ST was not associated with increased risk of adverse pathology (≥pT2 or pN+) at RC (31% vs. 41%, P = 0.14). Likewise, 5-year cancer-specific survival did not significantly differ between groups on univariable Kaplan-Meier analysis (73% for ST and 74% for no ST, P = 0.7). Moreover, on multivariable analysis, receipt of ST was not significantly associated the risk of death from bladder cancer (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.60-2.09, P = 0.7). Results were unchanged on sensitivity analysis.

Conclusions: These data suggest that, in carefully selected patients, ST following BCG for high grade NMIBC does not compromise oncologic outcomes for patients who ultimately undergo RC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.01.004DOI Listing
July 2021

Creation of a primary tumor tissue expression biomarker-augmented prognostic model for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Urol Oncol 2021 02 9;39(2):135.e1-135.e8. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Background: Clinical and pathological factors alone have limited prognostic ability in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Bim, a downstream pro-apoptotic molecule in the PD-1 signaling pathway, has recently been associated with survival in other malignancies. We sought to determine if tissue biomarkers including Bim, added to a previously reported clinical metastases score, improved prediction of cancer-specific survival (CSS) for patients with metastatic ccRCC.

Methods: Patients with metastatic ccRCC who underwent nephrectomy between 1990 and 2004 were identified using our institutional registry. Sections from paraffin-embedded primary tumor tissue blocks were used for immunohistochemistry staining for Bim, PD-1, B7-H1 (PD-L1), B7-H3, CA-IX, IMP3, Ki67, and survivin. Biomarkers that were significantly associated with CSS after adjusting for the metastases score were used to develop a biomarker-specific multivariable model using a bootstrap resampling approach and forward selection. Predictive ability was summarized using a bootstrap-corrected c-index.

Results: The cohort included 602 patients: 192 (32%) with metastases at diagnosis and 410 (68%) who developed metastases after nephrectomy. Median follow-up was 9.6 years (IQR 4.2-12.8), during which 504 patients died of RCC. Bim, IMP3, Ki67, and survivin expression were significantly associated with CSS after adjusting for the metastases score, and were eligible for biomarker-specific model inclusion. After variable selection, high Bim (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.78; P <0.001), high survivin (HR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.08-1.68; P = 0.008), and the metastases score (HR = 1.13 per 1 point; 95% CI 1.10-1.16; P <0.001) were retained in the final multivariable model (c-index = 0.69).

Conclusion: We created a prognostic model combining the clinical metastases score and 2 primary tumor tissue expression biomarkers, Bim and survivin, for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who underwent nephrectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.08.028DOI Listing
February 2021

Grading Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma: Evidence for a Four-tiered Classification Incorporating Coagulative Tumor Necrosis.

Eur Urol 2021 02 7;79(2):225-231. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Although grading systems have been proposed for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), including a three-tiered system by Paner et al (Paner GP, Amin MB, Alvarado-Cabrero I, et al. A novel tumor grading scheme for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: prognostic utility and comparison with Fuhrman nuclear grade. Am J Surg Pathol 2010;34:1233-40), none have gained clinical acceptance, and the World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends against grading ChRCC.

Objective: To validate a previously published grading scheme and propose a scheme that includes tumor necrosis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 266 patients who underwent nephrectomy for nonmetastatic ChRCC between 1970 and 2012 were reviewed for ChRCC grade according to the Paner system and coagulative tumor necrosis.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Associations with cancer-specific survival (CSS) were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression models and summarized with hazard ratios (HRs).

Results And Limitations: Twenty-nine patients died from RCC; the median follow-up was 11.0 (interquartile range 7.9-15.9) yr. ChRCC grade according to the Paner system was significantly associated with CSS, including the difference in outcome between grade 1 and 2 tumors. Among patients with grade 2 tumors, the presence of tumor necrosis helped delineate patients with worse CSS. As such, the Paner system was expanded to four tiers separating grade 2 into those with and without tumor necrosis. HRs for associations of the proposed grade 2, 3, and 4 tumors with CSS were 4.63 (p=0.007), 17.8 (p<0.001), and 20.9 (p<0.001), respectively. The study is limited by the lack of multivariable analysis including additional pathologic features.

Conclusions: The expansion of a previously reported ChRCC grading system from three to four tiers by the inclusion of tumor necrosis helps further delineate patient outcome and can, therefore, enhance patient counseling following surgery. It also aligns the number of ChRCC grades with the WHO/International Society of Urologic Pathology four-tiered grading systems for clear cell and papillary RCC.

Patient Summary: Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is the third most common type of renal cancer, and unlike other renal cancers, there is no accepted prognostic grading system. In this study, we found that a grading system that included a pathologic feature of tumor necrosis could better define outcomes for patients with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.10.007DOI Listing
February 2021

Renal neoplasia with papillary architecture involving the pelvicalyceal system.

Hum Pathol 2021 01 6;107:46-57. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, 55905, MN, USA.

Pelvicalyceal system (PS) involvement by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is staged as pT3a disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC], 8th edition). As papillary RCC (PRCC) has been infrequently represented in studies looking at the prognostic impact of PS involvement, we reviewed our institutional cohort of 8225 cases for PS involvement by PRCC. Nine such cases were subjected to histopathologic review and immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for TFE3/TFEB alterations was performed if indicated. One case each (1 of 9, 11%) was classified as TFE3-rearranged and FH-deficient RCC. The majority were high grade (World Health Organization/International Society of Urologic Pathology grade 3: 8 of 9, 89%) or had features of aggressive disease, including hilar fat (6 of 9, 67%) and regional lymph node involvement (5 of 7, 71%). One low-grade 3.3-cm tumor with isolated PS involvement with a germline heterozygous FH p.Lys477dup alteration with retained FH, lack of increased S-(2-succino)-cysteine expression, BRAF V600E immunohistochemistry positivity, and lack of trisomy 7/17 on chromosomal microarray was identified, arguing against an FH-deficient and conventional PRCC. Our study shows that PS involvement by renal neoplasia with papillary architecture is a rare event. Aside from PRCC, it is important to note that these may include other aggressive and nonaggressive subtypes of renal neoplasia with papillary architecture. One case of isolated PS involvement by a low-grade, noninvasive tumor that we refer to as nephrogenic papillary neoplasm was identified. At present, there are insufficient data to stage such tumors as pT3a (AJCC, 8th edition), and additional studies are needed to address this question.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2020.10.013DOI Listing
January 2021

Diffuse Pulmonary Meningotheliomatosis: A Rare Lung Disease Presenting with Diffuse Ground-Glass Opacities and Cavitation.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Nov 9;21:e926172. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

BACKGROUND Diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis (DPM) is an exceedingly rare diffuse pulmonary disease with a female predominance. It is characterized by the presence of widespread bilateral minute pulmonary meningothelial-like nodules (MPMNs) on chest imaging. Patients are generally asymptomatic or may present with nonspecific symptoms such as dyspnea. The nodules are typically detected incidentally on imaging for other indications. Here, we present a rare case of DPM in a 55-year-old woman. CASE REPORT A 55-year-old woman presented to the clinic with non-exertional chest pressure and dry cough of 4-month duration. She had a history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypothyroidism, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and impaired fasting blood glucose and was a lifelong nonsmoker. Physical examination was unremarkable. High-resolution chest computed tomography (CT) showed innumerable diffuse small ground-glass nodules. An extensive laboratory workup was negative for autoimmune and infectious etiologies. The patient underwent uncomplicated right video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, and lung biopsy showed multiple well-circumscribed interstitial meningothelial-like nodules in perivenular distribution with occasional whorling of cells. The diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis (DPM) was confirmed. The patient continued to complain of non-exertional chest pressure without pulmonary complaints, and a repeat chest CT showed stable findings 1 year after the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS DPM should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with diffuse bilateral pulmonary nodules. Patients are typically asymptomatic and it is most commonly detected incidentally. Further research is needed to better understand this disease and its clinical significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.926172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666436PMC
November 2020

Practice patterns related to prostate cancer grading: results of a 2019 Genitourinary Pathology Society clinician survey.

Urol Oncol 2021 05 15;39(5):295.e1-295.e8. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Departments of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: To survey urologic clinicians regarding interpretation of and practice patterns in relation to emerging aspects of prostate cancer grading, including quantification of high-grade disease, cribriform/intraductal carcinoma, and impact of magnetic resonance imaging-targeted needle biopsy.

Materials And Methods: The Genitourinary Pathology Society distributed a survey to urology and urologic oncology-focused societies and hospital departments. Eight hundred and thirty four responses were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Results: Eighty percent of survey participants use quantity of Gleason pattern 4 on needle biopsy for clinical decisions, less frequently with higher Grade Groups. Fifty percent interpret "tertiary" grade as a minor/<5% component. Seventy percent of respondents would prefer per core grading as well as a global/overall score per set of biopsies, but 70% would consider highest Gleason score in any single core as the grade for management. Seventy five percent utilize Grade Group terminology in patient discussions. For 45%, cribriform pattern would affect management, while for 70% the presence of intraductal carcinoma would preclude active surveillance.

Conclusion: This survey of practice patterns in relationship to prostate cancer grading highlights similarities and differences between contemporary pathology reporting and its clinical application. As utilization of Gleason pattern 4 quantification, minor tertiary pattern, cribriform/intraductal carcinoma, and the incorporation of magnetic resonance imaging-based strategies evolve, these findings may serve as a basis for more nuanced communication and guide research efforts involving pathologists and clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.08.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Primary Female Urethral Carcinoma: Proposed Staging Modifications Based on Assessment of Female Urethral Histology and Analysis of a Large Series of Female Urethral Carcinomas.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 12;44(12):1591-1601

Departments of Pathology.

Primary female urethral carcinoma is rare. Limited clinicopathologic information has hindered development of staging criteria in this disease. We analyzed 29 primary female urethral carcinoma resections from 3 academic medical centers to characterize histopathologic features, clinical outcomes, and applicability of current and a novel modified staging criteria. We complemented this analysis with review of fully embedded female autopsy urethras to detail anterior and posterior urethral wall histology. Primary female urethral carcinoma subtypes included urothelial carcinoma in situ (3/29, 10%), adenocarcinoma in situ (1/29; 3%), invasive urothelial carcinoma (13/29, 45%), clear cell carcinoma (5/29, 17%), adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (4/29, 14%) and squamous cell carcinoma (3/29, 10%). Only 6/29 cases (21%) were originally assigned a stage at diagnosis. Using histologic landmarks specific to the female urethra, we modified existing eighth edition American Joint Committee on Cancer urethral staging to a histology-based female urethral carcinoma staging (UCS) system. UCS stages were defined as pTa/pTisUCS (noninvasive carcinoma), pT1UCS (subepithelial tissue invasion), pT2UCS (periurethral muscle invasion), pT3UCS (vaginal adventitia or surrounding fibrovascular tissue), and pT4UCS (anterior wall fibroadipose tissue or posterior vaginal wall). UCS staging was applicable to all cases and showed stepwise changes in disease recurrence with increasing stage and was statistically significant for disease-specific and overall survival in contrast to the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. This study of one of the largest cohort of primary female urethral carcinomas provides a modified histology-based staging system specific to female urethral anatomy that provides outcomes-related information, which may be further validated by larger multi-institutional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315296PMC
December 2020

Secondary renal neoplasia following chemotherapy or radiation in pediatric patients.

Hum Pathol 2020 09 15;103:1-13. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Renal neoplasia occurring as a second malignancy following childhood cancer has been most closely associated with neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor. While some cases have been associated with a genetic predisposition, nearly all are thought to result from "late effects" of therapy-related toxicity that involves chemotherapy or radiation. It is unclear if these tumors are enriched for specific molecular or morphologic characteristics. A query of our institutional nephrectomy registry of 8295 patients for renal neoplasia occurring post-treatment for childhood cancer revealed 6 patients with Wilms tumor, 4 with neuroblastoma, and 1 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three additional cases of MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), from 2 patients, following chemotherapy for neuroblastoma and systemic lupus erythematosus and another of clear cell RCC post-ALL were included. The most common tumor type was clear cell RCC: 9/19 cases (47.4%), followed by metanephric adenoma and MiT family translocation RCC (3/19, 15.8%). There were no characteristic features to indicate a unique renal neoplasia subtype. Potential syndromic renal neoplasia occurred in 2 patients, metanephric adenomas and oncocytoma in a patient with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome post-treatment of Wilms tumor and a fumarate hydratase-deficient RCC in a patient post-treatment for ALL. The mean age at diagnosis of childhood neoplasia or treatment with chemotherapy or radiation was 4.7 years, and the average time to subsequent renal neoplasia was 31 years. Five (of 14) patients developed metastatic RCC, and there were 2 RCC-related deaths. These results indicate the need for extended clinical follow-up of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2020.07.014DOI Listing
September 2020

Long-term outcomes of incidental prostate cancer at radical cystectomy.

Urol Oncol 2020 11 2;38(11):848.e17-848.e22. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Objective: We evaluated the natural history and long-term outcomes of incidentally detected prostate cancer (PCa) at radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer (BCa).

Patients And Methods: We identified 1,640 male patients who underwent RC between 1992 and 2012. Patients were stratified as clinically insignificant and clinically significant PCa, based on Grade Group (GG) 1 and ≥2, respectively. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: There were 329 (20%) patients with incidentally detected PCa at RC: 245 (15%) GG1, 52 (3.2%) GG2, 20 (1.2%) GG3, 6 (0.4%) GG4, and 6 (0.4%) GG5. Median follow-up among survivors was 9.6 years (interquartile range 7.5-13.3), during which time 253 patients died, of whom 127 died of BCa and 1 died of PCa. Nine patients experienced biochemical recurrence (BCR), 4 underwent salvage PCa therapies, and 2 developed PCa metastases. Patients with clinically significant PCa were significantly more likely to experience BCR (6% vs. 1.6%; P = 0.04) and had shorter median time to BCR (1.8 vs. 10.4 years; P = 0.01) than those with clinically insignificant PCa. No patients with BCR had greater than pT2N0 BCa or positive BCa margins. Ten-year PCa-specific survival, BCa-specific survival, other cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 99%, 57%, 63%, and 35%, respectively.

Conclusions: In a large RC series, we note a 20% rate of incidental PCa, the majority of which are clinically insignificant. On long-term follow-up, we determined that BCR and PCa mortality are extremely rare events among these patients. Pending validation, future guidelines may consider omission of PCa surveillance for some patients with incidental PCa at RC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.05.018DOI Listing
November 2020

Intraoperative Pathologic Margin Analysis and Re-Excision to Minimize Reoperation for Patients Undergoing Breast-Conserving Surgery.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Dec 4;27(13):5303-5311. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Reoperation rates following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) range from 10 to 40%, with marked surgeon and institutional variation.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with intraoperative margin re-excision, evaluate for any differences in local recurrence based on margin re-excision and determine reoperation rates with use of intraoperative margin analysis.

Patients And Methods: We analyzed consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast cancer who underwent BCS at our institution between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2016. Routine intraoperative frozen section margin analysis was performed and positive or close margins were re-excised intraoperatively. Univariate analysis was used to compare margin status and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare recurrence. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to analyze factors associated with re-excision.

Results: We identified 3201 patients who underwent BCS-688 for DCIS and 2513 for invasive carcinoma. Overall, 1513 (60.2%) patients with invasive cancer and 434 (63.1%) patients with DCIS had close or positive margins that underwent intraoperative re-excision. Margin re-excision was associated with larger tumor size in both groups. The permanent pathology positive margin rate among all patients was 1.2%, and the 30-day reoperation rate for positive margins was 1.1%. Five-year local recurrence rates were 0.6% and 1.2% for patients with DCIS and invasive cancer, respectively. There was no difference in recurrence between patients with and without intraoperative margin re-excision (p = 0.92).

Conclusion: Both DCIS and invasive carcinoma had similar rates of intraoperative margin re-excision. Although intraoperative margin re-excision was common, the reoperation rate was extremely low and there was no difference in recurrence between those with or without intraoperative re-excision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08785-zDOI Listing
December 2020

The 2019 Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) White Paper on Contemporary Grading of Prostate Cancer.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 04;145(4):461-493

Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Macquarie University, North Ryde, Australia (Maclean).

Context.—: Controversies and uncertainty persist in prostate cancer grading.

Objective.—: To update grading recommendations.

Data Sources.—: Critical review of the literature along with pathology and clinician surveys.

Conclusions.—: Percent Gleason pattern 4 (%GP4) is as follows: (1) report %GP4 in needle biopsy with Grade Groups (GrGp) 2 and 3, and in needle biopsy on other parts (jars) of lower grade in cases with at least 1 part showing Gleason score (GS) 4 + 4 = 8; and (2) report %GP4: less than 5% or less than 10% and 10% increments thereafter. Tertiary grade patterns are as follows: (1) replace "tertiary grade pattern" in radical prostatectomy (RP) with "minor tertiary pattern 5 (TP5)," and only use in RP with GrGp 2 or 3 with less than 5% Gleason pattern 5; and (2) minor TP5 is noted along with the GS, with the GrGp based on the GS. Global score and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsies are as follows: (1) when multiple undesignated cores are taken from a single MRI-targeted lesion, an overall grade for that lesion is given as if all the involved cores were one long core; and (2) if providing a global score, when different scores are found in the standard and the MRI-targeted biopsy, give a single global score (factoring both the systematic standard and the MRI-targeted positive cores). Grade Groups are as follows: (1) Grade Groups (GrGp) is the terminology adopted by major world organizations; and (2) retain GS 3 + 5 = 8 in GrGp 4. Cribriform carcinoma is as follows: (1) report the presence or absence of cribriform glands in biopsy and RP with Gleason pattern 4 carcinoma. Intraductal carcinoma (IDC-P) is as follows: (1) report IDC-P in biopsy and RP; (2) use criteria based on dense cribriform glands (>50% of the gland is composed of epithelium relative to luminal spaces) and/or solid nests and/or marked pleomorphism/necrosis; (3) it is not necessary to perform basal cell immunostains on biopsy and RP to identify IDC-P if the results would not change the overall (highest) GS/GrGp part per case; (4) do not include IDC-P in determining the final GS/GrGp on biopsy and/or RP; and (5) "atypical intraductal proliferation (AIP)" is preferred for an intraductal proliferation of prostatic secretory cells which shows a greater degree of architectural complexity and/or cytological atypia than typical high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, yet falling short of the strict diagnostic threshold for IDC-P. Molecular testing is as follows: (1) Ki67 is not ready for routine clinical use; (2) additional studies of active surveillance cohorts are needed to establish the utility of PTEN in this setting; and (3) dedicated studies of RNA-based assays in active surveillance populations are needed to substantiate the utility of these expensive tests in this setting. Artificial intelligence and novel grading schema are as follows: (1) incorporating reactive stromal grade, percent GP4, minor tertiary GP5, and cribriform/intraductal carcinoma are not ready for adoption in current practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2020-0015-RADOI Listing
April 2021

Timing and distribution of early renal cell carcinoma recurrences stratified by pathological nodal status in M0 patients at the time of nephrectomy.

Int J Urol 2020 Jul 18;27(7):618-622. Epub 2020 May 18.

Departments of, Department of, Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate the timing and distribution of first renal cell carcinoma metastasis after nephrectomy stratified by nodal status.

Methods: We evaluated patients treated with nephrectomy for sporadic, unilateral renal cell carcinoma between 1970 and 2011 who subsequently developed distant metastasis to three or fewer sites. Site-specific metastases-free 2-year survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Associations of nodal status with time to metastasis were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression models.

Results: A total of 1049 patients met the inclusion criteria (135 pN1, 914 pN0/x patients). The median time to identification of first distant metastasis for pN1 patients was 0.4 years (interquartile range 0.2-1.1 years) versus 2.2 years (interquartile range 0.6-6.0 years) in pN0/x patients. The most common site of metastasis was to the lung, but this occurred earlier in pN1 patients (median 0.3 years vs 2.0 years). pN1 was associated with significantly lower site-specific 2-year metastases-free survival when compared with pN0/x for lung (37% vs 70%, P < 0.001), bone (63% vs 87%, P < 0.001), non-regional lymph nodes (60% vs 96%, P < 0.001) and liver metastases (79% vs 91%, P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, pN1 status remained significantly associated with lung, bone, and non-regional lymph node (all P < 0.001) metastases, but it was no longer associated with liver metastases (P = 0.3).

Conclusions: pN1 nodal status in M0 patients treated with nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is associated with more frequent early metastasis to sites conferring poor prognosis when compared with pN0/x. Our findings highlight the importance of rigorous, early surveillance though the multimodal use of a comprehensive history, physical, laboratory and radiological studies, as outlined in societal guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iju.14261DOI Listing
July 2020
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