Publications by authors named "Johannes H Harleman"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of the Sysmex XT-2000iV with microscopic differential counts of canine bone marrow.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Mar 8;29(2):148-153. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Merck KGaA, Global Non-Clinical Safety, Global Early Development, Darmstadt, Germany (Pernecker, Johannes).

Canine bone marrow is frequently assessed in the advanced preclinical research environment. Automated analysis provides time savings and objectivity over the gold standard of microscopic (cytologic) evaluation. We compared the analysis of 90 canine bone marrow samples by the Sysmex XT-2000iV hematology analyzer (Sysmex Corp., Kobe, Japan) with cytologic evaluation. Gates for cell populations were created in the system's WBC/BASO channel. Variables "total nucleated red blood cells" (total_NRBC), "poly- and orthochromatic nucleated red blood cells" (poly_orth_NRBC), "total neutrophils" (total_NEUT), "mature neutrophils" (mature_NEUT), and myeloid-to-erythroid (M:E) ratio were compared with cytologic evaluation. Intra-assay repeatability and total error (TE) were calculated for both methods. Intra-assay repeatability was 0.95-2.48% for the XT-2000iV and 8.32-23.23% for cytology. Observed TE for the automated measurement was 5.16-46.8% and for cytology 22.70-76.74%. Spearman rank correlation was excellent for M:E ratio (0.91) and fair for the other populations (0.65-0.71). Absolute bias for M:E ratio was low (-0.114). A negative absolute bias of -7.71% for the XT-2000iV was found for poly_orth_NRBC, whereas the bias was positive for total_NEUT (7.10%) and mature_NEUT (14.67%). M:E ratio of canine bone marrow samples can be precisely determined using the Sysmex XT-2000iV WBC/BASO channel. Total_NRBC, poly_orth_NRBC, total_NEUT, and mature_NEUT can be estimated rapidly. With distinctly lower coefficient of variation and observed TE compared with cytology, automated measurement provides advantages in terms of standardization, and it is suited to the advanced preclinical research environment where large numbers of samples are investigated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638717692011DOI Listing
March 2017

Nonproliferative and proliferative lesions of the rat and mouse female reproductive system.

J Toxicol Pathol 2014 ;27(3-4 Suppl):1S-107S

National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the female reproductive tract of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of some lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and aging lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. There is also a section on normal cyclical changes observed in the ovary, uterus, cervix and vagina to compare normal physiological changes with pathological lesions. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for female reproductive tract lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1293/tox.27.1SDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253081PMC
December 2014

A review of the incidence and coincidence of uterine and mammary tumors in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats based on the RITA database and the role of prolactin.

Toxicol Pathol 2012 Aug 14;40(6):926-30. Epub 2012 May 14.

Astra Zeneca, Safety Assessment, Mereside Alderley Park, Macclesfield, UK.

Wistar rats are frequently selected for use in carcinogenicity studies because of their advantageous survival rate, which is more favorable than other strains such as the Sprague-Dawley (SD) strain. Uterine and mammary tumors are relatively common spontaneous neoplasms of both strains. We examined the incidence and coincidence of uterine tumors and mammary tumors in control animals of both strains within the RITA database. There was a strong inverse relationship between these tumor types in Wistar rats (p < .001). A less strong relationship was present in SD rats (p = .057). This association is likely to be related to prolactin. A short review of the role of prolactin in rats is given. These results are also discussed in the background of nonspecific toxicity at high dose levels in carcinogenicity studies above MTD levels resulting in reduction in body weights of >10%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623312444621DOI Listing
August 2012

Differentiation of spontaneous and induced mammary adenocarcinomas of the rat by gene expression profiling.

Exp Toxicol Pathol 2006 Nov 14;58(2-3):151-61. Epub 2006 Aug 14.

Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.

The differentiation of spontaneous and induced adenocarcinomas is of interest in the setting of carcinogenicity studies. In the experiment reported here, a differentiation of morphologically similar spontaneous and induced mammary adenocarcinomas of the rat is achieved by gene expression profiling. By choosing one marker gene based on the gene expression profile for each tumour type, we were able to distinguish the tumours by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) as well.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2006.06.008DOI Listing
November 2006

Gene expression in fibroadenomas of the rat mammary gland in contrast to spontaneous adenocarcinomas and normal mammary gland.

Exp Toxicol Pathol 2006 Nov 14;58(2-3):145-50. Epub 2006 Aug 14.

Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.

Fibroadenomas are considered a benign lesion in rodent carcinogenicity studies. However, the entity adenocarcinoma arising in fibroadenoma does exist and in humans there is evidence of certain forms of fibroadenomas to confer greater risk of subsequent breast cancer. In this study, we aim to elucidate the molecular features of both spontaneous fibroadenomas and adenocarcinomas. The gene expression of the two tumour types is examined and compared to mammary gland in the same developmental state and examined for similarities which might indicate common molecular pathways. In the present study no similarities were discovered. We conclude that in the tumours examined here, no progression to adenocarcinoma is likely. Further studies are needed, examining a greater number of tumours and including cases of adenocarcinoma arising in fibroadenoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2006.06.007DOI Listing
November 2006

Characterisation of two rat mammary tumour models for breast cancer research by gene expression profiling.

Exp Toxicol Pathol 2006 Nov 20;58(2-3):133-43. Epub 2006 Jul 20.

Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.

Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women. Treatment options are still an active area of research. Models used for this purpose include induced models in rodents. By the advent of microarrays it has become possible to evaluate models not only for similar morphology or selected markers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or immunohistochemistry but also for the expression of thousands of genes at once. This study presents gene expression profiles of the hormone-sensitive 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced and the metastasising MTLn3-model. The models are discussed for their relevance to breast cancer in humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2006.05.003DOI Listing
November 2006

The immune system--multiple sites but one system.

Exp Toxicol Pathol 2006 Jul 26;57(5-6):359-61. Epub 2006 May 26.

Novartis Pharma AG, Global Head Pathology, SP&A, Pathology, MUT-2881, CH-4132 Muttenz, Switzerland.

Recently several guidelines were published on immunotoxicity. Validation studies have shown that detailed extended examination of the immune system is able to flag immunotoxic compounds. Parameters of the examination are presented. In the final examination it is important that the whole immune system is evaluated as one functional system--multiple sites but one system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2006.03.006DOI Listing
July 2006

Toxicogenomics of subchronic hexachlorobenzene exposure in Brown Norway rats.

Environ Health Perspect 2004 May;112(7):782-91

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant with toxic effects in man and rat. Reported adverse effects are hepatic porphyria, neurotoxicity, and adverse effects on the reproductive and immune system. To obtain more insight into HCB-induced mechanisms of toxicity, we studied gene expression levels using DNA microarrays. For 4 weeks, Brown Norway rats were fed a diet supplemented with 0, 150, or 450 mg HCB/kg. Spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), thymus, blood, liver, and kidney were collected and analyzed using the Affymetrix rat RGU-34A GeneChip microarray. Most significant (p < 0.001) changes, compared to the control group, occurred in spleen, followed by liver, kidney, blood, and MLN, but only a few genes were affected in thymus. This was to be expected, as the thymus is not a target organ of HCB. Transcriptome profiles confirmed known effects of HCB such as stimulatory effects on the immune system and induction of enzymes involved in drug metabolism, porphyria, and the reproductive system. In line with previous histopathological findings were increased transcript levels of markers for granulocytes and macrophages. New findings include the upregulation of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, antioxidants, acute phase proteins, mast cell markers, complements, chemokines, and cell adhesion molecules. Generally, gene expression data provide evidence that HCB induces a systemic inflammatory response, accompanied by oxidative stress and an acute phase response. In conclusion, this study confirms previously observed (immuno)toxicological effects of HCB but also reveals several new and mechanistically relevant gene products. Thus, transcriptome profiles can be used as markers for several of the processes that occur after HCB exposure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241993PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.112-1241993DOI Listing
May 2004
-->