Publications by authors named "John Beddington"

17 Publications

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The technological and economic prospects for CO utilization and removal.

Nature 2019 11 6;575(7781):87-97. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The capture and use of carbon dioxide to create valuable products might lower the net costs of reducing emissions or removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Here we review ten pathways for the utilization of carbon dioxide. Pathways that involve chemicals, fuels and microalgae might reduce emissions of carbon dioxide but have limited potential for its removal, whereas pathways that involve construction materials can both utilize and remove carbon dioxide. Land-based pathways can increase agricultural output and remove carbon dioxide. Our assessment suggests that each pathway could scale to over 0.5 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide utilization annually. However, barriers to implementation remain substantial and resource constraints prevent the simultaneous deployment of all pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1681-6DOI Listing
November 2019

Keep science on the horizon.

Authors:
John Beddington

Science 2019 Feb;363(6428):671

Sir John Beddington is a Senior Fellow at the Oxford Martin School, Oxford University, and was the U.K. Government Chief Scientific Adviser from 2008 to 2013.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw9290DOI Listing
February 2019

A new global research agenda for food.

Nature 2016 11;540(7631):30-32

Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/540030aDOI Listing
November 2016

Catalysing sustainable water security: role of science, innovation and partnerships.

Authors:
John Beddington

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2013 Nov 30;371(2002):20120414. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Government Office of Science, UK Government, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2012.0414DOI Listing
November 2013

Climate change: Migration as adaptation.

Nature 2011 Oct 20;478(7370):447-9. Epub 2011 Oct 20.

School of Global Studies, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9SJ, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/478477aDOI Listing
October 2011

Intolerance: UK chief scientist responds.

Authors:
John Beddington

Nature 2011 Mar;471(7339):448

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/471448dDOI Listing
March 2011

Global food and farming futures.

Authors:
John Beddington

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2010 Sep;365(1554):2767

Government Office for Science, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2935132PMC
September 2010

Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people.

Science 2010 Feb 28;327(5967):812-8. Epub 2010 Jan 28.

Department of Zoology and Institute of Biodiversity at the James Martin 21st Century School, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK.

Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1185383DOI Listing
February 2010

Food security: contributions from science to a new and greener revolution.

Authors:
John Beddington

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2010 Jan;365(1537):61-71

Government Office for Science, Kingsgate House, London, UK.

There is an intrinsic link between the challenge we face to ensure food security through the twenty-first century and other global issues, most notably climate change, population growth and the need to sustainably manage the world's rapidly growing demand for energy and water. Our progress in reducing global poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals will be determined to a great extent by how coherently these long-term challenges are tackled. A key question is whether we can feed a future nine billion people equitably, healthily and sustainably. Science and technology can make a major contribution, by providing practical solutions. Securing this contribution requires that high priority be attached both to research and to facilitating the real world deployment of existing and emergent technologies. Put simply, we need a new, 'greener revolution'. Important areas for focus include: crop improvement; smarter use of water and fertilizers; new pesticides and their effective management to avoid resistance problems; introduction of novel non-chemical approaches to crop protection; reduction of post-harvest losses; and more sustainable livestock and marine production. Techniques and technologies from many disciplines, ranging from biotechnology and engineering to newer fields such as nanotechnology, will be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2842707PMC
January 2010

Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing.

PLoS One 2009 25;4(2):e4570. Epub 2009 Feb 25.

Division of Biology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0004570PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646833PMC
April 2009

The mental wealth of nations.

Nature 2008 Oct;455(7216):1057-60

Government Office for Science, London.

Countries must learn how to capitalize on their citizens' cognitive resources if they are to prosper, both economically and socially. Early interventions will be key.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/4551057aDOI Listing
October 2008

Why fishing magnifies fluctuations in fish abundance.

Nature 2008 Apr;452(7189):835-9

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

It is now clear that fished populations can fluctuate more than unharvested stocks. However, it is not clear why. Here we distinguish among three major competing mechanisms for this phenomenon, by using the 50-year California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) larval fish record. First, variable fishing pressure directly increases variability in exploited populations. Second, commercial fishing can decrease the average body size and age of a stock, causing the truncated population to track environmental fluctuations directly. Third, age-truncated or juvenescent populations have increasingly unstable population dynamics because of changing demographic parameters such as intrinsic growth rates. We find no evidence for the first hypothesis, limited evidence for the second and strong evidence for the third. Therefore, in California Current fisheries, increased temporal variability in the population does not arise from variable exploitation, nor does it reflect direct environmental tracking. More fundamentally, it arises from increased instability in dynamics. This finding has implications for resource management as an empirical example of how selective harvesting can alter the basic dynamics of exploited populations, and lead to unstable booms and busts that can precede systematic declines in stock levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06851DOI Listing
April 2008

Fishing elevates variability in the abundance of exploited species.

Nature 2006 Oct;443(7113):859-62

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0202, USA.

The separation of the effects of environmental variability from the impacts of fishing has been elusive, but is essential for sound fisheries management. We distinguish environmental effects from fishing effects by comparing the temporal variability of exploited versus unexploited fish stocks living in the same environments. Using the unique suite of 50-year-long larval fish surveys from the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations we analyse fishing as a treatment effect in a long-term ecological experiment. Here we present evidence from the marine environment that exploited species exhibit higher temporal variability in abundance than unexploited species. This remains true after accounting for life-history effects, abundance, ecological traits and phylogeny. The increased variability of exploited populations is probably caused by fishery-induced truncation of the age structure, which reduces the capacity of populations to buffer environmental events. Therefore, to avoid collapse, fisheries must be managed not only to sustain the total viable biomass but also to prevent the significant truncation of age structure. The double jeopardy of fishing to potentially deplete stock sizes and, more immediately, to amplify the peaks and valleys of population variability, calls for a precautionary management approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05232DOI Listing
October 2006