Publications by authors named "Johannes Knaus"

5 Publications

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Photoinactivation of Staphylococci with 405 nm Light in a Trachea Model with Saliva Substitute at 37 °C.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Medical Engineering and Mechatronics, Ulm University of Applied Sciences, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

The globally observed rise in bacterial resistance against antibiotics has increased the need for alternatives to antibiotic treatments. The most prominent and important pathogen bacteria are the ESKAPE pathogens, which include among others , and . These species cause ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which accounts for 24% of all nosocomial infections. In this study we tested the efficacy of photoinactivation with 405 nm violet light under conditions comparable to an intubated patient with artificial saliva for bacterial suspension at 37 °C. A technical trachea model was developed to investigate the visible light photoinactivation of as a non-pathogen surrogate of the ESKAPE pathogen (MRSA). The violet light was coupled into the tube with a fiber optic setup. The performed tests proved, that photoinactivation at 37 °C is more effective with a reduction of almost 3 log levels (99.8%) compared to 25 °C with a reduction of 1.2 log levels. The substitution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by artificial saliva solution slightly increased the efficiency during the experimental course. The increased efficiency might be caused by a less favorable environment for bacteria due to for example the ionic composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998829PMC
March 2021

The role of predictability and structure in word stress processing: an ERP study on Cairene Arabic and a cross-linguistic comparison.

Front Psychol 2014 21;5:1151. Epub 2014 Oct 21.

Institut für Germanistische Sprachwissenschaft, University of Marburg Marburg, Germany.

This article presents neurolinguistic data on word stress perception in Cairene Arabic, in comparison to previous results on German and Turkish. The main goal is to investigate how central properties of stress systems such as predictability of stress and metrical structure are reflected in the prosodic processing of words. Cairene Arabic is a language with a regular foot-based word stress system, leading to highly predictable placement of word stress. An ERP study on Cairene Arabic is reported, in which a stress violation paradigm is used to investigate the factors predictability of stress and foot structure. The results of the experiment show that for Cairene Arabic the internal structure of prosodic words in terms of feet determines prosodic processing. This structure effect is complemented by a frequency effect for stress patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204449PMC
November 2014

The influence of rhythmic (ir)regularities on speech processing: Evidence from an ERP study on German phrases.

Neuropsychologia 2013 Mar 16;51(4):760-71. Epub 2013 Jan 16.

Institut für Germanistische Sprachwissenschaft, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Deutschhausstr. 3, 35032 Marburg, Germany.

The present study investigates the status of rhythmic irregularities occurring in natural speech and the importance of rhythmic alternations in cognitive processing. Previous studies showed the relevance of rhythm for language processing, but there has been only little research using the method of event-related potentials to investigate this phenomenon in a natural metrical context. To this end, an experiment was conducted in which the so-called Rhythm Rule (alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables) was either met or violated by stress clashes or stress lapses which are known to occur in German. The comparison of rhythmic well-formed conditions with the conditions including rhythmic irregularities revealed biphasic EEG-patterns for rhythmically marked structures, i.e., stress clashes and lapses. The present results show that irregular but possible rhythmic variants are costly in language processing, reflected by an early negativity and an N400 in contrast to the well-formed control conditions. Supposedly, the early negativity reflects error detection in rhythmical structure and supports the view that the brain is sensitive to subtle violations of rhythmical structure. A late positive component reflects the evaluation process related to the task requirements. The study shows that subtle rhythmical deviations from the Rhythm Rule are perceived and treated differently from well-formed structures during processing, even if the deviation in question is permitted and can therefore occur in language production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.01.006DOI Listing
March 2013

Stress "deafness" in a Language with Fixed Word Stress: An ERP Study on Polish.

Front Psychol 2012 1;3:439. Epub 2012 Nov 1.

Philipps-Universität Marburg Marburg, Germany.

The aim of the present contribution was to examine the factors influencing the prosodic processing in a language with predictable word stress. For Polish, a language with fixed penultimate stress but several well-defined exceptions, difficulties in the processing and representation of prosodic information have been reported (e.g., Peperkamp and Dupoux, 2002). The present study utilized event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the factors influencing prosodic processing in Polish. These factors are (i) the predictability of stress and (ii) the prosodic structure in terms of metrical feet. Polish native speakers were presented with correctly and incorrectly stressed Polish words and instructed to judge the correctness of the perceived stress patterns. For some stress violations, an early negativity was found which was interpreted as a reflection of an error-detection mechanism. In addition, exceptional stress patterns (=antepenultimate stress) and post-lexical (=initial) stress evoked a task-related positivity effect (P300) whose amplitude and latency is correlated with the degree of anomaly and deviation from an expectation. In contrast, violations involving the default (=penultimate stress) did not produce such an effect. This asymmetrical result is interpreted to reflect that Polish native speakers are less sensitive to the default pattern than to the exceptional or post-lexical patterns. Behavioral results are orthogonal to the electrophysiological results showing that Polish speakers had difficulties to reject any kind of stress violation. Thus, on a meta-linguistic level Polish speakers appeared to be stress-"deaf" for any kind of stress manipulation, whereas the neural reactions differentiate between the default and lexicalized patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485581PMC
November 2012

Event-related potentials reflecting the processing of phonological constraint violations.

Lang Speech 2009 ;52(Pt 4):415-35

Institute for Germanic Linguistics, University of Marburg, Germany.

How are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of an event-related potentials (ERP) study on a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within a syllable or word (CC(i)VC(i)). We examined three types of monosyllabic late positive CCVC words: (a) existing words [see text], (b) wellformed novel words [see text] and component (c) illformed novel words [see text] as instances of Obligatory Contour Principle non-word (OCP) violations. Wellformed and illformed novel words evoked an N400 effect processing in comparison to existing words. In addition, illformed words produced an enhanced late posterior positivity effect compared to wellformed novel words. obligatory contour Our findings support the well-known observation that novel words evoke principle higher costs in lexical integration (reflected by N400 effects). Crucially, modulations of a late positive component (LPC) show that violations of phonological phonotactic constraints influence later stages of cognitive processing even constraints when stimuli have already been detected as non-existing. Thus, the comparison of electrophysiological effects evoked by the two types of non-existing words reveals the stages at which phonologically based structural wellformedness comes into play during word processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0023830909336581DOI Listing
April 2010